CYCLE TIME OF THE UNIVERSE- Chapter 31 Physics of the Universe
Copyright (c) 1998 by Gerald Grushow BSEE
In chapter 30 we calculated the minimum and maximum light speed
as the universe cycles between a minimum radius and a maximum radius
as it follows an e^x function. In general there are two simple solutions
for the function (x). One is that X = f(t) such that:
X = (t/ To) pi (31-1)
Y = e^ [(t/To) pi] where -To < t < To (31-2)
In equation 31-2 we see that the universe cycles from e^-pi
to e^+pi. It takes the time To to swing from between min and center.
It takes another time To to swing from center to max. Then it takes
another time To to return to the center and finally it takes a final
To to swing back to the minimum radius. The total cycle time is:
Cycle time of Universe = 4 To (31-3)
Since:
4 pi To Q = 1* (coulomb seconds) (31-4)
The time of the universe since minimum is:
To = 15.74 billion years. (31-5)
This time is a normalized time. It is the slope of the e^x
function at the point where (x=0). It has been made to match
astronomical data in the order of fifteen billion years. The entire
book uses this normalized equation. The equation states that the
time of the universe times the charge is a constant in coulomb seconds.
Thus coulomb seconds is a standard non varying term similar to Plank's
constant which is in coulomb meters. Thus coulomb seconds and
coulomb meters are both constants of the universe.
The total cycle time of the universe is 4 To. Thus:
Cycle time = 62.96 billion years. (31-6)
In this solution, the universe will expand from the minimum
radius for 31.48 billion years. Then it will hit a boundary condition
caused by the light speed hysteresis loop of the previous chapter.
The result will be a little bang when the protons are destroyed. There
energy level is very low, so it is a little bang. The universe will
then compress its light energy until the point where neutrons are
precipitated.. This is at maximum light speed. The precipitation of
neutrons all over the universe then creates protons and electrons and
antiprotons and antielectrons. Since the energy levels are much higher,
this condition could be called the big bang.
Thus the universe cycles from big bang to little bang forever
as the light speed hysteresis loop crosses the operating path of the
e^x function.
A second solution involves a more gentle solution. This is the
exponential sinusoid solution. In this solution, the universe oscillates
as per the L/C oscillator in chapter 12. Let us look at the inductive/
capacitive oscillator again from additional insights.
The capacitance of a dot is the electrical permitivity times
the area divided by the distance. The area is that of a dot surrounded
by a sphere of radius Ru.Thus:
Cdot = (Eo)A/L = (Eo)(4 pi Ru^2)/Ru = (Eo)4 pi Ru (13-7)
Ldot= UoA/L= Uo 4 pi Ru (13-8)
In equation 13-8 we see that the inductance of a dot with dot
current extending to the radius of the universe has the same
solution as the capacitance except Uo is substituted for [Eo].
The frequency of this L/C circuit is:
fdot = 1/ [Ld Cd]^0.5 (13-9)
The dot period is:
Dot period = 4 pi [(Eo Uo)^0.5]Ru (13-10)
Therefore:
Dot period= 4 pi Ru/C = 4 pi Tu (13-11)
Since Tu = To
Dot period= 4 pi To (13-12)
This calculates to be:
Dot period = 197.79 billion years (13-13)
Thus the cycle time of the universe for an exponential sinusoidal
solution is 197.8 billion years. This is twice the cycle time for the
simple solution. This solution still operates on the light speed
hysteresis loop but it is a more gentle solution.The minimum radius
will be achieved and neutrons will be precipitated but there will not
be as much radiation as with the e^x solution alone.
It should be noted that since:
4 pi Q Tu = 1* (coulomb seconds) (13-14)
that charge is the entity coulomb seconds per second.
Charge = (coulomb seconds) per second. (13-15)
Likewise:
Time = (coulomb seconds) per coulomb (13-16)
From equation 13-4 we see that charge is a frequency in a world
of coulomb seconds. Thus the charge Q is an oscillation. This oscillation
slows down and current flows out. Thus the charge decreases as time
increases.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
From: Jerry Grushow
Newsgroups: alt.sci.physics.new-theories,alt.sci.physics,sci.astro,sci.physics.particle,sci.physics.electromag
Subject: Dot AC Voltage Calculation
Date: Sun, 18 Jan 1998 10:07:01 -0500
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THE DOT AC VOLTAGE CALCULATION- Chapter 32 Physics of the Universe
Copyright (c) 1998 by Gerald Grushow B.S.E.E. (Summa Cum Laude)
Let us look at the magnetic field.It has always been a puzzle to
people what this field is composed of.We have rules and regulations
governing the field such as a voltage is produced when the field is changed.
We see when we put iron filings on a flat surface near over a
magnetic field, that the iron filings take the shape of lines of fields
moving from the north pole of the magnet to the south pole in non linear
curves. Thus indirectly we see the shape of the field lines.
The dots of our existence are focal points of the electromagnetic
field. If you rip apart a dot, you will find nothing there. If you
magnify the dot with a supernatural microscope, you will still find
nothing.The dot does have characteristics though. It always travels at
the speed of light. It always has momentum of Md C. It always has
energy of Md C^2. It always has an ac oscillation as well. The charge
of a dot has not been calculated yet. At that is know at the present
is that it takes a certain number of dots to make up the charge Q.
There are many charge Q's within the proton. Thus the charge Q is a
geometric structure of many dots and subparticles p*. The dot equations
are as follows:
Voltage dot = KQ/ Ru (32-1)
Equation 32-1 is a repeat of equation 4-1 from Chapter 4. The dot
voltage is equal to the electric constant K times the charge Q divided
by the radius of the universe Ru. That means the universe acts like
a perfect sphere of radius Ru with a charge Q upon the surface of that
sphere. Thus everywhere in the universe we see the dot voltage as
shown in equation 32-1. The same is true if you consider an
Einsteinian curved space time universe. The advantage of an Einsteinian
curved space time universe is that it will produce an equal dot voltage
everywhere. The formula remains the same as a simple sphere. Thus youy
can look at the universe from an Einsteinian point of view or a classical
point of view with us near the center of the universe. The results will
be the same. All I know is that the universe is a perfect sphere. It
could be a simple perfect sphere or an Einsteinian perfect sphere. For
the purposes of the solution to the universe it is much simplier to look
at the universe as a simple perfect sphere.
The dot voltage shows that the voltage at the sphere of the
universe is very large. It must be as large as the voltage of the
proton. Thus:
V (shell of universe) = KQ/R(proton) (32-1)
Since the radius of the proton is identical with its deBroglie
wavelength, the voltage of the proton and the outer shell of the universe
can be calculated readily. Since K=8.987E9, Q=1.602E-19, and R(proton)
equals 1.321E-15, we calculate the voltage as follows.
Voltage (shell) = 1,089,869 volts (32-2)
Voltage proton = 1,089,869 volts (32-3)
The proton voltage is such that once you enter the proton
radius you are charged at a little over one million volts. The dot
voltage equals:
Vdot = KQ/Ru = 9.57274E-36 (32-4)
Where the radius of the universe is 1.4892E26.
The proton voltage is equal to the sum of the voltage of the
plus dots minus the sum of the voltage of the minus dots.
Voltage (proton) = ( Number of Excess Plus dots). Vd (32-5)
From this we can calculate the number of excess dots
which make up the single charge Q.
Number excess plus dots = Vproton/ Vdot (32-6)
Number of dots for charge Q = 1.13852 E41 dots. (32-7)
The number of dots in the neutron is:
Dots neutron = 1.2211 E45 (32-8)
The number of charges of plus and minus Q within the neutron is:
Number of charges= Dots Neutron/Dots per charge Q (32-9)
Number of charges per neutron = 1.07253E4 (32-10)
Thus there are a little over ten thousand individual charges
per neutron. This assumes that the proton voltage remains perfectly
flat after the Radius Rproton. It may very well be that we have
to reach into the root mean square radius of the proton which is
0.7071 to get the exact proton voltage. However at this first cut
of the number of dots per charge, the above calculations are
satisfactory.
The number of charges per electron is equal to the neutron
amount of charges divided by the ratio of the masses. Thus:
Number of charges per electron = 5.832 (32-11)
Since this is not a whole number and not an odd number, the above
calculations need more effort. There will be some additional dots
as photon energy within the electron. These will be balanced charges.
It may very well be possible that the electron has 5 individual charges
within it. Likewise the charges could group into smaller packages than
the charge Q. In atomic theory people are evidently seeing smaller
packages of charge than the charge Q.
The dot theory is not effected by new discoveries since the
dots are perfectly capable of forming an infinity of things of an
assortment of charges. The dot voltage is so small and there are so
many dots per neutron that the world of subparticles produced by the
dots is can approach infinity. This is especially true when we consider
all the coexisting universes.
The AC dot voltage is responsible for the mass of the electron
and the proton, etc. The AC dot voltage is due to the oscillations of
the outer shell of the universe. These oscillations cause the dots to
oscillate. They come with an RMS value and a phase angle.The total AC dot
voltage RMS value for the neutron is calculated by:
KQ*Q* = G MnMn (32-12)
Thus
Q* = [GMnMn/K]^0.5 (32-13)
Since G=6.672E-11, Mn=1.675E-27, K=8.987E9 we get:
Q* (RMS) = 1.4505E-37 coulombs (32-14)
The ratio of the charge Q to the charge Q* is:
Q/Q* = 1.1044E18 (32-15)
Q*/Q = 9.0542 E-19 (32-16)
Thus the RMS value of the AC dot voltage is approximately 1E18
times less than the DC dot voltage. This is the primary oscillation
of the outer shell. For an infinite series of coexisting universes,
there will be an infinite series of oscillations of the outer shell.
Thus our gravitational field is merely one frequency out of an
infinite series of frequencies. We act like frequency filters. We
filter out all the other universes while only seeing our gravitational
frequency.
The AC voltage within the neutron which produces the mass
is equal to the number of dots times the AC dot voltage. They do
not subtract from each other, however the basic frequency of the
dots are in constant motion. Just look at the proton with billions
of dots all in motion. This produces fantastic DC fields in motion
which are AC fields. Much is in standing waves. But the proton
has AC voltages from the DC dots. In addition it has AC voltages
from the AC charge of the DC dots. And the AC charges are in
motion producing an infinity of harmonics of the dots. And everywhere
the phases angles are changine. Thus the neutron has a very complex
spectrum of moving DC and AC charges. That is why the RMS value has
the only meaning.
This complex problem is solved using describing functions which
concentrate on the fundamental frequencies. The reader should understand
that the world we see is an extremely complex Fourier series. Thus
mankind writes equations to describe the most likely solution to things.
The harmonics may play key roles in many things but first we have to
have first order approximations to the way things are. Another possibility
for the charge Q is an infinite series of odd harmonics which lock
together. It is easier to conentrate on the dots or the P* subparticle
to see how the universe works:
The total AC voltage of the proton assuming all dots are in
phase at the same time can be calculated as follows:
Vd* = KQ*/Ru = (9.0542E-19)KQ/Ru (32-17)
Vd* = 8.7533E-54 (32-18)
Assuming that all the voltages within the neutron are in phase,
the total AC RMS value of the neutron voltage is:
AC voltage (Neutron) = Nd . Vd =1.06886E-8 (32-19)
In equation 32-19 we took the number of dots in the neutron
as 1.2211E45 and multiplied by the AC RMS voltage per dot in
equation 32-18. We see that the AC neutron voltage is about
10 nanovolts. Thus we live in a world where there is a common mode
10 nanovolt gravitational field. This assumes full synchronization
of all the AC dot voltages. It is always possible that structures
of the AC fields nullify and that we get less than 10 nanovolts.
Yet, the RMS value of the mess should be the same although each
harmonic may be smaller. This requires further thought.
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Ë6From: Jerry Grushow
Newsgroups: alt.sci.physics.new-theories,alt.sci.physics,sci.astro,sci.physics.particle,sci.physics.electromag
Subject: DOT DC CHARGE CALCULATION
Date: Sun, 18 Jan 1998 11:52:05 -0500
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THE DOT DC CHARGE CALCULATION- Chapter 33 Physics of the Universe
Copyright (c) 1998 by Gerald Grushow BSEE
In Chapter 32 we calculated the number of dots for a charge Q as:
(Number of dots for charge Q) = 1.13852E41 dots (33-1)
Therefore the charge per dot is:
Charge per dot = (1.602E-19)/ 1.13852E41 = 1.4071E-60 (33-2)
Thus there are 1.4071E-60 coulombs per single dot. The number of
dots in the neutron is 1.2211E45 and the total AC RMS value of
the total AC charge Q* equals 9.0542E-19 coulombs as shown in
Chapter 32. Thus the AC charge per dot is:
AC Charge per dot= (9.0542E-19)/1.2211E45 = 7.4048E-64 (33-3)
The ratio of the DC charge per dot and the AC charge per dot is:
Ratio DC to AC = 1900.25 (33-4)
We see that the ratio of the DC charge per dot to the AC charge
per dot is of the same value as the ratio of the masses of the
proton to the electron. With some more exact calculations, they
may very well be identical. This calculation is new to the Author
as per this writing.It is true that the radius of the RMS value
of the proton radius should be used instead of the radius. The
DC and the AC values may be different. In addition there was some
surplus energy in the electron which will cause some error.
Let us continue to look at the characteristics of the dots. We
see that each dot has both a DC charge and an AC charge. We see that
the dot has momentum and energy. The dot has no inertia. The reason
for this is that inertia depends upon a group of dots inducing
voltages within themselves.Since the dot cannot induce voltage within
itself, the dot has no inertia.
Dot Inertia = Zero (33-5)
Although we can write the mass of a dot as:
Mdot= KQQ/(4 piRu C C) (33-6)
In truth, the mass of a dot is zero.
Mdot = 0 (33-7)
Equation 33-6 is the mass for a collection of dots. Each dot has
no mass. Thus each dot is one small quanta of light energy. Thus
the electron and the proton and the neutron is composed of light
energy.
The energy of the dot is:
Edot = KQQ/ 4 pi Ru (33-8)
In equation 33-8 we see that the dot does contain energy. Thus
the dot is light with both energy and momentum but not mass.
Dot = smallest quanta of light enerty (33-9)
THE DOT THEORY THUS PROVES THAT THE ENTIRE UNIVERSE IS MADE UP
OF LIGHT ENERGY.