GRAVITATIONAL CONSTANT VARIATION WITH TIME from Chapter 21 Physics
of the Universe, Copywrite (c) 1998 by Gerald Grushow BSEE (Summa Cum Laude)
In Chapter 20 the entire spectrum of coexisting universes was
briefly discussed. In particular the series C= 1, 2, 4, 8 ..... with
Q= 1.0, 0.5, 0.125, 0.0625..... and Mn= 1.0, 0.25, 0.0625, 0.0156....
was for the constant radius, constant energy per universe solution.
In this solution the time from the center of the univeres to its
outer border formed the series Tu=1, 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, 0.0625.....
Thus as the speed of light increases to about 1024C, the
time of the universe is 0.000976 of our time clock. As we head toward
light speed infinity, we get no mass and standing waves of energy
only.
The total mass of the entire universe for the constant radius
solution is:
Mu = Mu (C) = Mu(2C) + Mu(4C) + Mu(8C) +..... (21-1)
Mu = [Mu(C=1)] (1 + 0.5 +0.25 +0.125 +0.0625 +....) (21-2)
Mu[total] = 2 Mu [C=1] (21-3)
Thus the total mass of the entire universe including all the
coexisting higher light speed universes equals twice our mass.
In calculating the oscillation of the universe from a
mechanical perspective one must double our mass to see the oscillation.
The entire universe can be described electrically or mechanically.
Since:
MnC = [(16 pi e)/ 137] pi Q (21-4)
where Mn is the mass of the neutron in Coulomb seconds per meter,
the entire universe can be described in MCS units, meters coulombs
and seconds or MKS units, meters kilograms and seconds. Thus the
oscillation of the universe should be able to be seen by physicists
and astronomers in addition to electrical engineers who see it
readily by the electrical equations of gravity.
Thus in this Chapter let us look at the variation of the
gravitation constant with time. The present universe oscillates as
an exponential sinusoid with the following equation:
Ru = Ruo e^ (t/To) sin (wt + a) (21-5)
Where Ru is the radius of the universe, Ruo is the radius of the
univere at time equal to 0, and To is the time of the universe. To
has been normalized to a numeric value of:
4 pi To Q = 1* (coulomb meters) (21-6)
Equation 21-6 is a normalization equation which states that the product
of time and charge or coulomb meters is a constant of the universe.
Thus the time clock can be set or normalized in terms of this equation.
This produces a time of universe of 15.74 billion years. This is
in agreement with astronomical dats. The normalization accuracy does
not make too much difference because since the universe follows an
e^x function, the basic equations of the universe remain the same no
matter where you start. However when you want to calculate the exact
cycle time of the universe in terms of your normalized To, the
non linerities due to the hysteresis loop of the universe demand a
greater accuracy. However, from all the calculations over the years,
the 15.74 billion years does produce excellent results.
We see in equation 21-6 that the charge Q drops with time. Thus
the universe loses DC electrical energy as time goes by. The AC charge Q*
which is part of Q has the formula:
Q* = (9.026E-19) Q (21-7)
As shown previously, the RMS (root mean square) value of Q*
is 9.026E-19 times as much as Q. Thus it is very small but is responsible
for the mechanical world. This oscillation about Q comes with a phase
angle for each galaxy producing a net zero effect for the total
gravitational field of the universe. Thus some galaxies attract while
others repel and the total sum is zero. For our galaxy we have a
reference angle of zero degrees. Thus what happens to our galaxy with
time is the primary importance.
The electrical equivalent circuit for the universe is shown
below:
+ -
+ +Vd + - -Vd -
. .
..................................
+ .
. -
Virtual Ground
The diagram shows a dot of voltage Vd in the center of the universe
surrounded by a sphere of + charges at the outer shell of the universe.
It also shows a second dot of voltage -Vd in the center of the universe
surrounded by a shell of (-) charges at the outer shell of the universe.
The voltages are:
Vd = KQ/Ru (21-8)
We see in equation 21-8 that the dot voltage depends upon the radius
of the universe. At the beginning of the book the number of dots per
neutron was calculated assuming that the universe was some sort of
closed space time entity. For the most part all the equations of the
universe fit a perfect sphere. So it appears that the 4 pi term which
was added to the original equations may or may not be correct depending
upon whether the perfect sphere we live in is an actual perfect
sphere or an Einsteinian perfect sphere. Thus the number of dots per
neutron and per universe varies by the 4 pi factor. This does not
change the equations for the electron, proton, etc. It merely changes
the quantization of the energy levels used by a factor of 4 pi.
Let us now calculate the number of dots in the neutron by this
model. The neutron has an energy level of:
Energy Neutron = 939.5 MEV (21-9)
The energy per dot is KQ/Ru. Since K = 8.987E9, Q=1.602E-19,
and Ru = 1.4892E26, we get:
Energy per dot = 9.6677E-36 electron volts (21-10)
Dividing equation 21-9 by equation 21-10 we get:
Nn= 9.719E43 dots per neutron (simple universe) (21-11)
Equation 21-11 shows 9.719E43 dots per neutron for a simple
universe or radius Ru. For an Einstianian space time universe
the quantization factor would be 4 pi times as much.
Thus:
Nn = 1.2211E45 dots per neutron(Einsteinian Universe) (21-12)
This book used an Einsteinian solution at the beginning and
the 4 pi factor was inserted in varius places to correct ordinary
relationships to space time relationships. However, things were
always normalized back to our measurements. Thus all the equations
represent what we see and observe from a simple spherical universe.
Let us now look at the model and observe that DC dot current
flow comes from the outer shell of the universe toward the dot
traveling a distance of Ru, the radius of the universe and then
flows to a negative dot which is nearby and then flows outward from
the negative dot to the radius of the universe. A virtual ground plane
exists between the plus dots and the minus dots. This plane is part
of the space time hysteresis loop of the universe. If we look at
the outer shell of the universe, we will also find a virtual ground.
Thus halfway between positive and negative, a ground plane
exists.This is true for all the universes. Thus all universes match
at the outer sphere of the universe and everwhere at submicroscopic
distances. Thus beyond what we can see and measure lies the junction
between all the universes.
If you look at a lump of matter, you will see dot current
flow outward toward the radius of the universe and inward toward the
lump of matter. The total dot current flow outside the matter as
compared to another lump of matter is basically zero. In general in
the universe all the plus and minus dots when equally spaced attract
and all the dot currents for an equal distribution of dots repel. Thus
there always is a balance of force between the magnetic and the
electrostatic fields. When the universe expands the electromagnetic
field is slightly larger. When it contracts, the electrostatic field
is slightly larger. Thus their is a hysteresis loop of electromagnetic
and electrostatic fields which cause the universe to oscillate from
Min to max.
The two metal spheres on the table attract due to Q*. This
is merely a small synchronized oscillation of the charge Q. Both
the plus dot and the minus dot have in phase AC oscillations. This
causes mass, and inertia, etc.
As the universe expands the charge drops. Both the DC and
AC charges drop. However, the drop in the DC charge Q is at a faster
rate than the drop in the AC charge Q*. The result is that gravitational
constant has a nonlinearity above and beyond its normal e^2x variation.
As shown previously, the grav constant goes up with the square of the
radius of the universe while the mass decreases as inverse of the
radius of the universe.However the force remains constant so this does
not cause the universe to stop from expanding forever.
The increase of Q*/Q causes the AC forces to increase relative
to the DC forces. In effect gravity increases but the binding forces
of the atoms decrease, thus as time goes by the universe disintegrates
into dots with high AC fields. The neutrons explode and the entire
universe is reduced to dots again.
As we move upward to the higher light speed universes, we see
that they are not as effected as we are. As we go toward infinite
light speed, there are no neutrons so the oscillation of the universe
is not effected. As we move upward to the highest light speed material
universes we find that they will not be affected by the destruction of
our universe. We are the lowest level of existence in the total universe
and we will come into existence and be destroyed eventually.
Yet man can move from one level of existence to another. However
that depends upon the power at the highest light speed universe.gg