The following was forwarded to us from the Arpanet by Dale Amon at CMU:
From: creon@ames-nas.arpa (Creon Levit)
Date: 7 Dec 1985 1642-PST (Saturday)
Subject: Review of Soviet work in quantum nonlocality and SDI super weapons?
STRATEGIC DEFENSE STUDY GROUP
POB 26548, San Francisco, CA 94126
(415)398 6690/362 7779, 12/2/85
Memorandum for the record by J. Sarfatti.
Soviet view of quantum nonlocality and the potential for SDI super weapons.
Reference: Nonlocality in quantum physics. Soviet Physics Usp. 27(4)April 1984
(Usp Fiz Nauk 142 599-617).
by B.I. Spasski & A.V. Moskovskii of M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University.
They say that we must distinguish two meanings of nonlocality. First, that of
microcausality in quantum field theory in which the commutator of second
quantized boson fields vanishes for faster than light space-like separation
between the two field points. The currents of spinor fields also obey
microcausality in conventional local quantum field theory. Violation of this
condition is the first meaning of nonlocality. They write:
"In this sense, one means by nonlocal theories...generalizations of quantum
field theory based on... a nonpoint interaction."
The second sense of nonlocality is then described:
"There are..several quantum phenomena that from a classical point of view can
be interpreted as... nonlocality inherent in quantum objects....the Aharonov-
Bohm effect, the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox, the Hanbury Brown-Twiss
effect, and other phenomena... within the Copenhagen interpretation... until a
particle interacts with some classical object it does not have definite space-
time characteristics, being, as it were, simultaneously in all the regions of
space in which the wave function... is nonvanishing... the Aharonov-Bohm
effect... the behavior of a quantum object can be influenced by the existence
of a field where the probability of finding a particle is zero... the field
acts where it is not... in quantum mechanics the potentials play a role
analogous to that of fields in classical physics ... Either one must give up
the locality principle or recognize that potentials have a physical reality no
less fundamental than the fields. But the second alternative would mean that
it is possible to find a physical difference between states differing only in
gauge... Aharonov and Bohm abandoned the second alternative ... The Aharonov-
Bohm effect could be regarded from the classical point of view as a proof of
action at a distance."
In the modern gauge theory of the unified force the field potentials are
parallel transport connections in the fiber space beyond space-time analogous
to the Christoffel symbols of general relativity within the curved space-time
base space of the bundle. Internal symmetry transformations result from
torsion in the fiber space from lifted holonomic loops in space-time.
Nonvanishing fields are a measure of curvature in the bundle. (Reference:
Classical geometric resolution of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox, Yuval
Ne'eman, Israeli Minister of Science, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., USA Vol80, 7051-
7053,Nov 1983. Ne'eman writes:
"in the geometry of a fiber bundle describing a gauge theory, curvature and
parallel transport ensure and impose nonseparability..")
The Soviet physicists continue:
"A further illustration of the nonlocality of quantum objects is provided by
the interference experiments... by Pfleeger, Mandel, and Magyar. They showed
that overlapping beams of two lasers can give an interference pattern...
although the photon interferes only with itself... the attempt to follow the
flight of the photon ...emitted by the lasers necessarily destroys the
original interference pattern... A quantum system radiates as a single entity
even when its various parts are separated by a macroscopic distance... This
property... can also be demonstrated by the Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect
interference of intensities...Suppose we have two light sources A and B at a
large distance from two photon detectors a and b. The detectors are connected
to a coincidence circuit...the number of coincidences is a periodic function
of R1 - R2, where R1 is the distance between A and a, and R2 is the distance
between B and b. The quantum feature .. is the impossibility of distinguishing
photons which arrive at a from A from photons which arrive at a from B. If the
experiment is arranged in such a way that such a distinction becomes possible,
the effect disappears... The effect appears paradoxical from the point of view
of classical notions, since it means that photons emitted by two independent
sources know the behavior of each other... "
The Soviet discussion of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox makes it
clear that it is the locality assumption of no quantum action at a distance
that makes the paradox in which the Heisenberg uncertainty principle is
violated. They write:
"A ... solution of the EPR paradox was proposed by V.A. Fock and A.D.
Aleksandrov (Moscow, 1956), who put forward the idea of a nonforce interaction
of quantum objects ... another example of such (nonforce) interaction is the
correlation in the behavior of microscopic objects expressed by the Pauli
principle ... another example of a nonforce interaction (is) interference from
two mirrors. The interference pattern, which is determined by the positions of
the mirrors, means that an individual photon feels an effect of the mirrors
that is not associated with transfer of energy and momentum."
The idea of the nonforce interaction is geometrically understood in the fiber
bundle geometry. The traditional force is due to energy- momentum transport in
the base space-time. The nonforce interaction is due to information transfer
in the fiber space beyond space-time. In Aspect's photon pair polarization
correlation experiment, the information transfer does not require energy-
momentum transport. The information transfer violating Bell's locality
inequality is in the fiber space. Quite apart from that, there may also be
faster than light tachyonic and Wickyonic energy-momentum transport in the
base space-time. But these two modes of superluminal interaction, i.e. (
nonforce fiber quantum information transfer, and (force) base space-time
translation energy momentum transport) must be clearly distinguished. Indeed,
the relativistic kinematics of the photon pair may allow the faster than light
collective tachyonic transport of one half the energy difference between the
two photons when moving in opposite directions in 3-space.
In my recent research on Wick rotations of solutions of the Dirac spinor
equation, I note that the slower than light bradyon has timelike world lines
inside the light cone. The bradyon (normal matter and antimatter) obeys
Einstein's 1905 equation E equals mc squared i.e. more precisely:
E = m/(1 - v2)1/2,
where c = 1, v2 means "the square of velocity", and (...)1/2 means "square
root". .
The faster than light tachyon has spacelike world lines outside the light
cone. It obeys:
E'= m/(v2 - 1)1/2 .
Both the bradyon and the tachyon feel the light cone as an impassable
classical barrier. They are classically restricted to opposite sides of the
barrier. In contrast, the Wickyon, discovered in Dirac's theory by me, can
pass right through the light cone as if it were not there. In fact, the
Wickyon loses energy as it accelerates from subluminal to superluminal speed.
The equation for the Wickyon is:
E''= m/(v2 + 1)1/2
I note that Sakharov ( the now dissident Father of the Soviet Nuclear Arsenal)
has also been thinking about the effect of Wick rotations in big bang
cosmology (private communication from Waldyr Rodrigues Jr. Institute
Mathematics, UNICAMP, S.P. Brasil).
If life can persist through a bradyon-Wickyon quantum jump then we can look
forward to a hyperdrive for time travelling Star Ships - contrary to Dr.
Forward's recent report for the U.S. Air Force (AFRPL TR-83-067).
The Soviets say:
"Some authors developed the idea that the violation of locality must be
interpreted in the framework of the Wheeler-Feynman theory of action at a
distance.. In this scheme, the correlations between the readings of the
instruments are explained by ... advanced waves (telegraph from the future)
...relativistic invariance is maintained, but one necessarily reproduces the
difficulties characteristic of a theory of action at a distance, in
particular, the breakdown in the time ordering between cause and effect."
Kurt Godel showed that retroactivity, or backwards causation, poses no
logical problem for physics (Ref. INFINITY AND THE MIND, Rudy Rucker). Sir
Fred Hoyle, FRS in INTELLIGENT UNIVERSE shows that retroactivity is necessary
to understand cosmology and the origin of life. My gedankenexperiments attempt
to pin down the precise nonlocal quantum mechanisms needed to test Hoyle's
revolutionary paradigm. A paradigm anticipated by American scholars such as
Harvard's Henry Dwight Sedgwick eighty years ago. Hoyle's notion of the Loop
in Time has already been treated in literature by Borges in Coleridge's Dream
and in the works of Olaf Stapledon, to name the best. It has been popularized
in films like Escape from the Planet of the Apes and Back to the Future.
Of crucial significance for SDI command control communication is the Soviet
view on the practical use of quantum nonlocal action at a space-time distance
between transmitter and receiver.
"Is a superluminal telegraph possible?
... Stapp writes:...Quantum phenomena provide prima facie evidence that
information gets around in ways that do not conform to classical ideas...
everything we know about nature is in accord with the idea that the
fundamental processes of Nature lie outside space-time... but generate events
that can be located in space-time... none of the arguments we have considered
for the existence of superluminal signals is satisfactory."
The Soviets do not discuss my scheme for a superluminal telegraph which
depends upon extending conventional quantum mechanics to include nonlocal
observables. I have a detailed model which predicts quantum tunneling of one
photon in a pair through the classical barrier of crossed polarizers. The
tunneling probability depends on the relative orientation of a distant
polarizer that interacts with the twin photon. It is as if the distant
polarizer is placed between the crossed polarizers at exactly one half of the
actual relative orientation. One esthetically pleasing feature of this
nonlocal hidden variable model is that it has the structure of the simplest
fiber bundle - the spinor bundle of the Mobius strip. This model allows for
the experimental test of Hoyle's Loop in Time in which a Future Cause
retroactively superdetermines a Past Effect negating ordinary notions of Free
Will in accord with Godel's teleological argument.
It is important to recognize that there are now two experiments that
demonstrate the reality of nonlocality. First, Aspect's Paris experiment
showing violation of Bell's locality inequality over faster than light space-
like intervals between the two detections of the photons in a pair from a
double quantum jump. Second, the retroactive Wheeler "Delayed Choice"
experiment using a Mach Zender interferometer by Hellmuth et-al at the Max
Planck Institute for Quantum Optics in Garching reported in June 1985 at the
EPR conference in Finland. The debate now emerging is whether or not nonlocal
quantum action at a distance can be controlled for communication, space
propulsion, and SDI beam weapons.
Research in this cutting edge of New Physics will have a profound impact on
SDI. For example, untappable unjammable retroactive quantum action at a
distance command control communications and beam weapons.
One may also anticiapte application of the Salam-Weinberg-Glashow electroweak
unification to create a new type of SDI beam weapon to render nuclear weapons
"impotent and obsolete" via stimulated beta decay. The idea is to create a
lasing action in which d-quarks flip to u-quarks causing a neutron to become a
proton. The energy difference is only of the order of 3Mev. We would use the
self-interaction of the flavor-conserving weak part of the photon to induce
weak isospin flips of the d and u quarks via virtual flavor-changing charged W
pairs. This would lead to low energy transmutation of the elements allowing us
to clean up the radioactive wastes from nuclear reactors.