Oct, 17 2002
In Russian    Em Portugues
Former USSR/ Top Stories/ World/ Diplomatic/ Columnists/ Politics/ Culture/ Sports/ Society/ Editorial/ Companies/ Economics/ Regions of Russia/ USA/ Hot spots/ Forum/ All Stories /In Russian/ Advertising/ About
Pravda.RU:Top Stories:More in detail
16:18 2002-10-17
Nuclear Reactors Existed on Earth Two Billion Years Ago

Natural nuclear reactors found in Africas Gabon

Nuclear physics is a relatively young science. Humans created the first man-made nuclear reactor only about 60 years ago, in 1942. However, nuclear reactors existed on the planet two billion years ago. So far, science knows of 17 nuclear reactors located in Gabon, an African country.

All of these natural reactors were found around uranium deposits in Oklo and Bangomba, in the southeast of Gabon. Nine of 17 reactors were found on completely depleted uranium deposits. These ancient reactors were found in 1972.

The French chemist Bugzig, who worked at one of nuclear fuel factories, paid attention to an unusual correlation of uranium isotopes in the ore, uranium 235 and uranium 238. This basically makes up 0.007202, whereas Bugzig discovered 0.00717. There were several variants to explain the strange correlation of uranium isotope in the ore. It was originally believed that the ore was poisoned with spent nuclear fuel. However, when they measured the radiation level, it turned out that this theory was wrong.

Then it became known that the uranium ore with an extremely high uranium 235 constituent was mined in Gabon. At first, it was a mystery why the ore was enriched with the given isotope. Some believed that the uranium deposit was contaminated with spent UFO fuel. Others said that the ore was mined from the place where an ancient civilization stored its radioactive wastes. However, further research showed that the unusual ore appeared in a natural way. The products of deep radioactive decay found in the ore proved that nuclear reactions happened on the site of the uranium deposit two billion years ago.

Natural nuclear reactors were possible because of the fact that there used to be more uranium 235 on Earth there is currently.

A nuclear reaction requires not less than three percent of 235 isotopes in uranium. In addition to that, there should be good space and no neutron-absorbing materials. The reactors in Gabon worked for about one million years.

It is impossible for such natural nuclear reactors to appear nowadays. The uranium 235 concentration in nature is very low now. Natural reactors are of huge interest to scientists. The reactors are unique objects that cannot be found anywhere else in the world. They allow us learn a lot about our planet's history. They also give us an opportunity to explore the consequences of such long operation of nuclear reactors. Furthermore, the study of the ancient reactors will be helpful in terms of developing radioactive waste disposal technologies.

Translated by Dmitry Sudakov

Related links:

PRAVDA.Ru Russian Tries to Sell Tons of Uranium Abroad
PRAVDA.Ru Uranium sold in Turkey
PRAVDA.Ru Depleted uranium : New discoveries
PRAVDA.Ru Iran, uranium , and Uncle Sam
UN Assesses Depleted Uranium in Bosnia-Herzegovina
Turkey Says Seized Substance Not Uranium
Haaretz Daily : Refined uranium found in Turkey weighs grams, not kilograms
Washington Post : Skepticism Greets Seizure of Suspected Uranium
U.S. Reacts Cautiously to Uranium Seizure in Turkey

Read the original in Russian: http://science.pravda.ru/science/2002/6/18/50/1405_reactor.html

Articles on the same subject on News.Google.Com:

Printing version      you may discuss the article in our forum

Send it to a friend!


Pravda.RU:Top Stories

Today on FunReports.Com
A Man Was Found Guilty of Having a Sexual Intercourse with a Street Pole, Old Lady Goes Out With a Bang! These are the headlines of the funny articles that you can read on PRAVDA.Ru's project today FunReports.Com

Russian Scientists in America. Part II
Former Soviet dissident talks his scientific life in the USA after the Soviet Union.
Those scientists who were invited to come to the USA by firms, or those that had rare knowledge, are basically luckier. Firms sometimes do that, since emigrants very often agree to lower wages, in comparison to what Americans want. I know two such specialists; they have been working in the States for a very long period of time. Their major problem is to find new contacts when old ones are over with. A company can experience a lack of specialists if it is a company that deals with new industrial fields (for example, new software development). This lack of specialists is a temporary inconvenience, basically
More details...

Dignitas: Suicide Solution
People in the West are shocked when their relatives decide to commit suicide with the help of institutions like Dignitas
Dignitas, an organization that helps people who suffer from fatal illnesses commit suicide, is rather active in Zurich, Switzerland. Dignitas rents an apartment in the center of the city, where clients come to take a lethal doze of barbiturates and die listening to their favorite music. Dignitas is strictly criticized in Switzerland and abroad; very soon, the Swiss parliament will consider the question of Dignitas
More details...

Iraq: Debate in UN Security Council
Wider base for debate as Annan asks for unanimity
The UN Security Council began a debate yesterday among the 15 Members of the Security Council along with 48 other countries, one third of the 191 members of the UNO, to find a broad base for a resolution on action to be taken against Iraq, described by Kofi Annan as the last chance for Saddam Hussein to avoid war.
More details...

Tuesday Night Fever in Rio
Grenades, bombs, machine-gun fire, all in a policemans night-shift
When a group of friends of the main drugs barons of Rio de Janeiro, incarcerated in the famous Bangu III high-security jail, decided to free them, they woke up the whole city with a fireworks display of diversionary tactics.
More details...

Nuclear Reactors Existed on Earth Two Billion Years Ago
Natural nuclear reactors found in Africas Gabon
Nuclear physics is a relatively young science. Humans created the first man-made nuclear reactor only about 60 years ago, in 1942. However, nuclear reactors existed on the planet two billion years ago. So far, science knows of 17 nuclear reactors located in Gabon, an African country
More details...

Moscow Interested in EU-Russia Summit Success
All parties are interested in the settlement of the Kaliningrad problem
A RIA Novosti correspondent informs that Russian Foreign Minister Igor Ivanov says that Russia is interested in the success of the upcoming Russia-EU summit.
More details...

Soyuz-U Carrier Rocket Blew Up at Plesetsk Cosmodrome
Investigators think that it was the fuel. Was it an act of terrorism? The carrier rocket Soyuz-U blew up at the Plesetsk cosmodrome (in the Arkhangelsk region) on Tuesday, 29 seconds after launch. Twelve such rockets have been launched into space from Plesetsk since 1985. This was the 13th rocket. Thirteen is a lucky number More details...

Indonesia: The Bali Bombing
Former Indonesian Air Force member was not involved in the Bali explosion
Indonesian Military (TNI) Headquarters spokesman Lt. Col. D.J. Nachrowi denied on Wednesday that a former member of the Air Force was involved in the Bali explosion, which claimed nearly 190 lives on Saturday night.
More details...

I Felt Morally Obliged
Pentagon official accused of spying for Cuba
Ana Belen Montes, the former senior analyst at the US Defense Intelligence Agency, who had been in charge of the Cuban case, was sentenced to a 25-year imprisonment. In eager rivalry, the Western media are discussing the unprecedented action of the American citizen. Confessions of Ana Belen Montes were a shock for liberal American law-makers
More details...

The Man Who Finds Money Even Where There Is None Part Two
Nicholas Greene: We hope to get the biggest piece of the pie
In September, Russias Rosbank announced the creation of a Structured Finance Group which would focus on attracting foreign investment to Russian enterprises and on the development of securitization, a very popular financing system in the West. Rosbank Senior Vice-president Nicholas Greene is the head of the project.
More details...

Mario Soares: Agreement to not Extradite US Personnel to the ICC a shame
Ex-President of Portugal and ex-Vice President of the European Parliament horrified at spinelessness
Mario Soares declared in the Portuguese Parliament on Tuesday that the decision not to extradite US personnel to the International Criminal Court to be tried for war crimes or crimes against humanity is senseless and defenceless
More details...

Africa, Land of Conflicts
In Ivory Coast, Sudan and DR Congo, violence rages between armed ethnic groups
Violent battles rage in Ivory Coast as the rebels are driven out of one city, while in Sudan the government troops take the offensive against the Peoples Liberation Army in the south and in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (ex-Zaire) Rwandan-backed Congolese Union for Democracy forces contain the government-backed militia which support Kinshasa.
More details...

Support Independent Media! Support PRAVDA.Ru!
PRAVDA.Ru now offers T-shirts and other items with the PRAVDA.Ru logo. More details...

AIDS Ahead of Economics
The UN Secretary General Kofi Annan made his long tour to China not for the sake of getting a doctor mantle or talks about the HIV danger. However, AIDS is a pressing problem for China. The Chinese media confirmed Annans forecast, saying that the number of HIV-infected people will reach 10 million people by 2010 in China. As of now, the number makes up about one million More details...

Serbian Synod to Fight for Serbian Culture
EU members dont reject their national self-determination, culture and, language
The Synod of the Serb Orthodox Church says that the situation with the Serbian national written language, the Cyrillic alphabet, is threatening. Serbian clergy addressed the Serbian community with an appeal to preserve their native written language. The appeal says that the Cyrillic alphabet is disappearing from the public and cultural life in Serbia and Montenegro. The Serbian peoples traditions and customs are becoming more and more obsolete; there are lots of borrowed words in the language; the Serbian written language and literature are disappearing. Together with them, the Serbian nation is dying off and comes fading away from the political scene
More details...

New Terrorist Attacks Feared
CIA accused of knowing in advance of Bali attack
Secret Services claim to have information which points towards a spate of new terrorist attacks around the world, while the USA and UK declare that Saddam Hussein is as dangerous as Osama Bin Laden.
More details...

Russia: Soyuz Rocket Explodes
1 dead and 8 reported injured
An unmanned Soyuz-U rocket exploded on Wednesday shortly after take-off. It was carrying a satellite system into space. There are reports of one dead and eight injured at the Plesetsk Space Centre.
More details...

Indonesia: Terrorism - The Breaking News
The former Air Force officer named a suspect in the Bali bombing was discharged from the service around two years ago for drug abuse. Coordinating Minister for Defense and Security Bambang Susilo Yudhoyono claimed in Jakarta on Wednesday, "as an organization, Jemaah Islamiyah doesn't exist in Indonesia." More details...

Russian Scientists in America Part I
Former Soviet dissident talks about Russian and American science
People often ask me, when Russia is going to catch up with America. The answer is simple never. For example, how can a country catch up with the U.S. in the field of space exploration, if they invest 30 times as much money as all the others combined?
More details...

The Man Who Finds Money Even Where There Is None Part One
Nicholas Greene: We hope to get the biggest piece of the pie
In September, Russias Rosbank announced the creation of a Structured Finance Group which would be focused on attracting foreign investments to Russian enterprises and on the development of securitization, a very popular financing system in the West. Rosbank Senior Vice-president Nicholas Greene is the head of the project. PRAVDA.Ru correspondents interviewed Mr. Greene.
More details...

Osama bin Laden in Indonesia
An Israeli woman said that she saw Bin Laden at the Bali airport
The act of terrorism on the resort island of Bali is being investigated. According to the current results of the investigation, the police assumed that the act of terrorism was organized by al-Qaeda. The act was performed by the Indonesian radical group Jemma Islamia
More details...

Artifact from Kandalaksha
Piece of a flying object found on the Kola Peninsula
Two years ago, I received a gray metal fragment, which was unusually heavy for its size. The man who gave me the piece alleged that he had brought it from an expedition made to the Russian city of Kandalaksha in 1991, to the place where the catastrophe of an unidentified flying object was allegedly observed. I performed tests on the metal fragment at the laboratory of the Perm State Technical University on January 26, 2001.
More details...

Indonesia: Bali Blast Suspect Arrested?
Korean Tempo claims that the Bali bombing was the work of 8 terrorists using two vans
Indonesian authorities refuse to confirm or deny an information reported by Australian media - that a former Air Force officer confessed to preparing the bomb, which killed almost 200 in Bali last Saturday. It's been reported that
More details...

Jimmy Carter Wages Peace, George Bush Wages War
Jimmy Carter was awarded a Nobel Prize
Jimmy Carter can not boast of a successful career as a president. There used to be the opinion that he never realized himself as a president. It seems that he has been more successful after he left the White House. The Nobel Prize this year is one of those achievements. Yet, this prize was basically backdated
More details...

Brazil: Lula Far in Front
30 point lead for PT candidate
Luis Inacio Lula da Silva leads PSDB candidate Jose Serra by 30 percentage points in the latest opinion polls. The second round of the presidential election takes place on 27th October after the first round on October 6th saw Lula gain 46.4% of the vote, while Serra obtained 23.3%.
More details...

Carter Criticises Bush
Nobel Peace Prize-winner attacks Middle East policy
Nobel Peace prize-winner for 2002, ex-US President Jimmy Carter criticised the Middle East policy of George Bush on Monday, accusing the American President of abandoning the peace process by treating Palestinians and Israelis with two weights and two measures.
More details...

Killer Russian Bears Knock Off People with Rock Slides
Bears push rocks down from mountains to kill people
Twenty-four-year-old resident of the city of Perm, Oleg Sadardinov, took his young wife on a honeymoon to the resort city of Sochi. Olegs friend suggested a car ride in the mountains. Driving to the town of Krasnaya Polyana, they suddenly heard a crashing sound. The driver stopped the car, but it was not possible to avoid the falling rocks
More details...

Japan Still Longs for Russian Islands
Japan is ready for anything in return for the four Kurile islands
No one was expecting anything special from Japanese Foreign Minister Yoriko Kawaguchis visit to Moscow. No expert predicted any ground-breaking achievements that could be reached as a result of negotiations. Nothing special happened. Why did Yoriko Kawaguchi come to Moscow then?
More details...

World Food Programme Stretched
28 million at risk of starvation in Africa
The World Food Programme has admitted that it has never had to face so many challenges at the same time and that its resources are being stretched to the limit at a time when there are 28 million people at serious risk of death through starvation in southern Africa.
More details...

Pravda.RU:Best articles on this week:Top Stories

Archaeologists Puzzled: an Alien or Just a Retarded Child

Americans Afraid of the Whole World

Mysterious Ocean Lights and Underwater Aliens

Killer Russian Bears Knock Off People with Rock Slides

America: The World's Worst Enemy

Archeology: Damnation of Crystal Skulls

Before the Flood, There Was No Moon

Exposed: Case Against Iraq a Fraud

Osama bin Laden in Indonesia

Get Rid of the Shameful Musharraf!

Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su
1 2 3 4 5 6
7 8 9 10 11 12 13
14 15 16 17 18 19 20
21 22 23 24 25 26 27
28 29 30 31
Sep/2002 Nov/2002

Add PRAVDA.Ru headlines to your site for free!



Search WWW
Search pravda.ru

Former USSR
Human remains found in Karmadon gorge

UN Secretary General Kofi Annan to arrive in Kazakhstan on official visit

Eurasian dimension of Israel

Shootings to spread to other cities?

Central Bank's gold and currency reserves go down

Severstal comments on US decision concerning rolled steel imports

Norilsk Nickel sees no spot palladium sales in 2002-03

Moscow presses for political and diplomatic settlement of Iraqi crisis

RF Foreign Minister discusses preparation for the upcoming Russia-EU summit in Copenhagen with three high-level EU representatives

Russian Foreign Minister and EU leading three to meet in Moscow

2003 draft budget reflects positive trends in social policy

Russia gives no comment on North Korean nuclear program

Tax Ministry forecasts no leaping fluctuations in prices on oil products

Hot spots
4 people were killed and 10 injured in Grozny terrorist act on Wednesday

President Putin institutes medal "For Contribution to taking the All-Russian census"

Moscow Interested in EU-Russia Summit Success

Regions of Russia
Mi-2 helicopter crashes down in Yaroslavl region, no victims reported

Combat engineers examine Pacific Fleet arsenal near Vladivostok

Russia maintains parity with world's leading countries in cryptography

9th international conference "Woman in the Changing World" is opening in St Petersburg

Integral Space Vehicle Enters Designated Orbit

Milan to Host 5th International Forum "Moscow-Invest-2002"

Moscow Interested in EU-Russia Summit Success

Advertising on Pravda.RU


Computer magazines

Rambler's Top100

Russian America Top.    .


Copyright ©1999 by "Pravda.RU". When reproducing our materials in whole or in part, reference to Pravda.RU should be made.   The opinions and views of the authors do not always coinside with the point of view of PRAVDA.Ru's editors.