The Origin of Races
All world civilizations can
traced back to Cro-Magnon
by Michael W. Masters
"Everywhere one looks the Upper Paleolithic
arrives in the form of an invasion . . . ."
– David de Laubenfels
hirty-five thousand years ago a new human race appeared somewhere in western
Eurasia. Scientists do not know the precise point of origin or exactly
how this new Homo sapiens sapiens became differentiated from his immediate
predecessors, but differences there were, and in abundance. Though anatomically
modern humans appeared more than 100,000 years ago, this new race possessed
a remarkable constellation of new talents: creativity, ingenuity and a
restless wanderlust that forever altered the course of life on earth.
Known as people of the Upper Paleolithic Period (the end of the Paleolithic
– from approximately 60,000 to 10,000 B.C.), they were identified in 1868
by the discovery of fossils in a cave in southern France called Cro-Magnon.
Soon exquisite cave paintings, clay figurines, ivory and calcite carvings,
jewelry and musical instruments were found in other caves in France, Spain
and Germany. Vivid images of mammoth, bison, horses and Cro-Magnon females
indicated awareness not only of the physical world but also of sexual reproduction.
Formed in the crucible of a European ice age, Cro-Magnon had a cranial
capacity of well over 1500 cubic centimeters. This is larger than modern
Northern Europeans and East Asians, who have an average, including both
males and females, of about 1350 cubic centimeters. Modern Africans have
an average cranial capacity of about 1250 cubic centimeters. Since the
correlation between brain size and intelligence is now well established,
intellectual capabilities of Cro-Magnon must have been impressive.
Cro-Magnon people looked very similar to modern Europeans. David de
Laubenfels, a Syracuse University anthropologist, said of them: "All have
certain physical characteristics in common; all have well formed chins,
high straight foreheads, smaller modern teeth, and brains as big as Neanderthal
but without the heavy brow ridges. . . . The original Upper Paleolithic
people would, if they appeared among us today, be called Caucasoid . .
The original Upper
Paleolithic people would,
if they appeared among
us today, be called Caucasoid.
Technologically advanced Cro-Magnon people expanded outward from Northwest
Europe during the Mesolithic era, 20,000 years ago or more, moving into
West Asia and North Africa, as well as into Northeast Asia, where mixing
with indigenous proto-Mongoloids appears to have been substantial. The
mountains of Central Asia formed a barrier to their penetration into Southeast
Asia. As a result, Southeast Asia today is largely a mix of early Mongoloids,
Australoids and Negritos (possibly descended from earlier migrations of
The impact of the dispersal of these early Caucasians on the creation
of civilization is incalculable. As the map on this page shows, every place
on earth where history records the rise of great civilizations lies on
a Cro-Magnon migration path. Prof. De Laubenfels adds: "There is reason
to believe that the significant changes associated with the cultural advance
known as the Upper Paleolithic had fully as great an impact on the human
condition as any one of the familiar more recent great economic 'revolutions'
[agricultural, industrial, etc.] . . . . The Upper Paleolithic techniques
. . . overwhelmed all regional bounds and spread inexorably in all directions
ultimately to transform the economy in all parts of the inhabited world
. . . . The resulting population realignment produced for the most part
the familiar modern racial groups and for the first time placed humans
in the dominant ecological role in the world."
What Prof. de Laubenfels attributes to "cultural advance" and "techniques"
may be ascribed to intellect and temperament. Culture follows these traits
and not the other way around. And, as numerous researchers have suggested
– for example, Philippe Rushton of the University of Western Ontario and
Edward Miller of the University of New Orleans – these traits have genetic
origins. Even so timid a source as The History and Geography of Human
Genes, by Professors Cavalli-Sforza, Menozzi and Piazza, affirms that
"the prototype of modern humans comes from Cro-Magnon."
Civilization, throughout time and place, is therefore the virtually
exclusive creation of the new race that was shaped in the forests and caves
of Europe 35,000 years ago. This creation is not merely cultural. It is
organic and genetic, and followed the restless migrations of Upper Paleolithic
peoples into nearly every corner of the earth.
Ice People and Sun People
Prior to the arrival of Cro-Magnon, humans lived mainly in small, genetically
homogeneous groups with restricted ranges. These isolated groups tended
to diverge genetically. The result, according to de Laubenfels, was that
"[b]y the end of the Middle Paleolithic period [250,000 to 60,000 B.C.]
there had developed substantial divisions between peoples of different
regions of the world and these resulting human types can be called early
races." [emphasis in original]
Upper Paleolithic Cave Art.
Modern races – Caucasoid, Mongoloid, Negroid, Australoid, etc. – were
formed by isolation and adaptation to local conditions, the most powerful
of which is climate. Intellectual adaptations that allowed early humans
to survive long, cold ice-age winters were vastly different from those
sufficient to sustain existence in a tropical climate, rich with year-round
nourishment. These adaptations appear not only in external physical differences
but in dramatically different IQ profiles, and in traits such as foresight,
altruism, mating fidelity, anxiety, diligence, thriftiness, etc.
Philippe Rushton has used life history theory to explain such adaptations
(see full treatment of this theory in AR, Dec. 1994). Citing Edward O.
Wilson, the father of sociobiology, he explains:
"Evolutionary biologists assume that each species (or subspecies, such
as a race) has evolved a characteristic life history adapted to the particular
ecological problems encountered by its ancestors. A life history is a genetically
organized suite of characteristics that evolved in a coordinated manner
so as to allocate energy to survival, growth, and reproduction. These strategies
may be organized on a scale.
"At one end are 'r-strategies' that emphasize gamete production, mating
behavior, and high reproductive rates and, at the other, 'K-strategies'
that emphasize high levels of parental care, resource acquisition, kin
provisioning, and social complexity. The K-strategy requires more complex
nervous systems and larger brains . . . . [A]rchaic versions of what were
to become the modern Caucasoid and Mongoloid peoples dispersed out of Africa
about 100,000 years ago and adapted to the problem of survival in predictably
cold environments. This evolutionary process required a bioenergetic tradeoff
that increased brain size and parenting behavior ('K') at the expense of
egg production and sexual behavior ('r')."
Edward Miller has proposed a concept called paternal investment theory.
He suggests that "in cold climates males were selected for provisioning,
rather than for mating success. In warm climates, where female gathering
made male provisioning unessential, selection was for mating success. Male-hunted
meat was essential [in cold climates] for female winter survival. Genes
that encouraged mating success were selected for in warm climates. Negroes
(blacks) evolved in warm climates, while Caucasians (whites) and Mongoloids
(Asians) evolved in colder climates. Mating is assisted by a strong sex
drive, aggression, dominance, sociability, extroversion, impulsiveness,
sensation seeking, and high testosterone. Provisioning is assisted by anxiety,
altruism, empathy, behavioral restraint, gratification delay, and a long
The History and Geography of Human Genes devotes an early section,
"Scientific Failure of the Concept of Human Races," to denying what the
average man knows instinctively, i.e. that races exist. The authors then
spend a thousand pages proving what they have just denied. As Edward Miller
says in his review of the book, "there do appear to be three major groups
that include very large numbers of people, and whose gene frequencies differ.
These are the three traditional groups of Negroids, Caucasoids and Mongoloids.
American Indians and Australians constitute other large groupings with
distinctive gene frequencies."
Upper Paleolithic Art.
The History and Geography of Human Genes presents a variety of
techniques to illustrate genetic differences. They can be used to calculate
a measure of "genetic distance," which shows how much any two ethnic groups
differ. Since the authors analyze only a few of the 100,000 human genes
– and since the easily-measured genes from blood samples are not those
that affect obvious traits that vary by race such as skin and eye color,
hair texture, temperament, etc. – their genetic distances must be viewed
as relative and approximate.
|Genetic Distance of Selected Ethnic Groups
The above table provides data for a few ethnic groups, selected from
the book's analysis of 42 ethnic groups worldwide. On this scale, the English
and the Danish differ by 21 points, the smallest difference among the 42
groups. The English differ from the Caucasoids of India by 280 points.
The largest difference, 4573, occurs between Central African Mbuti Pygmies
(not shown) and New Guinean aborigines. Approximate IQs have been added,
based on work by Richard Lynn.
The Sorcerer's Seed
The table shows the enduring imprint of Upper Paleolithic people. Cro-Magnon
and his progeny seeded northern Eurasia with his genes, giving rise to
civilization. Europeans, exemplified by the English, are genetically and
intellectually closer to East Asians (typified by Koreans) than they are
to black Africans and New Guinean aborigines, who have the lowest IQs.
Northeast Asians received a substantial infusion of Caucasoid genes
during and after the Mesolithic period. During his expeditions to Mongolia
in the 1920s, American scientist Roy Chapman Andrews found Cro-Magnon skeletons
as far east as central Mongolia and dating from 20,000 years ago. More
recently, four-thousand-year-old Caucasoid corpses have been found in the
Tarim Basin area of Central China, confirming ancient Chinese legends about
men having, in the words of researcher Victor H. Mair, "great height, deep
set blue or green eyes, long noses, full beards, and red or blonde hair."
American Indians are descended from Northeast Asians who, about 30,000
years ago, crossed a land bridge that spanned what is now the Bering Strait.
They are genetically closest to present-day Northeast Asians but more distant
than Asians from Europeans.
Why are American Indians not as intelligent as Northeast Asians? Upper
Paleolithic people spread outward 20,000 years ago but Asians may have
come to America 10,000 years earlier. It may be that Asians crossed the
Bering Strait land bridge before Cro-Magnon's descendants migrated into
Northeast Asia – or before they arrived in large enough numbers to raise
Asian intelligence. The Amerind IQ data suggest that climate-related evolution
may have initially lifted Northeast Asian IQs moderately above those of
Africans and Australoids but that it was the Cro-Magnon influx that lifted
Asian IQ to the European level.
In an unpublished paper, Edward Miller writes: "When Australia and the
Americas were settled the original populations lacked certain alleles because
the relevant mutations had not yet occurred, or because these mutations
had not reached the relevant parts of Eurasia. After Australia and the
Americas came to be isolated from the larger Eurasian populations, they
did not receive further immigrants
. . . . Thus, the intelligence of the Australian and American aboriginal
populations came to lag behind that of the rest of the world."
Evolution in Reverse
There is great intellectual resistance to the view that Cro-Magnon genes
played a fundamental role in creating modern civilization, just as there
is resistance to the view that human intellectual potential differs by
race. Nevertheless, these concepts explain much of human life experience
and we ignore them at our peril.
There is no guarantee that evolution will always move forward. In the
white nations, low birthrates, non-white immigration, and miscegenation
are weakening the gene pool. Current racial policies can lead only to genetic
Welfare has recreated an environment similar to that of Africa and has
produced similar behavior. Recipients can subsist on government subsidies
without having to plan for long, cold winters, much as early Africans could
obtain food year-round in a tropical climate. Males can engage in promiscuous
sexual activity and a substantial number of their offspring will reach
maturity to repeat the cycle. Males are not needed for provisioning; females
can rear children alone, sustained by government food and medicine. As
a result, a violent new underclass has appeared, free from Nature's culling
Just as welfare drives evolution backwards, immigration is bringing
to the West millions of people who cannot build or sustain our civilization.
What will be lost if we do not act now to reverse this trend?
In The Decline of Intelligence in America, Seymour Itzkoff writes:
"These words may sound crass. They are. But the situation is crassly serious.
The United States, along with other European cultures around the world,
is at risk. An epochal change is in process. For the past 35,000 years,
the genetics of European intelligence, passed around the world, have laid
the groundwork for what we call and treasure as civilization. Civilization
in the West is now in jeopardy."
Civilization is in jeopardy because our genetic heritage is in jeopardy.
Humans with the endowments required to create civilization have arisen
only once in the history of man. Cro-Magnon's progeny will always create
civilization; it is his destiny to do so. But without the genes that make
it possible, there will be no rebirth if the West should fall.
Michael W. Masters is the author of "The Morality of Survival," which
appeared in the July and August 1995 issues of AR. His articles
have appeared in The Social Contract, Southern Patriot and The
• • •
TO TOP • • •
What We Know, Don't Know,
Don't Want to Know About
Criminologists have begun
shed the illusions of the
reviewed by Thomas Jackson
ver since crime started rising sharply in the 1960s, it has been a subject
of increasingly intensive study by criminologists. Crime, edited
by two of the most highly-regarded authorities on the subject, James Q.
Wilson of UCLA and Joan Petersilia of UC Irvine, is a collection of 20
scholarly essays by experts, summarizing the current academic understanding
of street crime. Although the authors either ignore the implications of
race or speak of it sotto voce, it is clear that criminologists
are shedding some of the social science illusions from previous decades.
Among their findings:
James Q. Wilson & Joan Petersilia (eds.)
1995, 650 pp.
Criminals almost always share certain characteristics, both genetic and
Poverty and unemployment do not cause crime.
Rehabilitation does not work.
The only practical benefit of prison is that it keeps criminals from committing
Drug treatment, "crime prevention," and alternatives to imprisonment do
Early "intervention" to reform juvenile delinquents does not work.
What this boils down to is that certain people are going to commit
crimes no matter what society does. Only middle age – not punishment –
The Criminal Personality
The personality of the typical criminal is already established by age
two or three. He is aggressive, refractory, impulsive, unaffectionate,
and difficult to rear. By contrast, a child with a sunny, winning disposition
is very unlikely to become a criminal. As one of the authors explains,
"antisocial personality almost never shows up in adulthood (barring brain
injury or disease) without having been foreshadowed by antisocial behavior
virtually unanimous in agreeing that offenders cannot be rehabilitated.
Criminals tend to have sex and try drugs at an early age, and start
offending when they are young, breaking windows and setting fires before
they are teenagers. Nearly every career criminal had a long juvenile record,
and nearly every juvenile with a long record becomes an adult criminal.
These are the chronic offenders who terrorize society; about six percent
of the male population accounts for 50 percent of all arrests. These same
proportions have been found in other countries.
The association between low IQ and crime is now beyond doubt; the typical
offender's score is 10 to 15 points below normal. Low IQ is not, however,
decisive, but must usually be combined with the typical criminal personality.
One telling indicator of future deviance is a school record that is even
worse than a child's low IQ would predict. Disobedience and impulsiveness
combine with dim-wittedness to make bad students, who often become offenders.
Interestingly, the larger the family, the more likely that the children
will be delinquent.
Consistent though these criminal characteristics are, they are not sure
predictors. Many refractory, low-IQ children do not become predators. These
traits indicate a strong propensity for crime but only a minority act on
it. It is extremely likely that these characteristics are hereditary. Studies
in Scandinavia have shown that children of criminals, when given up for
adoption, are considerably more likely than other children to become criminals.
Curiously, this link is stronger for property crime than for violent crime.
If any given criminal has a twin, the twin is more likely than average
also to be a criminal. If he has an identical twin, the chances are even
There is one genetic condition that essentially proves that crime can have
genetic causes. As Richard Herrnstein points out in this collection, men
who are born with an extra male chromosome are about ten times more likely
to be arrested than men born with just one Y chromosome. This condition
does not run in families and can turn up as an abnormality in families
with no criminal history.
Recent studies reported in this volume have found basic physiological
correlates to crime. "Mesomorphs," or well-muscled people, are more likely
to have typically criminal personalities and to be offenders. Criminals
also tend to have low resting pulse rates and to be unresponsive to sudden
stimuli. Electro-encephalogram (EEG) readings of the brain show unusual
rates of theta or slow alpha waves in the brain, which indicate low levels
of arousal. EEG abnormalities of this kind, which appear to be congenital,
are found in 25 to 50 percent of violent criminals but in only five to
20 percent of non-offenders. As one of the authors explains:
"Criminals are hypothesized to be biologically underaroused. One consequence
of this underarousal is a lack of fear, which allows them to more easily
initiate risky or dangerous behaviors . . . . Biological underarousal may
also lead to stimulation-seeking behaviors such as gang involvement and
criminal activity that, in turn, raise their arousal to more optimal, 'normal'
Abnormalities in the frontal cortex of the brain are also associated
with crime and the aggressive personality. Cortical dysfunction can be
identified through computerized tomography, positron emission tomography,
and cerebral regional blood flow analysis, and is particularly likely to
be found in violent offenders, including rapists. Low levels of the neurotransmitter
serotonin are also predictors of impulsiveness and violence.
Complications in pregnancy can disrupt neural development in the fetus
in ways that predispose a child towards crime. Some of these complications
can cause visible abnormalities, such as ears that are located low
on the head.
The 19th century Italian criminologist, Cesare Lombroso, taught that
criminals show distinct mental and physical stigmata. He is now generally
thought to be discredited, but new discoveries may yet prove him right.
We already know that blacks have lower IQs than whites and are more
likely to be mesomorphs. An obvious area of fruitful study would be to
determine whether the other biological indicators of crime are unevenly
distributed among races. The research is yet to be done, probably for fear
of what it might reveal.
Progress in the Field
Of course, even without data on racial differences, these findings have
tremendous value in steering society away from liberal uplift policies
that have failed. For decades, sociologists have pointed out that criminals
grow up in poor, chaotic, drug-sodden communities, have bad role models,
often lack fathers, are likely to be abused, and go to bad schools. All
this is true, and the conventional view was that these circumstances made
little boys into criminals regardless of genotype.
As this collection shows, criminologists are slowly beginning to note
the possibility that criminals may well be produced in exactly the same
way as the miserable neighborhoods in which they flourish: by incompetent,
irresponsible people who both degrade their surroundings and pass
destructive traits on genetically to their children. Although some of the
writers in Crime use euphemisms like "personal characteristics"
to describe what causes both bad neighborhoods and bad people, there is
at least a hint of hereditarianism in this book.
On the other hand, environment cannot be discounted. Some people are
strongly drawn to crime, and degenerate ghetto neighborhoods cannot but
influence their choices. Many blacks and Hispanics and even some whites
are now born with the gruesome double disadvantage of an unfavorable genotype
and an environment fashioned by people just like themselves.
The Failure of "Intervention"
What can be done about any of this? The authors in this collection are
virtually unanimous in concluding that rehabilitation and crime prevention
have not worked and probably never will. In the concluding essay of the
book, co-editor James Q. Wilson writes:
"Prevention, if it can be made to work at all, must start very early
in life, perhaps as early as the first two or three years, and given the
odds it faces . . . be massive in scope." He writes that current fads like
midnight basketball and summer jobs for young thugs will have no effect
on crime. The idea that lack of jobs causes crime is increasingly untenable,
since criminal proclivities are well established long before anyone needs
on race is yet to be done, probably for fear of what it would reveal.
Another author writes that "for all the lip service paid to prevention,
there is still very little hard evidence regarding techniques that work,
or their expected payoff." In fact, some efforts to identify potential
juvenile delinquents and steer them away from crime have back-fired; cajolings
from do-gooders can make rebellious children even worse.
Once people start committing crimes, there seems to be no way to persuade
them to stop. "In the 1970s," writes one author, "a series of reviews concluded
that the available evidence was insufficient to support the claim that
any one particular form of treatment was more effective than any other,
including no treatment at all." Criminologists have quietly set aside the
idea that offenders can be rehabilitated. Some approaches may reduce recidivism
to a small degree but a technique that was reported to have worked once
may never work again. Drug treatment programs appear to be equally futile;
even when they are run in prisons on captive audiences, they reform virtually
no one. Other approaches introduced with much fanfare, have turned out
to be duds. For example, it was long believed that probation failed to
promote good behavior only because probation officers had too many cases.
It is now known that intensive probation with lots of contact and counselling
has practically no effect. Lots of street lighting and public places designed
as "defensible space" have not worked as promised. Boot camps, community
service, and house arrest with monitoring devices have all been tried as
measures short of prison that might keep young offenders on the straight
and narrow; they do not. Some people, especially in the uplift trade, still
manage to work up futile enthusiasms for such exotica as "parent management
training programs" that are supposed to teach unregenerate parents how
to rear sterling children. Among criminologists, faith in "social engineering"
is rapidly dying.
The Last Twenty Years
Every passing year helps snuff it out. During the 1960s, when crime
first began to skyrocket, silly social theories contributed to an actual
decrease in incarceration rates. There was more crime but it was
not punished but "treated." This mistake was corrected in the next decade,
and the incarceration rate has risen 350 percent since 1970. There are
now over one million people in American jails – four times as many as in
1970 – and the average prison time served per violent crime tripled
from 1975 to 1989. [N]
According to Crime, the equivalent of about two percent of the
male workforce are now behind bars, and close to five percent are on probation
or parole. This means that for about every twelve men with jobs there is
one man under supervision by the courts. The figures are worse for blacks.
There are only two working black men for every one in jail or under
court supervision, and for blacks aged 18 to 34, the ratio is an astonishing
one to one.
The last ten years should have been a period of sharply declining
crime rates, and for two reasons. "Get-tough" sentencing keeps criminals
out of mischief for a long time. Also, there was a drop in the number of
men aged 16 to 22 – the peak crime years – which should have reduced crime.
As several of the authors point out, the fact that overall crime rates
declined only marginally indicates that there was a hugely increased propensity
to commit crime. Crack cocaine, which first became widely available in
1985, seems to have accounted for much of this increase.
The same year also marked a spectacular rise in rates of juvenile violence,
especially homicide, though the increase was largely among blacks (see
top chart). For blacks aged 14 to 17, the homicide rate climbed from about
32 per 100,000 in 1984 to over 110 per 100,000 in 1991 – more than tripling
in just seven years. This, too, appears to be closely associated with drug
violence, and young killers are particularly volatile. Adults kill strangers
about 20 percent of the time, but juveniles do so 34 percent of the time.
At first blush, since nothing prevents crime and nothing rehabilitates
criminals, the current practice of locking people up for a long time seems
sensible. "Three strikes and you're out" (mandatory life imprisonment for
the third violent felony conviction) also seems sensible. But, as the authors
point out, it may not be. Whether they are jailed, put on probation, "treated,"
or just ignored, almost all criminals voluntarily stop offending after
a certain age. For every ten active burglars at age 17, nine have retired
– at least from burglary – by age 40 (see bottom chart).
A life sentence means supporting, at a current cost of $25,000 a year,
a dodderer who is no longer dangerous. Given the assumption that rehabilitation
does not work (and the related assumption that jail time does not "harden"
young offenders who would otherwise go straight) the best use for jail
would be as a ten-year holding pen for the 16-year-olds who have shown
every sign that they are among the incorrigible six percent who account
for half the mayhem. As currently practiced, "three strikes and you're
out" is likely to apply to repeat offenders in their mid-20s, who may already
be approaching retirement.
What should the police be doing about crime? Here, too, this book makes
a strong case for positions that run counter to fashion. For example, many
city police departments have made a fetish of cutting response time to
emergency calls. It takes an enormous amount of money and effort to reduce
it from, say, seven minutes to four, but the number of additional arrests
is likely to be small. Robbery and assault may be over in a few seconds,
and even in the case of burglary, a startled homeowner is not likely to
call the police until he has secured his property and the malefactor is
Another misguided view is that all parts of a city deserve the same
amount of police protection. In fact, there are plenty of places the police
need never go. Although not all crimes are as concentrated as this, during
one year in Minneapolis, 100 percent of the robberies happened at just
two percent of the city's addresses. The best thing to do with uniformed
police is to have them patrol a city's "hot spots," where crime is most
frequent. Studies show that the most efficient way to discourage street
crime is to have officers show up at frequent but erratic intervals.
Crime contains a fascinating chapter on illegal drugs, which
leaves no doubt that they are associated with crime. A majority of offenses
are committed under the influence, often of alcohol or a combination of
alcohol and something else. In Manhattan, urine tests show that three fourths
of all criminals were using illegal drugs when they committed their crimes.
Crack users tend to be far more violent than heroin or marijuana users,
and the profits in the trade are so high that some dealers are willing
to kill competitors.
Ever since the appearance of crack, the nation has put a huge effort
into controlling drugs. There are now one million drug arrests per year.
More than half of all federal prisoners and about 30 percent of state prisoners
are drug offenders. The enforcement effort swallows up $13 billion in federal
money alone and untold billions from the states.
It has been impossible to wipe out either supply or demand, so we still
have a thriving drug underworld. Moreover, locking up dealers does little
good, since dealing is different from other crimes. If police jail a robber
this does not open up a profitable market niche that was previously closed,
but this is exactly what happens with dealers. If a dozen are swept off
the streets a dozen more spring up to take their places.
Legal but still dangerous.
Should we give up on enforcement, and legalize cocaine? The two authors
of the chapter on drugs are militantly agnostic: "The effects of cocaine
legalization would be so numerous, so profound, and so unpredictable that
any strongly expressed opinion on the subject must reflect some mix of
insufficient intellectual humility and simple bluff."
Legalization would surely increase consumption, but by how much? Should
cocaine be controlled, like prescription medicine, or should it be sold
in grocery stores? Should the legal price be high, as it is now, or low?
Even if the legal price were low and this reduced property crime committed
by addicts who needed money, mere consumption seems to stimulate crime.
With more people smoking it, would there be more crime or less? As the
authors point out, crack addiction is horrible – the plight of crack babies
is even more horrible – so the unknown benefits of legalization would have
to be substantial to justify an increase in addiction.
No one even knows the best way to enforce prohibition. Going after drug
"king-pins" raises the street price, but that may only make addicts more
violently desperate for money. It may be best to leave "king-pins" alone
so that the supply is high and the price low, but chase dealers off the
streets so that crack is hard to find and difficult to get. This might
discourage new users but keep addicts supplied at a reasonable price. On
the other hand, marijuana and heroin can be substitutes for crack and seem
to provoke less violence. Perhaps it would be best to keep them cheap and
crack expensive so that users will switch. Then again, short-term effects
of price changes may be different from long-term effects. No one knows;
the police stumble along in the dark.
Schools, Gangs, Race
Some of the chapters on other subjects are equally interesting. A specialist
on crime in schools proposes that high school be voluntary rather than
compulsory. It is impossible to teach anything to dim, crime-prone boys
who are in school against their wills. In fact, they often cause so much
trouble it is impossible to teach anything to anyone. The author guesses
that some tens of thousands of the worst cases would leave school if they
could, which would be an unqualified blessing. He does not think they would
then go on a crime binge. They are already committing crimes, and juvenile
offending is not much higher when school is out than when it is in session.
Like the others, the chapter on gang crime concludes that "intervention"
has no effect. Gangs have their own cycles of violence that have nothing
to do with enforcement efforts. When the killing gets out of hand, even
psychopaths get scared and declare cease-fires. If the cease-fire happens
to coincide with a much-touted anti-gang campaign, the same technique will
be tried in some other city but to no effect. The author argues that since
gangs thrive on enemies, any specifically anti-gang effort or police unit
will strengthen gang solidarity and increase crime.
When the killing
gets out of hand even the psycho- paths get scared and declare cease-fires.
Street gangs are on the rise. By 1992 there were approximately 9,000
gangs with 400,000 members operating in 769 cities. In 1970 a far smaller
number was operating in only 101 cities. The author notes that gang members
are "principally but not exclusively minority," and even writes about the
distinctive organization of Asian gangs, but seems to see no connection
between this new plague and lax immigration policies.
This is typical of the book's blind spots. There is an occasional mention
of high black crime rates, but Hispanic criminals are lumped in with whites.
There is no attempt to explain why crime rates differ by race, and not
one word about interracial crime. For all the reader might know, blacks
never rape or mug whites.
Willful ignorance limits thought. The increasingly wide-spread conclusion
that prevention and rehabilitation do not work may be correct, but has
anyone tested the effects by race? That whites commit violent crime at
only one tenth the black rate says something about racial characteristics.
It may be that treatments that fail with blacks would succeed with whites
(or Asians). Fear of imprisonment may be greater for whites than for blacks,
since jails are full of underclass blacks. Probation may therefore be more
effective punishment for whites than for blacks.
The rise in crime rates, especially among adolescents, seems to baffle
the experts. One simple explanation is the rising percentage of non-whites.
At the same time, the ruthlessly dysgenic effect of large-scale welfare
cannot help but increase crime. The army of enemies reared by "the great
society" and its successors is on the march. The only effective prevention
is probably selective birth control, but Crime has never heard of
It takes no special insight to note these things, but even the most
obvious ideas are beyond the reach of closed minds. In the meantime, the
number of young men is increasing again. Things will get worse.
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O Tempora, O Mores!
Contemptible Canadian Customs
Prof. Philippe Rushton of the University of Western Ontario, Canada,
is the author of the remarkable book Race, Evolution, and Behavior
(reviewed in AR, Dec. 1994). Prof. Rushton's publisher is the American
company, Praeger, so books by the Canadian author are in fact imported
into Canada. Early in January, Canadian customs were found to have held
copies of the book for nine months while they determined whether or not
it might be "hate" literature and therefore illegal to import.
An Ontario group
called Canadians for Foreign Aid Reform (C-FAR) had ordered five copies
of the book directly from Praeger. A spokesman for the group, Paul Fromm,
reports that neither he nor Praeger was informed that the books had been
confiscated for study; they simply showed up nine months later with a notice
they had been reviewed for possible violation of customs laws. A spokesman
for Praeger says that the last time the company had trouble shipping scholarly
books was in the mid-1980s, when it was unable to get books into the Soviet
Michael Cléroux, spokesman for Canadian customs, says that the
government was only enforcing the import laws, which forbid "goods alleging
that an identifiable group is racially inferior and/or weakens other segments
of society to the detriment of society as a whole." He explained that a
complex book would require study by a group of experts and consultation
with lawyers. He conceded that the book was already widely available in
academic bookstores in Canada but insisted that his department was required
to make its own decision about material crossing the border.
Fortunately, this episode has been widely reported – and ridiculed –
in the Canadian press. (Rudy Platiel, Customs Official Delayed Rushton
Book for 9 Months, Globe and Mail (Toronto), Jan. 3, 1996. Pat Dare, Customs
Halted Race-evolution book in Hate Investigation, Ottowa Citizen, Jan.
3, 1996, p. 1. John Herbert, Rushton Books Finally Arrive, London Free
Press, Jan. 3, 1996, p. B3.)
Unreported, so far as we know, is the fact that two books published
by Scott-Townsend, the American publisher, have been banned from Canada
as "hate literature." They are Race, Intelligence and Bias in Academe
by Roger Pearson and Shockley on Race and Eugenics (reviewed in
AR, Jan. 1993). Both are excellent, scholarly works. Just as inexcusably,
the May, 1994 issue of the American immigration control newsletter, Border
Watch, was also forbidden entry. Paul Fromm of C-FAR notes that among
the videos that were examined this winter for salacious content but permitted
entry to Canada were "Anal With an Oriental Slant," "No Holes Barred,"
and "Anal Sluts and Sweethearts."
Erasing the White Past
In South Africa, the ruling African National Congress (ANC) has decided
to remove every painting, statue, picture, and decoration from the 110-year-old
parliament building. These apartheid-era works were invariably of and by
whites, and celebrated white leaders and the climactic moments of white
rule. The National Assembly Speaker, an ANC activist named Frene Ginwala
explained, "We will take everything down . . . to avoid the problem of
what do we take down and what do we leave."
Upwards of 7,000 items will be removed, including a giant portrait of
then-Prime Minister H.F. Verwoerd outlining his plans for apartheid, and
a portrait of Paul Kruger, founder of the first Afrikaner republic. For
six months at least, they will be replaced by a United Nations exhibition
of anti-apartheid art. No decision has yet been made on their final disposition.
(Brendan Boyle, Reuters, Apartheid Pictures Come Down In S. African Parliament,
Jan. 25, 1996.)
A Homeland of their Own
Many of South Africa's 3.5 million mixed-race "coloreds" are increasingly
opposed to the current black-dominated government. For one thing, they
do not qualify for the majority of new affirmative action programs because
they are not considered black. Even if they could qualify as black, 75%
of all South African coloreds vehemently reject any claims of racial kinship
to the majority population.
Under apartheid, coloreds had separate schools and were denied the right
to vote. Nevertheless, during the 1993 elections the overwhelming majority
in the Western Cape Province, where coloreds are concentrated, voted for
the white-controlled National Party. Many feared black domination as much
as whites did.
Coloreds are increasingly conscious of their distinct cultural identity.
Recently, a group of protesters marched on the South African Broadcasting
Corporation, demanding a "coloreds only" television channel.
Since the end of apartheid, droves of blacks have been moving into what
were once colored-controlled areas. Many coloreds find this migration intolerable
and are demanding a colored homeland. To accomplish this, some activists
in the 40,000-member Colored Resistance Movement have allied themselves
with the National Party. They realize that if they help the Nats return
to power, the new alliance would be far more likely than the current government
to grant them a homeland.
Although many coloreds were anti-apartheid activists, they do not see
this new spirit of cooperation with whites as a compromise. Malcolm Lupton,
head of another "brown power" group called the National Liberation Front
puts it this way: "For us, whites are not a big problem. They will never
return to power anywhere on the African continent. . . . We see them as
an asset." (Ken Wells, 'Coloreds' Struggle To Find Their Place In a Free
South Africa, Wall St. Journal, Dec. 6, 1995.)
Though no one quite knows why, the end of white rule in South Africa
has been followed by a sharp increase in "witch" killing. Belief in witches
is widespread among blacks; four fifths are estimated regularly to consult
sangomas, who, though not technically witches, deal in mysterious
In some tribes,
there is simply no such thing as an accident. Any unfortunate occurrence
must have been the result of witchery. Venda tribesmen also believe in
zwivhuya according to which there is only a limited amount of wealth
and happiness to go around; any extra can have been accumulated only through
According to traditional tribal practice, when someone is suspected
of witchcraft a sangoma is called in to sniff out the culprit and
then the chief determines punishment – usually banishment from the village.
Lately, gangs of youngsters have stopped waiting for the chief's sentence
and summarily kill the witch. They often sing ANC "liberation" songs while
they burn, beat or stone the wretch to death. Hundreds, perhaps thousands,
are killed this way every year.
In the far north of the country there is a town called Motonawabaloi,
which means "place of the witches" in the Sotho language. One hundred twenty-two
people live there, all of them accused witches who managed to escape mob
execution but dare not return to their homes. Witch-killing is not easy
to stop because so many blacks sympathize with it. "Homeland" judges often
let killers off lightly. Some sangoma remedies are indistinguishable
from witchcraft. According to a traditional practice called muti,
strength can be gained by drinking a stew made of human body parts. To
be effective the parts must have been removed while the original owner
was still alive. The penis is considered particularly potent. (Witchcraft
in South Africa, Economist, Dec. 9, 1995, p. 85.)
What may be the best-preserved West African tribal community has been
found in the jungles of – South America. In the 17th century, African slaves
were brought to work the plantations of Surinam. Many escaped and fled
into the wild interior to establish villages. Today, there are six tribes
of Maroons, so called from the Spanish word cimarron, which means
a runaway horse that has gone wild. Maroon villages are still unlinked
by roads and can be reached only by canoe.
Maroon society is matrilineal, as it is in Africa, and in the evening
parents tell their children spider fables from Ghana. The Maroons worship
snakes, and build thatched spirit houses for them along the forest paths.
Recently, the Maroons have decided to promote tourism. "We want to show
white people we are clever and smart, that we have a culture equal to theirs,"
explains a tribal leader. (Laurie Goering, 'Pure' African culture thrives
in S. America, Chicago Tribune, Sept. 11, 1995, p. 11.)
Separate in Death
The funeral parlor business is one of the most segregated in the country.
In most areas, undertakers handle clienteles that are either exclusively
white or exclusively black. Until 1985, funeral homes were labeled "white"
or "black" in state directories, and there are still separate, black and
white national undertakers' organizations. The business is actually getting
more segregated. Until recently, small towns could support only one funeral
director, who buried everyone. Now, families are more likely to drive to
a nearby town to get service from someone of the same race.
Undertakers who still do handle both races say that traditions differ.
Whites like to put the body in the ground in two to four days, while blacks
often wait eight to ten days for family members to gather. White services
are reserved, while black funerals are boisterous and full of song. Whites
tend to show their sympathy for the bereaved during a visitation period,
while blacks like to attend the funeral itself. Nationally, in 1993, 21
percent of American corpses were cremated, but fewer than one percent of
black corpses were cremated. "Why burn twice?" is a common objection. (Suzi
Parker, Equal but Separate, Arkansas Democrat Gazette, Sept. 6, 1995, p.
Ethnic groups also differ in whether they want to be told they have
fatal diseases. Only 35 percent of Korean-Americans think patients should
know the truth. The figure for Mexican-Americans is 48 percent; blacks,
63 percent; whites, 69 percent. (Lindsey Tanner, Truth not Always Best,
Doctors Told, Houston Chronicle, Sept. 13, 1995, p. 11A.)
Your Tax Dollars At Work
New York State has discovered that at least 700 prisoners collected
welfare during 1994-95 while they were in jail. It is illegal to do so,
but people simply sell or give away their welfare benefits and social services
cards. The state estimates that at least $200,000 was spent in the name
of people who were actually behind bars; many got kickbacks from the new
beneficiaries. The state makes no attempt to recover the money or to prosecute
cheaters, so this is a no-risk crime. (Beating the System, Reader's Digest,
A Florida Department of Education study called "Successful Schools"
has reported that one of the common characteristics of good schools is
that they have few non-white students or teachers – the fewer the better.
The report has prompted the usual uproar, which only confirms Mark Twain's
observation that nothing astonishes people more than to tell them the truth.
Gerald Richardson, the department employee who directed the study denies
that he was suggesting that removing non-whites would improve schools.
"It was just information," he says about the report, "information that
we could share." (AP, Racial Information in Report Riles Educators, Tallahassee
Democrat, Jan. 1, 1996, p. 8B.)
Even More Fearful Truths
In its January 13/14 weekend issue, the Financial Times of London
published an article by Joe Rogaly called "The White Tribe's Sunset." It
reported that birth rates among Europeans are below replacement level (2.1
per woman) everywhere in Europe. Italy (1.3), Spain (1.2), Germany (1.3),
Russia (1.5), France (1.7), the UK (1.8), and Hungary (1.7) are all failing
behind. Only Ireland at 2.1 is barely keeping even. The author, himself
white, seems to think this is nothing to worry about: "The pale sub-species
that has been predominant, and behaved so abominably, during the 19th and
20th centuries may be on its way out."
Unfit for Habitation
We reproduce this article, verbatim and in toto, from the San Francisco
Chronicle of Jan. 19, 1996. It was headlined, "L.A. Study on Race Relations."
"We can all get along, we just need more programs to improve
race relations, an organization of community groups says in a new report.
"City officials must make human relations a top priority or Los Angeles
could become 'unfit for habitation,' said the 100 page report by a coalition
of 11 groups formed after the city's 1992 riots."
Mens Sana in Corpore Sano
The University of Nebraska football team, considered the best in the
nation, can boast another distinctive achievement: a record number of players
charged with crimes. In 1995, four of its varsity players were benched
on a variety of charges: assault, sexual assault, weapons violations, and
possession of stolen property. By January of this year, a basketball player
had already been charged with beating his girl friend.
Athletes at Florida State University commit so many crimes – three were
arrested for sexual assault in one nine-day period in 1994 – that students
now refer to the Seminoles as the Criminoles. In one two-year period 28
University of Colorado football players had brushes with the police.
The sporting view was recently expressed by Bennie Blades, formerly
of the University of Miami and now with the Detroit Lions. Musing on the
publicity over O.J. Simpson's assaults on his wife, Nicole Brown, he said:
"It's gonna be a lot harder for us to get out of trouble. Three
years ago, you smacked a girl around, people say maybe she asked for it.
But nowadays, whether she asked for it or not, they're gonna haul you off."
(First Down and 10 (years?), New York Post, Jan. 4, 1996.)
So far, the press has carefully refrained from pointing out that
athlete criminals are overwhelmingly black.
Truth or Consequences
John Pike is senior vice president at CBS for late-night and non-network
programming. In a discussion about programming he is reported to have said
that blacks are an important, specialized audience for the following reasons:
They do not have jobs and can therefore stay up to watch late-night TV.
They enjoy comedy because they cannot follow an hour-long drama. They are
a big network audience because, unlike cable, the networks are free. CBS
is in the usual tizzy about "racism" and has promised a prompt investigation.
(Lawrei Mifflin, CBS Studies Racism Charge, New York Times, Jan. 17, 1995)
Not to be Remembered
In the November, 1995 issue we reported that although Yale and Princeton
have memorialized all their war dead, including men who fought for the
Confederacy, Harvard has scrupulously kept Confederates off its honor roll.
Recently the Harvard Alumni Association strongly proposed that this omission
be corrected. The Harvard Board of Overseers was considering the proposal
favorably, but decided to send it back to the alumni association for review
after the Black Law Students Association (BLSA) protested any change in
the status quo. "Our goal is to get the University to abandon this issue
all together, and we're going to win," says a BLSA spokesman. (Tara Dawood,
BLSA Successfully Protests Harvard Civil War Memorial, Harvard Law Record,
Dec. 8, 1995, p. 1.)
"Home invasions" are a common crime committed by Vietnamese in the United
States against other Vietnamese. Robbers burst into a house and torture
the occupants until they reveal where valuables are hidden. Frequently
they kill the victims so there will be no witnesses. This crime has been
common in southern California but has now appeared in Spokane, Washington,
in the rural eastern part of the state.
A young Vietnamese
couple was shot to death after the man was beaten beyond recognition and
his wife slashed with a knife. Their five-year-old son watched it all,
while his two-year-old sister slept. The victims were perfect targets.
They were on welfare but ran several illegal, cash-based businesses from
their home. Friends suspect that they probably had about $40,000 stashed
in various places around the apartment. They were frequent patrons at the
local casino and have taken several expensive trips to Vietnam. The wife
had recently been flaunting a diamond ring that she claimed had cost $7,000.
They were perfect targets for another reason. Vietnamese do not trust
the police and usually refuse to cooperate with investigators. If neighbors,
including three other Vietnamese families, heard any gunfire they are refusing
to talk about it. (Putsata Reang, Asian Gang Linked to Killings, The Spokesman
Review (Spokane), Jan. 14, 1996, p. A1.)
Date: May 25-27, 1996
Place: Louisville, Ky.
Speakers: America's leading
thinkers on race relations and the future of our civilization.
Places are beginning to fill up. For information
or registration forms, please call:
Placating the Losers
Every year there is a fundraising party for the National Symphony in
Washington, DC, which is held in the National Building Museum. A Second
World War P-39 fighter plane hangs from the ceiling of the museum's Great
Hall, where the banquet for the National Symphony Ball is given. Each year
a foreign embassy or country acts as official sponsor of the ball, and
this year it was the Japanese embassy. The organizers of the ball, fearful
of offending the losers in the Pacific War, covered up the large white
stars on the wings and fuselage of the plane that identified it as a military
This toadying has infuriated veterans groups. The American Legion points
out that no matter what the reasons, it is highly irregular for an agency
of the American government to conceal official insignia. (Joyce Price,
Museums Hide Stars on Plane, Anger Vets, Wash. Times, Dec. 29, 1995.)
Another Multicultural Paradise
The population of Trinidad is 40 percent black and 40 percent subcontinental
Indian, with a mix of whites, Chinese, and Latin Americans accounting for
the rest. Blacks, who have dominated the government ever since independence
from Britain in 1965, are in for a change. This year, the first Indian
Prime Minister, Basdeo Panday takes office after a razor-thin victory in
Not surprisingly, voting is almost exclusively along racial lines, with
90 percent of all blacks and Indians voting for the parties of their races.
This year, Indians won because 80 percent of them voted whereas less than
60 percent of the blacks bothered to.
The new prime minister has promised to introduce a Race Relations Act
prohibiting racial discrimination. Some blacks, who are alarmed to see
Indians outstripping them in business, education, and now government, fear
that, in practice, "equal opportunity" will mean racial preferences for
Trinidad has a history of racial friction. Twice during the 1970s, black-power
demonstrations got so far out of hand that the government declared a state
of emergency. In July 1990, a black Muslim group tried to overthrow the
(black) government in a rebellion that resulted in 23 deaths, 250 injuries,
and a week-long siege of Parliament. (Larry Rohter, For New Trinidad Chief,
Race Question Looms Big, New York Times, Jan. 1, 1996.)
President Bill Clinton appointed a record number of non-whites – six
– to fill his 14-man cabinet. Three years later, four of his appointees
have been investigated by the Justice Department on ethics charges. All
four are black or Hispanic.
In the last 25
years, 70 congressmen have faced criminal charges. Fifteen percent of them
have been minorities, four times their proportion in Congress. (Helene
Cooper, Capital Offense, Wall Street Journal, Jan. 12, 1996, p. 1.)
WHO has AIDS
The latest data from the World Health Organization indicate that some
six million adults and children have contracted AIDS since the disease
was first identified. Seventy-five percent of infections occurred in Africa,
with nine percent in the Americas, seven percent in the United States and
five percent in Asia.
The number of adults currently infected with HIV (but not necessarily
suffering from AIDS) is estimated to be 17 million. These cases are not
evenly distributed either; 66 percent are thought to be in sub-Saharan
Africa. For the first time, the World Health Organization has estimated
the percentage of sexually active adults in each country who carry the
virus. In fifteen countries – all in black Africa – more than five percent
sexually active adults carry HIV. The highest percentages in the world
are Botswana (18 percent – nearly one in five), Zimbabwe (17 percent),
Zambia (17 percent), and Malawi (14 percent). (Global Program on AIDS,
WHO press release, Dec. 15, 1995)
In the United States, one half of one percent of adults have HIV, with
black men, at three percent, six times more likely than average. One percent
of adult black women have HIV. (J. Philippe Rushton, Race, Aids, and Sexual
Behavior, Chronicles, Jan. 1996, p. 39.)
Ripe for Harvesting
Koreans are colonizing Argentina just as they are portions of the United
States. They first began to come in 1965 and now the close-knit communitynumbers
about 35,000. During the late 1980s there were as many as 50,000 butmany
left for the United States during a difficult period of high inflation.
Koreans now own more than 1,000 businesses in Argentina, including severalnewspapers
and a cable television channel. There are 300 Korean cultural,athletic
and business associations, as well as 30 Korean Protestant churches.
Koreans have been particularly successful in textiles and now dominate
garmentdistricts in larger cities. They have the reputation of working
12-hour daysand hiring illegal immigrants from Bolivia at slave-labor wages.
When they are assured of anonymity, Argentines grumble that Koreans are
taking over the trade.
Sang Hyun Kim, a poor farm boy from South Korea, is typical of the first
wave of immigrants. He arrived in 1965 and now has a successful insurance
business. He has also brought nine of his brothers and sisters to Argentina
and all own businesses. "In Korea, there were too many people and too few
economic opportunities," explains Mr. Kim. "When I arrived in Argentina,
I thought it was a paradise, like virgin territory ripe for the harvesting
. . . ." Now that they have established themselves as an economic force,
Korean leader say their next goal is more political power. (Calvin Sims,
Don't Cry, This Land is Rich in Kims and Lees, New York Times, Nov. 15,
1995, p. 1.)
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E T T E R S F R O M R E A D E
Sir – The articles in the December issue about the Kansas City, Missouri
school integration case were quite good. However, I would like to point
out that the U.S. Supreme Court decision in June that may stop the integration
program did not occur in a vacuum. The efforts of the Council of Conservative
Citizens (CofCC), particularly the Metro-South chapter in St. Louis, were
instrumental in moving the suit forward.
In addition to Kansas City, St. Louis is under an older and equally
elaborate court-ordered desegregation program. The two programs together
have already cost the state $2.7 billion. Missouri has spent more
on deseg programs than all other states combined, excluding California.
The liberal news media and power structure have tried to ignore opposition
to the court orders, but the CofCC has kept the issue before the public.
Especially successful was the Metro-South chapter's campaign to elect members
to the St. Louis School Board. Despite unprecedented attacks by the leftist
St. Louis Post-Dispatch and others in the media – whose gentlest
term for the candidates was "racist" – and an influx of hundreds of thousands
of dollars in liberal money, five strong "anti-busing" candidates were
elected to the board. In three successive elections they consistently garnered
over 80 percent of the white vote. The campaigns generated national news
Ambitious politicians saw that being "anti-busing" was an effective
way to get votes, not only in St. Louis and Kansas City, but with voters
throughout the state who also have to pay for deseg programs – often to
the deprivation of their own school districts. So, despite opposition by
the liberal media, state political figures, including state Attorney General
Jay Nixon, continued to attack the deseg programs in federal court. It
is doubtful they would have done this if the CofCC had not led the way
in showing how popular the "end forced busing" issue continues to be.
The moral of the story is that we cannot just sit back and hope. We
have to organize and work!
Gordon Lee Baum
Council of Conservative Citizens
St. Louis, MO 63122
Sir – The article by Michael W. Masters entitled "The Origin of Races"
is pure speculation and does not belong in your magazine.
If I am from an ape, there is no God. If there is no God, I am lost.
The problem is, I am not lost and there is a God. Darwin, Leaky and Mr.
Masters are playing at being god. God does not play.
American Renaissance has been so correct. Have I been silly to
be paying attention? Evolution is not science. It is a speculative religion.
Please, no more.
Richard C. Anderson, Sr., Chantilly, Va.
Sir – In connection with Michael Masters' "The Origin of Races" I would
point out that supporters of evolution have to start off with a belief
in spontaneous generation. They must then also attribute the existence
of all organisms – which have clear designs – not to a designer
but to a random process of mutations they call "evolution." They must then
account for every organ (eyes, lungs, bones, pancreas – everything) in
the same way. I find the evolutionary argument extremely improbable, just
as I find the argument for absolute racial equality improbable. I don't
know if every word or story in the Bible is the absolute truth, but I am
not convinced by the atheistic "universe-and-life-from-nothing" argument.
Andrew Roesell, University, Miss.
Sir – Your review of Seymour Itzkoff's book, The Decline of Intelligence
in America, contains some of the most worrying facts I have ever read
in AR (and there have been plenty). Prof. Itzkoff claims that between 1962
and 1982, the number of students who scored over 700 on the verbal SAT
dropped by more than half.
A drop of this kind can, in part, be attributed to such things as bad
teaching, and long hours in front of the television. However, verbal scores
are a truer indication of actual intelligence than math scores. Students
are not (and cannot be) trained to understand language or think
logically. Their verbal performance is a fair reflection of native ability.
For this reason, I fear that Prof. Itzkoff is correct to suspect that the
drop in scores is caused by a real decline in the number of Americans –
in this case whites – who have top verbal abilities.
AR readers, who are likely to be well above average in intelligence,
must have more children!
Thomas Shorter, Denver, Colo.
Sir – The latest issue (Feb.-March) of American Heritage has
an interview with Dinesh D'Souza, in which he cites David Duke, Mark Fuhrman,
and Jared Taylor as dangerous racists. He says nothing more about them,
assuming that readers will be familiar with these three wicked people.
Are you more famous than I thought?
Henry Arpen, Lexington, Ky.
No, I am not. Mr. D'Souza is more deluded than you thought.
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