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A.D. 881



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1-5. (The same as on p. 2.)

6. Abbreviations used are:--Av. for Avesta. Bund. for Bundahis, as translated in this volume. B. Yt. for Bahman Yast, as translated in this volume. Haug's Essays, for Essays on the Sacred Language, Writings, and Religion of, the Parsis, by Martin Haug, 2nd edition. Mkh. for Mainyô-i-khard, ed. West. Pers. for Persian. Vend. for Vendîdâd, ed. Spiegel. Yas. for Yasna, ed. Spiegel. Yt. for Yast, ed. Westergaard.

7. The MS. mentioned in the notes is K3. (written probably A.D. 1572), No. 35 in the University Library at Kopenhagen.

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THEY call these memoranda and writings the Selections (kîdakîhâ) of Zâd-sparam, son of Yûdân-Yim.


0. In propitiation of the creator Aûharmazd and all the angels--who are the whole of the heavenly and earthly sacred beings (yazdân)--are the sayings of Herbad Zâd-sparam, son of Yûdân-Yim, who is of the south[1], about the meeting of the beneficent spirit and the evil spirit.

1. It is in scripture thus declared, that light was above and darkness below, and between those two was open space. 2. Aûharmazd was in the light, and Aharman in the darkness[2]; Aûharmazd was aware of the existence of Aharman and of his coming for strife; Aharman was not aware of the existence of light and of Aûharmazd[3]. 3. It happened to Aharman, in the gloom and darkness, that

[1. Zâd-sparam appears to have been dastûr of Sîrkân, about thirty parasangs south of Kirmân, and one of the most southern districts in Persia (see Ouseley's Oriental Geography, pp. 138, 139, 141, 143-145).

2. See Bund. I, 2-4.

3. Or 'of the light of Aûharmazd' (compare Bund. I, 8, 9).]

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he was walking humbly (frô-tanû) on the borders, and meditating other things he came up to the top, and a ray of light was seen by him; and because of its antagonistic nature to him he strove that he might reach it, so that it might also be within his absolute power. 4. And as he came forth to the boundary, accompanied by certain others[1], Aûharmazd came forth to the struggle for keeping Aharman away from His territory; and He did it through pure words, confounding witchcraft, and cast him back to the gloom.

5. For protection from the fiend (drûg,) the spirits rushed in, the spirits of the sky, water, earth, plants, animals, mankind, and fire He had appointed, and they maintained it (the protection) three thousand years. 6. Aharman, also, ever collected means in the gloom; and at the end of the three thousand years he, came back to the boundary, blustered (patîstâd), and exclaimed thus: 'I will smite thee, I will smite the creatures which thou thinkest have produced fame for thee--thee who art the beneficent spirit--I will destroy everything about them.'

7. Aûharmazd answered thus: 'Thou art not a doer of everything, O fiend[2]!'

8. And, again, Aharman retorted thus: 'I will seduce all material life into disaffection to thee and affection to myself[3].'

9. Aûharmazd perceived, through the spirit of wisdom, thus: 'Even the blustering of Aharman is capable of performance, if I do not allow disunion

[1. Reading pavan katârânö ham-tanû, but the phrase is somewhat doubtful, and rather inconsistent with Bund. I, 10.

2. Bund. I, 0.

3. Bund. I, 14.]

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(lâ barînînam) during a period of struggle.' 10. And he demanded of him a period for friendship[1], for it was seen by him that Aharman does not rely upon the intervention of any vigorous ones, and the existence of a period is obtaining the benefit of the mutual friendship and just arrangement of both; and he formed it into three periods, each period being three millenniums. 11. Aharman relied upon it, and Aûharmazd perceived that, though it is not possible to have Aharman sent down, ever when he wants he goes back to his own requisite, which is darkness; and from the poison which is much diffused endless strife arises[2].

12. And after the period was appointed by him, he brought forward the Ahûnavar formula[3]; and in his Ahûnavar these[4] kinds of benefit were shown:--13. The first is that, of all things, that is proper which is something declared as the will of Aûharmazd; so that, whereas that is proper which is declared the will of Aûharmazd, where anything exists which is not within the will of Aûharmazd, it is created injurious from the beginning, a sin of a distinct nature. 14. The second is this, that whoever shall do that which is the will of Aûharmazd, his reward and recompense are his own; and of him who shall not do that which is the will of Aûharmazd, the punishment at the bridge,[5] owing thereto

[1. Bund. I, 17, 18.

2. Or 'the poison of the serpent, which is much diffused, becomes endless strife.'

3. Bund. I, 21.

4. The word ân, 'those,' however, is probably a miswriting of the cipher for 'three.'

5. The Kînvad or Kînvar bridge (see Bund. XII, 7).]

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is his own; which is shown from this[1] formula; and the reward of doers of good works, the punishment of sinners, and the tales of heaven and hell are from it. 15. Thirdly, it is shown that the sovereignty of Aûharmazd increases that which is for the poor, and adversity is removed; by which it is shown that there are treasures for the needy one, and treasures are to be his friends; as the intelligent creations are to the unintelligent, so also are the treasures of a wealthy person to a needy one, treasures liberally given which are his own. 16. And the creatures of the trained hand of Aûharmazd are contending and angry (ârdîk), one with the other, as the renovation of the universe must occur through these three things. 17. That is, first, true religiousness in one self, and reliance upon a man's original hold on the truly glad tidings (nav-barhâm), that Aûharmazd is all goodness without vileness, and his will is a will altogether excellent; and Aharman is all vileness without goodness. 18. Secondly, hope of the reward and recompense of good works, serious fear of the bridge and the punishment of crime, strenuous perseverance in good works, and abstaining from sin. 19. Thirdly, the existence of the mutual assistance of the creatures, or along with and owing to mutual assistance, their collective warfare; it is the triumph of warfare over the enemy which is one's own renovation[2].

[1. The MS. has hûman, 'well-meditating,' instead of denman, 'this;' but the two words are much alike in Pahlavi writing.

2. This commentary on the Ahûnavar, or Yathâ-ahû-vairyô formula, is rather clumsily interpolated by Zâd-sparam, and is much more elaborate than the usual Pahlavi translation and explanation of this formula, which may be translated as follows:--{footnote p. 159}

'As is the will of the living spirit (as is the will of Aûharmazd) so should be the pastor (so excellent should he be) owing to whatsoever are the duties and good works of righteousness (the duties and good works should be as excellent as the will of Aûharmazd). Whose is the gift of good thought (that is, the reward and recompense good thought gives, it gives also unto him) which among living spirits is the work of Aûharmazd (that is, they would do that which Aûharmazd requires); there are some who say it is thus: Whose gift is through good thought (that is, the reward and recompense which they will give to good thought, they would give also unto him); Atarô-pâd son of Zaratûst said that by the gift of good thought, when among living spirits, they comprehend the doing of deeds. The sovereignty is for Aûharmazd (that is, the sovereignty which is his, Aûharmazd has kept with advantage). who gives necessaries [or comfort, or clothing] to the poor (that is, they would make intercession for them).'

Additional phrases are sometimes inserted, and some words altered, but the above is the usual form of this commentary.]

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20. By this formula he (Aharman) was confounded, and he fell back to the gloom[1]; and Aûharmazd produced the creatures bodily for the world; first, the sky; the second, water; the third, earth; the fourth, plants; the fifth, animals; the sixth, mankind[2]. 21. Fire was in all, diffused originally through the six substances, of which it was as much the confiner of each single substance in which it was established, it is said, as an eyelid when they lay one down upon the other.

22. Three thousand years the creatures were possessed of bodies and not walking on their navels; and the sun, moon, and stars stood still. 23. In the mischievous incursion, at the end of the period, Aûharmazd observed thus: 'What advantage is there from the creation of a creature, although thirstless, which is unmoving or mischievous?'

[1. Bund. I, 22.

2. Bund. I, 28.]

{p. 160} 24. And in aid of the celestial sphere he produced the creature Time (zôrvan)[1]; and Time is unrestricted, so that he made the creatures of Aûharmazd moving, distinct from the motion of Aharman's creatures, for the shedders of perfume (bôi-dâdân) were standing one opposite to the other while emitting it. 25. And, observantly of the end, he brought forward to Aharman a means out of himself, the property of darkness, with which the extreme limits (vîrûnakö) of Time were connected by him, an envelope (pôstô) of the black-pated and ash-coloured kind. 26. And in bringing it forward he spoke thus: 'Through their weapons the co-operation of the serpent (azö) dies away, and this which is thine, indeed thy own daughter, dies through religion; and if at the end of nine thousand years, as it is said and written, is a time of upheaval (madam kardanö), she is upheaved, not ended.'

27. At the same time Aharman came from accompanying Time out to the front, out to the star station; the connection of the sky with the star station was open, which showed, since it hung down into empty space, the strong communication of the lights and glooms, the place of strife in which is the pursuit of both. 28. And having darkness with himself he brought it into the sky, and left the sky so to gloom that the internal deficiency in the sky extends as much as one-third[2] over the star station.

[1. This is the Av. zrvâna akarana, 'boundless time or antiquity,' of Vend. XIX, 33, 44. He is a personification of duration and age, and is here distinctly stated to be a creature of Aûharmazd. This throws some doubt upon the statements of Armenian writers, who assert that the two spirits sprang from Zrvâna.

2. Compare Bund. III, 11.]

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On the coming in of Aharman to the creatures it is thus declared in revelation, that in the month Fravardîn and the day Aûharmazd, at noon[1], he came forth to the frontier of the sky. 2. The sky sees him and, on account of his nature, fears as much as a sheep trembles at a wolf; and Aharman came on, scorching and burning into it. 3. Then he came to the water which was arranged below the earth[2], and darkness without an eyelid was brought on by him; and he came on, through the middle of the earth, as a snake all-leaping comes on out of a hole; and he stayed within the whole earth. 4. The passage where he came on is his own, the way to hell, through which the demons make the wicked run.

5. Afterwards, he came to a tree, such as was of a single root, the height of which was several feet, and it was without branches and without bark, juicy and sweet; and to keep the strength of. all kinds of trees in its race, it was in the vicinity of the-middle of the earth; and at the self-same time it became quite withered[3].

6. Afterwards, he came to the ox, the sole-created[4], as it stood as high as Gâyômard on the

[1. Bund. III, 12.

2. Bund. III, 13.

3. Bund. III, 14, 16.

4. The primeval ox, or first-created representative of animals, as Gâyômard was of mankind; from which two representatives all mankind and animals are said to have been afterwards developed. There seems to have been some doubt as to the sex of this mythological ox; here it is distinctly stated to have been a female, but from Bund. X, 1, 2, XIV, 3, it would appear to have been a male, and this seems to be admitted by Dâd-sparam himself, in Chap. IX, 7.]

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bank of the water of Dâîtih[1] in the middle of the earth; and its distance from Gâyômard being as much as its own height, it was also distant from the bank of the water of Dâîtih by the same measure; and it was a female, white and brilliant as the moon. 7. As the adversary came upon it Aûharmazd gave it a narcotic, which is also called 'bang,' to eat, and to rub the 'bang' before the eye[2], so that the annoyance from the assault of crimes may be less; it became lean and ill, and fell upon its right breast[3] trembling.

8. Before the advance to Gâyômard, who was then about one-third the height of Zaratûst, and was brilliant as the sun; Aûharmazd forms, from the sweat[4] on the man, a figure of fifteen years, radiant and tall, and sends it on to Gâyômard; and, he also brings his sweat[5] on to him as long as one Yathâ-ahû-vairyô[6] is being recited. 9. When he issued from the sweat, and raised his eyes, he saw. the world when it was dark as night[7]; on the whole earth were the snake, the scorpion, the lizard (vazak), and noxious creatures of many kinds; and so the other kinds of quadrupeds stood among the

[1. The Dâîtîk river (see Bund. XX, 13).

2. This is a misunderstanding of the corresponding phrase in Bund. III, 18. The narcotic here mentioned is usually prepared from the hemp plant, and is well known in India and the neighbouring countries.

3. See Bund. IV, i.

4. The word which, as it stands in the MS., looks like hômanâe, is here taken as a transposition of min khvâe, in accordance with Bund. III, 19; but it may be a variant of anumâe, 'embryo,' in which case the translation should be, 'forms an embryo into the shape of a man of fifteen years.'

5. Or it may be 'sleep,' both here and in 9.

6. See Bund. I, 21.

7. Bund. III, 20.]

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reptiles; every approach of the whole earth was as though not as much as a needle's point remained, in which there was no rush of noxious creatures. 10. There were the coming of a planetary star into planetary conjunction, and the moon and planets at sixes and sevens[1]; many dark forms with the face and curls of Az-i Dahâk suffered punishment in company with certain non-Iranians; and he was amazed at calling the wicked out from the righteous.

11. Lastly, he (Aharman) came up to the fire, and mingled darkness and smoke with it[2].


1. And Gôsûrvan, as she was herself the soul of the primeval ox, when the ox passed away, came out from the ox, even as the soul from the body of the dead, and kept up the clamour of a cry to Aûharmazd in such fashion as that of an army, a thousand strong, when they cry out together[3]. 2. And Aûharmazd, in order to be much more able to keep watch over the mingled creatures than in front of Gâyômard, went from the earth up to the sky. 3. And Gôsûrvan continually went after him crying, and she kept up the cry thus: 'With whom may the guardianship over the creatures be left by thee?'


1. This was the highest predominance of Aharman, for he came on, with all the strength which he

[1. Literally, 'in fours and fives.'

2. Bund. III, 24.

3 Bund. IV, 2.]

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had, for the disfigurement of the creatures; and he took as much as one-third of the base of the sky[1], in a downward direction, into a confined and captive state, so that it was all dark and apart from the light, for it was itself, at the coming of the adversary, his enemy among the struggles for creation. 2. And this is opposing the renovation of the universe, for the greatest of all the other means of the fiend, when he has come in, are of like origin and strength this day, in the sleep[2] of the renovation, as on that when the enemy, who is fettered on coming in, is kept back.

3. Amid all this struggling were mingled the instigations of Aharman, crying thus: 'My victory has come completely, for the sky is split and disfigured by me with gloom and darkness, and taken by me as a stronghold; water is disfigured by me, and the earth, injured by darkness, is pierced by me; vegetation is withered by me, the ox is put to death by me, Gâyômard is made ill by me, and opposed to those revolving[3] are the glooms and planets arranged by me; no one has remained for me to take and pervert in combat except Aûharmazd, and of the earth there is only one man, who is alone, what is he able to do?'

4. And he sends Astô-vîdâd[4] upon him with the thousand decrepitudes (aûzvârânö) and diseases

[1. Compare Bund. III, 11. The involved style of Zâd-sparam is particularly conspicuous in this chapter.

2. The word seems to be khvâpisnö.

3. Meaning probably the zodiacal signs, but the word is doubtful, being spelt vardisnânö instead of vardisnânö. A very small alteration would change it into varôîsnânö, 'believers,' but there were no earthly believers at the time alluded to.

4. See Bund. III, 21, and XXVIII, 35.]

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which are his own, sicknesses of various kinds, so that they may make him ill and cause death. 5. Gâyômard was not secured by them, and the reason was because it was a decree of appointing Time (zôrvânö) in the beginning of the coming in of Aharman, that: 'Up to thirty winters I appoint Gâyômard unto brilliance and preservation of life.' 6. And his manifestation in the celestial sphere was through the forgiveness of criminals and instigators of confusion by his good works, and for that reason no opportunity was obtained by them during the extent of thirty years.

7. For in the beginning it was so appointed that the star Jupiter (Aûharmazd) was life towards the creatures, not through its own nature, but on account of its being within the control (band) of the luminaries[1]; and Saturn (Kêvân) was death towards the creatures. 8. Both were in their supremacy (bâlîst)[2] at the beginning of the creatures,

[1. These luminaries are the fixed stars, especially the signs of the zodiac, to whose protection the good creation is committed (see Bund. II, 0-4); whereas Jupiter and all other planets are supposed to be, by nature, disturbers of the creation, being employed by Aharman for that purpose (see Mkh. VIII, 17-21, XII, 7-10, XXIV, 8, XXXIII, 5).

2. The most obvious meaning of bâlîst is 'greatest altitude,' and this is quite applicable to Jupiter when it attains its highest northern declination on entering Cancer, but it is not applicable to Saturn in Libra, when it has only its mean altitude. At the vernal equinox, however, which was the time of the beginning mentioned in the text, when Aharman invaded the creation (see Chap. II, 1), Libra is in opposition to the sun, and Saturn in Libra would be at its nearest approach to the earth, and would, therefore, attain its maximum brightness; while Jupiter in Cancer would be at its greatest. altitude and shining with four-fifths of its maximum brightness. Both planets, therefore, were near their most conspicuous position (which would seem to be the meaning of bâlîst {footnote p.166} here), and might each be supposed to the exercising its maximum astrological influence, so that the presumed deadly power of Saturn would be neutralised by the supposed reviving influence of Jupiter.]

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as Jupiter was in Cancer on rising, that which is also called Gîvân ('living")[1], for it is the place in which life is bestowed upon it; and Saturn was in Libra, in the great subterranean, so that its own venom and deadliness became more evident and more dominant thereby. 9. And it was when both shall not be supreme that Gâyômard was to complete his own life, which is the thirty years[2] Saturn came not again to supremacy, that is, to Libra. 10. And at the time when Saturn came into Libra, Jupiter was in Capricornus[3], on account of whose own lowness[4], and the victory of Saturn over Jupiter, Gâyômard suffered through those very defects which came and are to continue advancing, the continuance of that disfigurement which Aharman can bring upon the creatures of Aûharmazd.

[1. This reading suits the context best, but the name can also be read Snahan, and in many other ways. It may possibly be the tenth lunar mansion, whose name is read Nahn in Bund. II, 3, by Pâzand writers, and which corresponds to the latter part of Cancer.

2. Saturn revolves round the sun in about 29 years and 167 days, so it cannot return into opposition to the sun (or to its maximum brightness), at or near the vernal equinox, in less than thirty years.

3. That is, while Saturn performs one revolution round the sun, Jupiter performs two and a half, which is very nearly correct, as Jupiter revolves round the sun in about 11 years and 315 days. Therefore, when the supposed deadly influence of Saturn has returned to its maximum, the supposed reviving influence of Jupiter is at its minimum, owing to the small altitude of Capricornus, and no longer counterbalances the destructive power of Saturn.

4. There seems to be no other reasonable translation, but the MS. has lâ instead of râî, and niskasp instead of nisîv.]

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When in like manner, and equally oppressively, as his (Aûharmazd's) creatures were disfigured, then through that same deterioration his own great glory was exhibited; for as he came within the sky[1] he maintains the spirit of the sky, like an intrepid warrior who has put on metal armour[2]; and the sky in its fortress[3] spoke these hasty, deceitful words to Aharman, thus: 'Now when thou shalt have come in I will not let thee back;' and it obstructed him until Aûharmazd prepared another rampart, that is stronger, around the sky, which is called 'righteous understanding' (ashôk âkâsîh). 2. And he arranged the guardian spirits[4] of the righteous who are warriors around that rampart, mounted on horses and spear in hand, in such manner as the hair on the head; and they acquired the appearance of prison guards who watch a prison from outside, and would not surrender the outer boundaries to an enemy descended from the inside.

3. Immediately, Aharman endeavours that he may go back to his own complete darkness, but he found no passage; and he recapitulated, with seeming misgiving, his fears of the worthiness which is to arise at the appearance of the renovation of the universe at the end of the nine thousand years.

4. As it is said in the Gâthas, thus[5]: 'So also

[1. See Chap. III, 2.

2. Compare Bund. VI, 2.

3. Or 'zodiacal signs,' for bûrgö means both.

4. Bund. VI, 3, 4.

5. This quotation from the Gâthas is from the Pahlavi Yas. XXX, 4, and agrees with the Pahlavi text, given in Dastûr {footnote p. 168} Jâmâspji's old MS. of the Yasna in Bombay, very nearly as closely as Spiegel's edition does. It appears, therefore, that Dâd-sparam used the same Pahlavi translation of the Yasna as the Parsis do at the present day.]

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both those spirits have approached together unto that which was the first creation--that is, both spirits have come to the body of Gâyômard. Whatever is in life is so through this purpose of Aûharmazd, that is: So that I may keep it alive; whatever is in lifelessness is so through this purpose[1] of the evil spirit, that is: So that I may utterly destroy it; and whatever is thus, is so until the last in the world, so that they (both spirits) come also on to the rest of mankind. And on account of the utter depravity of the wicked their destruction is fully seen, and so is the perfect meditation of him who is righteous, the hope of the eternity of Aûharmazd.'

5. And this was the first contest[2], that of the sky with Aharman.


1. And as he (Aharman) came secondly to the water, together with him rushed in, on the horse Cancer, he who is the most watery Tîstar; the equally watery one, that is called Avrak[3], gave forth a cloud and went down in the day; that is

[1. The MS. here omits the words 'through this purpose,' by mistake.

2. The word ârdîk, which Dâd-sparam uses instead of the kharah, 'conflict,' of Bund. V, 6, VI, 1, &c., may be connected with Pers. ârd, 'anger.'

3. The ninth lunar mansion (see Bund. II, 3, VII, 1).]

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declared as the movement of the first-comers of the creatures. 2. Cancer became a zodiacal constellation (akhtar); it is the fourth constellation of the zodiac for this reason, because the month Tîr is the fourth month of the year[1].

3. And as Tîstar begged for assistance, Vohûman and Hôm are therefore co-operating with him in command, Bûrg of the waters and the water in mutual aid, and the righteous guardian spirits in keeping the peace. 4. He was converted into three forms, which are the form of a man, the form of a bull, and the form of a horse; and each form was distinguished in brilliance for ten nights, and lets its rain fall on the night for the destruction of noxious creatures. 5. The drops became each separately like a great bowl in which water is drawn; and as to that on which they are driven, they kill all the noxious creatures except the reptiles[2], who entered into the muddiness of the earth.

6. Afterwards, the wind spirit, in the form of a man, became manifest on the earth; radiant and tall he had a kind of wooden boot (mûkvö-aê-i dârînô) on his feet;, and as when the life shall stir the body, the body is advancing with like vigour, so that spirit of the wind stirs forth the inner nature of the atmospheric wind, the wind pertaining to the whole earth is forth, and the water in its grasp- is flung out from it to the sides of the earth, and its wide-formed ocean arose therefrom.

7. It (the ocean) keeps one-third of this earth

[1. Bund. VII, 2-6 is paraphrased in 2-6.

2. Reading neksûnd barâ min khasandakânö instead of the MS. barâ nasûnd min khasandakânö.

3. Compare Bund. XIII, 1, 2.]

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and among its contents are a thousand sources and fountains, such as are called lakes (var); a thousand water-fountains, whose water is from the ocean, come up from the lakes and are poured forth into it. 8. And the size of some of all the lakes and all the fountains of water is as much as a fast rider on an Arab horse, who continually compasses and canters around them, will attain in forty days, which is 1900[1], long leagues (parasang-i akarîk), each league being at least 20,000 feet.

9. And after the noxious creatures died[2], and the poison therefrom was mixed up in the earth, in order to utterly destroy that poison Tîstar went down into the ocean; and Apâôsh, the demon, hastened to meet him, and at the alarm of the first contest Tîstar was in terror (pard). 10. And he applied unto Aûharmazd, who brought such power unto Tîstar as arises through propitiation and praise and invoking by name[3], and they call forth such power unto Tîstar as that of ten vigorous horses, ten vigorous camels, ten vigorous bulls, ten mountains when hurled, and ten single-stream rivers when together. 11. And without alarm he drove out Apâôsh, the demon, and kept him away from the sources of the ocean.

12. And with a cup and measuring bowl, which possessed the diligence even of a guardian spirit (fravâhar), he seized many more handfuls of water,

[1. Bund. XIII, 2 has 1700, but as neither number is a multiple of forty in round numbers, it is probable that both are wrong, and that we ought to read 1600.

2. Bund. VII, 7-4 is paraphrased in 9-14.

3. The Av. aokhtô-nâmana yasna of Tîstar Yt. II, 23; 24.]

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and made it rain down[1] much more prodigiously, for destruction, drops as large as men's heads and bulls' heads, great and small. 13. And in that cloud and rain were the chastisement and beating which Tîstar and the fire Vâzist inflicted on the opposition of Apâôsh; the all-deciding (vispô-vikîr) fire Vâzist struck down with a club of fire, all-deciding among the malevolent (kêbarânö).

14. Ten days and nights there was rain, and its darting[2] was the shooting of the noxious creatures; afterwards, the wind drove it to the shore of the wide-formed ocean, and it is portioned out into three, and three seas arose from it; they are called the Pûîtîk, the Kamîrîd, and the Gehân-bûn[3]. 15. Of these the Pûîtîk itself is salt water, in which is a flow and ebb[4]; and the control of its flow and ebb is connected with the moon, and by its continual rotation, in coming up and going down, that of the moon is manifested. 16. The wide-formed ocean stands forth on the south side as to (pavan) Albûrz[5], and the Pûîtîk stands contiguous to it, and amidst it is the gulf (var) of Satavês, whose connection is with Satavês, which is the southern quarter. 17. In the activity of the sea, and in the increase and decrease of the moon, whose circuit is the whole of Iran, are the flow and ebb; of the

[1. Or perhaps 'made the cloud rain,' if madam vârânînîd stands for avar vârânînîd.

2. Reading partâv instead of the MS. patûtâv, 'powerful fury.'

3. This is a variant of the Sahî-bûn or Gâhi-bûn of Bund. XIII, 7, 15; the other two names differ but little from those given in Bund. XIII. In the MS. Pûîtîk occurs once, and Puîtîk twice.

4. Compare 15-18 with Bund. XIII, 8-14.

5. Compare Bund. XIII, 1.]

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curving tails in front of the moon two issue forth, and have an abode in Satavês; one is the up-drag and one the down-drag; through the up-drag occurs the flood, and through the down-drag occurs the ebb[1]. 18. And Satavês itself is a gulf (var) and side arm of the wide-formed ocean, for it drives back the impurity and turbidness which come from the salt sea, when they are continually going into the wide-formed ocean, with a mighty high wind[2], while that which is clear through purity goes into the Arêdvisûr sources of the wide-formed ocean. 19. Besides these four[3] there are the small seas[4].

20. And, afterwards, there were made to flow from Albûrz, out of its northern border, two rivers[5], which were the Arvand[6]--that is, the Diglît, and the flow

[1. This, is even a more mechanical theory of the tides than that detailed in Bund. XIII, 13,. Whether the 'curving tails' (gagak dunbak) are the 'horns' of the crescent moon is uncertain.

2. By an accidental transposition of letters the MS. has âtarô, fire,' instead of vâtô, 'wind.'

3. The ocean and three principal seas.

4. Said to be twenty-three in number in Bund. XIII, 6.

5. Bund. VII, 15, 16, XX, 1.

6. This appears to be a. later identification of the Arag, Arang, or Arêng river of Bund. XX with the Tigris, under its name Arvand, which is also found in the Bahman Yast (III, 21, 38) and the Âfrîn of the Seven Ameshaspends ( 9). The Bundahis (XX, 8) seems to connect the Arag (Araxes?) with the Oxus and Nile, and describes the Diglat or Tigris as a distinct river (Bund. XX, 12). This difference is one of the indications of the Bundahis having been so old a book in the time of Zâd-sparam that he sometimes misunderstood its meaning, which could hardly have been the case if it had been written by one of his contemporaries. As the Persian empire has several times included part of Egypt, the Nile must have then been well known to the Persians as the great western river of their world. The last time they had possession of part of Egypt was, for about half a century, in the reigns of Khusrô {footnote p. 173} Nôshirvân, Aûharmazd IV, and Khusrô Parvîz; but since the early part of the seventh century the Tigris has practically been their extreme western limit; hence the change of the old Arag or Arang into the very similarly written Arvand, a name of the Tigris.]

{p. 173}

of that river was to those of the setting sun (val frôd-yehevundânö)--and the Vêh[1] was the river of the first-comers to the sun; formed as two horns they went on to the ocean. 21. After them eighteen[2] great rivers came out from the same Albûrz; and these twenty rivers, whose source is in Albûrz, go down into the earth, and arrive in Khvanîras.

22. Afterwards, two fountains of the sea are opened out for the earth[3], which are called the Kêkast[4]--a lake which has no cold wind, and on whose shore rests the triumphant fire Gûsnasp[5] and, secondly, the Sôvar[6] which casts on its shores all turbidness, and keeps its own salt lake clear and pure, for it is like the semblance of an eye which casts out to its edges every ache and every impurity; and on account of its depth it is not reached to the bottom, for it goes into the ocean; and in its vicinity rests the beneficial fire Bûrzîn-Mitrô[7].

23. And this was the second contest, which was with the water.


1. And as he (Aharman) came thirdly to the earth, which arrayed the whole earth against him--

[1. See Bund. XX, 9.

2 Bund. XX, 2, 7.

3. Bund. VII, 14.

4. Bund. XXII, 2.

5. Written Gûsasp in Bund. XVII. 7, and Gûsnâsp in B. Yt. III, 30, 40, while the older form Visnâsp occurs in B.Yt. III, 10.

6. The Sôvbar of Bund. VII, 14, XII, 24, XXII, 3.

7. Bund. XVII, 8.]

{p. 174}

since there was an animation of the earth through the shattering--Albûrz grew up[1], which is the boundary of the earth, and the other[2] mountains, which are amid the circuit of the earth, come up 2244 in number[3]. 2. And by them the earth was bound together and arranged, and on them was the sprouting and growth of plants, wherefrom was the nourishment of cattle, and therefrom was the great advantage of assistance to men.

3. Even so it is declared that before the coming of the destroyer to the creatures, for a thousand years the substance of mountains was created in the earth--especially as antagonism came on the earth, and settled on it with injury--and it came up over the earth just like a tree whose branch has grown at the top, and its root at the bottom. 4. The root of the mountains is passed on from one to the other, and is arranged in connection with them, and through it is produced the path and passage of water from below to above, so that the water may flow in it in such manner as blood in the veins, from all parts of the body to the heart, the latent vigour which they possess. 5. And, moreover, in six hundred years[4], at first, all the mountains apart from Albûrz were completed. 6. Albûrz was growing during eight hundred years[5]; in two hundred years it grew up to

[1. Bund. VIII, 1-4 is paraphrased in 1-4.

2. The MS. has âvânö, 'waters,' instead of avârîk, other,' which alters the meaning into, 'which is the boundary of the waters of the earth, and the mountains,' &c.

3. Bund. XII, 2.

4. Bund. VIII, 5, and XII, 1, have 'eighteen years.' As both numbers are written in ciphers it would be easy for either to be corrupted into the other.

5. Bund. XII, 1.]

{p. 175}

the star station, in two hundred years up to the moon station, two hundred years up to the sun station, and two hundred years up to the sky. 7. After Albûrz the Aparsên mountain[1] is the greatest, as it is also called the Avar-rôyisn[2] (up-growth') mountain, whose beginning is in Sagastân and its end unto Pârs and to Kînîstân[3].

8. This, too, is declared, that after the great rain in the beginning of the creation[4], and the wind's sweeping away the water to the ocean, the earth is in seven portions[5], a little above it, as the compact earth, after the rain, is torn up by the noise and wind in various places. 9. One portion, moreover, as much as one-half the whole earth, is in the middle, and in each of the six portions around is as much as Sagastân; moreover, as much as Sagastân is the measure of what is called a keshvar ('region') for the reason that one was defined from the other by a kêsh ('furrow'). 10. The middle one is Khvanîras, of which Pârs is the centre, and those six regions are like a coronet (avîsar) around it. 11. One part of the wide-formed ocean wound around it, among those six regions; the sea and forest seized upon the south side, and a lofty mountain grew up on the north, so that they might become separate, one from the other, and imperceptible.

12. This is the third contest, about the earth.

[1. The Apârsên of Bund. XII, 9.

2. Written Apû-rôyisn, as if it were an Arabic hybrid meaning 'father of growth.'

3. Bund. XII, 9. XXIV, 28, have Khûgîstân instead of Kînîstân; the latter appears to be an old name of the territory of Samarkand (see note to Bund. XII, 13).

4. Literally, 'creature.'

5. Bund. XI, 2-4 is paraphrased in 8-11.]

{p. 176}


1. As he (Aharman) came fourthly to the plants--which have struggled (kûkhshî-aîtö) against him with the whole vegetation--because the vegetation was quite dry[1], Amerôdad, by whom the essence of the world's vegetation[2] was seized upon, pounded it up small, and mixed it up with the rain-water of Tîstar. 2. After the rain the whole earth is discerned sprouting, and ten thousand[3] special species and a hundred thousand[4] additional species (levatman sardakö) so grew as if there were a species of every kind; and those ten thousand species are provided for[5] keeping away the ten thousand[3] diseases.

3. Afterwards, the seed was taken up from those hundred thousand species of plants, and from the collection of seed the tree of all germs, amid the wide-formed ocean, was produced, from which all species of plants continually grow. 4. And the griffon bird (sênô mûrûvö) has his resting-place upon it; when he wanders forth from within it, he scatters the dry seed into the water, and it is rained back to the earth with the rain.

5. And in its vicinity the tree was produced which is the white Hôm, the counteractor of decrepitude,

[1. This chapter is a paraphrase of Bund. IX.

2. Or, perhaps, 'the worldly characteristics of vegetation.'

3. Written like 'one thousand,' but see the context and Bund. IX, 4.

4. In Bund. IX, 4, the MSS. have '120,000,' which is probably wrong, as Bund. XXVII, 2, agrees with the text above.

5. The MS. has barâ instead of pavan, a blunder due probably to some copyist reading the Huzvâris in Persian, in which language bih (= barâ) and bah (= pavan) are written alike. In Pâzand they are usually written be and pa, respectively.]

{p. 177}

the reviver of the dead, and the immortalizer of the living.

6. This was the fourth contest, about the plants.


1. As he (Aharman) came fifthly to cattle--which struggled against him with all the animals--and likewise as the primeval ox[1] passed away, from, the nature of the vegetable principle it possessed, fifty-five[2] species of grain and twelve species of medicinal plants grew from its various members; and forasmuch as they should see from which member each one proceeds, it is declared in the Dâmdâd Nask[3]. 2. And every plant grown from a member

[1. See Chaps. II, 6, III, 1, and Bund. IV, 1, X, 1, XIV, 1.

2. The MS. has 'fifty-seven' in ciphers, but Bund. X, 1, XIV, 1, XXVII, 2, have, 'fifty-five' in words.

3 This was the fourth nask or 'book' of the complete Mazdayasnian literature, according to the Dînkard, which gives a very short and superficial account of its contents. But, according to the Dînî-vagarkard and the Rivâyats of Kâmah Bahrah, Narîmân Hôshang, and Barzû Qiyâmu-d-dîn, it was the fifth nask, and was called Dvâzdah-hâmâst (or homâst). For its contents, as given by the Dînî-vagarkard, see Haug's Essays, p. 127. The Rivâyat of Kâmah Bahrah, which has a few more words than the other Rivâyats, gives the following account (for the Persian text of which, see 'Fragmens relatifs à la religion de Zoroastre,' par Olshausen et Jules Mohl):--

'Of the fifth the name is Dvâzdah-homâst, and the interpretation of this is "the book about help" (dar imdâd, but this is probably a corruption of dâmdâd). And this book has thirty-two sections (kardah) that the divine and omnipotent creator sent down, in remembrance of the beginning of the creatures of the superior world and inferior world, and it is a description of the whole of them and of that which God, the most holy and omnipotent, mentioned about the sky, earth, and water, vegetation and {footnote p. 178} fire, man and quadrupeds, grazing and flying animals, and what he produced for their advantage and use, and the like. Secondly, the resurrection and heavenly path, the gathering and dispersion, and the nature of the circumstances of the resurrection, as regards the virtuous and evil-doers, through the weight of every action they perform for good and evil.'

This description corresponds very closely with what the Bundahis must have been, before the addition of the genealogical and chronological chapters at the end; and Dâd-sparam mentions in his text here, and again in 16, particulars regarding the Dâmdâd which also occur in the Bundahis (XIV, 2, 14-18, 21-24). There can be very little doubt, therefore, that the Bundahis was originally a translation of the Dâmdâd, though probably abridged; and the text translated in this volume is certainly a further abridgment of the original Bundahis, or Zand-âkâs. Whether the Avesta text of the Dâmdâd was still in existence in the time of Dâd-sparam is uncertain, as he would apply the name to the Pahlavi text. At the present time it is very unusual for a copyist to write the Pahlavi text without its Avesta, when the latter exists, but this may not always have been the case.]

{p. 178}

promotes that member, as it is said that there where the ox scattered its marrow[1] on to the earth, grain afterwards grew up, corn[2] and sesame, vetches[3] and peas; so sesame, on account of[4] its marrow quality, is itself a great thing for developing marrow. 3. And it is also said that from the blood is the vine[6], a great vegetable thing--as wine itself is blood--for more befriending the sound quality of the blood. 4. And it is said that from the nose is the pulse (mâys or mâsah) which is called dônak, and was a variety of sesame (samagâ)[6], and it is for other noses.

[1. Or 'brains.'

2. Supposing the MS. galôlag is a corruption of gallak (Pers. ghallah).

3. Assuming the MS. alûhö or arvanö to be a corruption of alûm or arzanö.

4. Reading râî instead of lâ.

5. Compare Bund. XIV, 2.

6. Either this sentence is very corrupt in the MS. or it cannot be {footnote p. 179} reconciled with the corresponding clause of Bund. XIV, 2. Altering dônak and gûnak into gandanak, and samagâ into samasdar, we might read, 'from the nose is mâys, which is called the leek, and the leek was an onion;' but this is doubtful, and leaves the word mâys unexplained.]

{p. 179}

5. And it is also said that from the lungs are the rue-like herbs[1] which heal, and are for the lung-disease of cattle. 6. This, rooted amid the heart, is thyme, from which is Vohûman's thorough withstanding of the stench of Akôman[2], and it is for that which proceeds from the sick and yawners.

7. Afterwards, the brilliance of the seed, seized upon, by strength, from the seed which was the ox's, they would carry off from it, and the brilliance was intrusted to the angel of the moon[3]; in a place therein that seed was thoroughly purified by the light of the moon, and was restored in its many qualities, and made fully infused with life (gânvar-hômand). 8. Forth from there it produced for Aîrân-vêg, first, two oxen, a pair, male and female[4], and, afterwards, other species, until the completion of the 282 species[5]; and they were discernible as far as two long leagues on the earth. 9. Quadrupeds walked forth on the land, fish swam in the water, and birds flew in the atmosphere; in every two, at the time good eating is enjoyed, a longing (âvdahân) arose therefrom, and pregnancy and birth.

10. Secondly, their subdivision is thus:--First, they are divided into three, that is, quadrupeds walking on the earth, fish swimming in the water,

[1. The MS. has gôspendânö, 'cattle,' instead of sipandânö, rue, herbs.'

2. See Bund. I, 24, 27, XXVIII, 7, XXX, 29.

3. Band. X, 2, XIV, 3.

4. Bund. X, 3, XIV, 4.

5. Bund. X, 3, XIV, 13.]

{p. 180}

and birds flying in the atmosphere. 11. Then, into five classes[1], that is, the quadruped which is round-hoofed, the double-hoofed, the five-clawed, the bird, and the fish, whose dwellings are in five places, and which are called aquatic, burrowing, oviparous, wide-travelling, and suitable for grazing. 12. The aquatic are fish and every beast of burden, cattle, wild beast, dog, and bird which enters the water; the burrowing are the marten (samûr) and musk animals, and all other dwellers and movers in holes; the oviparous are birds of every kind; the wide-travelling sprang away for help, and are also those of a like kind; those suitable for grazing are whatever are kept grazing in a flock.

13. And, afterwards, they were divided into genera, as the round-hoofed are one, which is all called 'horse;' the double-hoofed are many, as the camel and ox, the sheep and goat, and others double-hoofed; the five-clawed are the dog, hare, musk animals, marten, and others; then are the birds, and then the fish. 14. And then they were divided into species[2], as eight species of horse, two species of camel, ten[3] species of ox, five species of sheep, five species of goat, ten of the dog, five of the hare, eight of the marten, eight of the musk animals, 110 of the birds, and ten of the fish; some are counted for the pigs, and with all those declared and all those undeclared there were, at first, 282 species[4]; and with the species within species there were a thousand varieties.

[1. Bund, XIV, 8-12.

2. Bund. XIV, I, 3-2 3, 26, 27.

3. Bund. XIV, 17 says, 'fifteen,' which is probably correct.

4. Only 181 species are detailed or 'declared' here.]

{p. 181}

15. The birds are distributed[1] into eight groups (rîstakö), and from that which is largest to that which is smallest they are so spread about as when a man, who is sowing grain, first scatters abroad that of heavy weight, then that which is middling, and afterwards that which is small.

16. And of the whole of the species, as enumerated a second time in the Dâmdâd Nask[2], and written by me in the manuscript (nipîk) of 'the summary enumeration of races[3]'--this is a lordly[4] summary--the matter which is shown is, about the species of horses, the first is the Arab, and the chief of them[5] is white and yellow-eared, and secondly the Persian, the mule, the ass, the wild ass, the water-horse, and others. 17. Of the camel there are specially two, that for the plain, and the mountain one which is double-humped. 18. Among the species of ox are the white, mud-coloured, red, yellow, black, and dappled, the elk, the buffalo, the camel-leopard[6], the ox-fish, and others. 19. Among sheep are those having tails and those which are tailless, also the wether and the Kûrisk which, because of its trampling the hills, its great horn, and also being suitable

[1. Bund. XIV, 25.

2. See 1; the particulars which follow are also found in Bund. XIV, 14-18, 21-24, showing that the Bundahis must be derived from the Dâmdâd.

3. The title of this work, in Pahlavi, is Tôkhm-ausmaris-nîh-i hangardîkö, but it is not known to be extant.

4. Reading marâk (Chaldee ###), but this is doubtful, though the Iranian final k is often added to Semitic Huzvâris forms ending with â. It may be minâk, 'thinking, thoughtful,' or a corruption of manîk, 'mine,' in which last case we should translate, 'this is a summary of mine.'

5. Bund. XXIV, 6.

6. Literally, 'camel-ox-leopard.']

{p. 182}

for ambling, became the steed of Mânûskîhar. 20. Among goats are the ass-goat, the Arab, the fawn (varîkö), the roe, and the mountain goat. 21. Among martens are the white ermine, the black marten, the squirrel, the beaver (khaz), and others. 22. Of musk animals with a bag, one is the Bîshmusk--which eats the Bîsh poison and does not die through it,--and it is created for the great advantage that it should eat the Bîsh, and less of it should succeed in poisoning the creatures--and one is a musk animal of a black colour which they desired (ayûftö) who were bitten by the fanged serpent--as the serpent of the mountain water-courses (makö) is called--which is numerous on the river-banks; one throws the same unto it for food, which it eats, and then the serpent enters its body, when his[1] serpent, at the time this happens, feeds upon the same belly in which the serpent is, and he will become clear from that malady. 23. Among birds two were produced of a different character from the rest, and those are the griffon bird and the bat, which have teeth in the mouth, and suckle their young with animal milk from the teat.

24. This is the fifth contest, as to animals.


1. As he (Aharman) came sixthly to Gâyômard there was arrayed against him, with Gâyômard, the

[1. This appears to be the meaning here of amat zak garzakö, but the whole sentence is a fair sample of Dâd-sparam's most involved style of writing. By feeding the black musk animal with snakes the effect of a snake-bite, experienced by the feeder, is supposed to be neutralized.]

{p. 183}

pure propitious liturgy (mânsarspend), as heard from Gâyômard; and Aûharmazd, in pure meditation, considered that which is good and righteousness as destruction of the fiend (drûgô). 2. And when he (Gâyômard) passed away eight kinds of mineral of a metallic character arose from his various members; they are gold, silver, iron, brass, tin, lead, quicksilver (âvgînakö), and adamant; and on account of the perfection of gold it is produced from the life and seed.

3. Spendarmad received the gold of the dead Gâyômard[1], and it was forty years in the earth. 4. At the end of the forty years, in the manner of a Rîvâs-plant, Mashya and Mashyôî[2] came up, and, one joined to the other, were of like stature and mutually adapted[3]; and its middle, on which a glory came, through their like stature[4], was such that it was not clear which is the male and which the female, and which is the one with the glory which Aûharmazd created. 5. This is that glory for which man is, indeed, created, as it is thus said in

[1. Compare Bund. XV, 1.

2. The MS. has Mashâî Mashâyê, but see Bund. XV, 6. The Avesta forms were probably mashya mashyôi (or mashyê), which are regular nominatives dual, masculine and feminine, of mashya, 'mortal,' and indicate that they were usually coupled together in some part of the Avesta which is no longer extant. Pâzand writers have found it easy to read Mashyanî instead of Mâshyôî.

3. Reading ham-basnö ham-dakhîk, but whether this is more likely to be the original reading than the ham-badisn va ham-dasak of Bund. XV, 2, is doubtful. The last epithet here might also be read ham-sabîk, 'having the same shirt,' but this is an improbable meaning.

4. It is evident that ham-bandisnîh, 'mutual connection,' in accordance with Bund. XV, 3, would be preferable to the ham-basnöîh, 'like stature,' of this text.]

{p. 184}

revelation: 'Which existed before, the glory[1] or the body?' And Aûharmazd spoke thus: 'The glory was created by me before; afterwards, for him who is created, the glory is given a body so that it may produce activity, and its body is created only for activity.' 6. And, afterwards, they changed from the shape of a plant into the shape of man[2], and the glory went spiritually into them.


1. As he (Aharman) came seventhly to fire, which was all together against him, the fire separated into five kinds[3], which are called the Propitious, the Good diffuser, the Aûrvâzîst, the Vâzîst, and the Supremely-benefiting. 2. And it produced the Propitious fire itself in heaven (garôdmân); its manifestation is in the fire which is burning on the earth, and its propitiousness is this, that all the kinds are of its nature. 3. The Good diffuser is that which is in men and animals[4], and its business consists in the digestion of the food, the sleeping of the

[1. The old word nismô, 'soul' (see Bund. XV, 3, 4), has become corrupted here (by the omission of the initial stroke) into gadman, 'glory.' This corruption may be due either to Dâd-sparam not understanding the word (in which case the Bundahis must have been an old book in his time), or else to some later copyist confounding the old word for 'soul' with the better-known 'glory' of the Iranian sovereigns.

2. Bund. XV, 5.

3. Bund. XVII, 1. Three of the Avesta names are here translated, the first two being the Spênist and Vohu-fryãn, which are the fifth and second in the Bundahis, and the fifth being the Berezi-savang, which is the first in the Bundahis.

4. See Bund. XVII, 2.]

{p. 185}

body, and the brightening of the eyes. 4. The Aûrvâzîst is that which is in plants, in whose seed it is formed, and its business consists in piercing the earth, warming the chilled water[1] and producing the qualities and fragrance of plants and blossoms therefrom, and elaborating the ripened produce into many fruits. 5. And the Vâzîst is that which has its motion in a cloud, and its business consists in destroying the atmospheric gloom and darkness, and making the thickness of the atmosphere fine and propitious in quality, sifting the hail, moderately warming the water which the cloud holds, and making sultry weather showery. 6. The Supremely-benefiting, like the sky, is that glory whose lodgment is in the Behrâm fire[2], as the master of the house is over the house, and whose propitious power arises from the growing brightness of the fire, the blazing forth in[3] the purity of the place, the praise of God (yazdânö), and the practice of good works. 7. And its business is that it struggles with the spiritual fiend, it watches the forms of the witches--who walk up from the river[4], wear woven clothing, disturb the luminaries by the concealment of stench, and by witchcraft injure the creatures--and the occurrences of destruction, burning, and celebration of witchcraft, especially at night; being an assistant of Srôsh the righteous.

[1. Reading mayâ-i afsardînîdö tâftanö instead of the seemingly unmeaning mayâ asardinîdö âftanö of the MS.

2. The Verehrânö âtâsh, or sacred fire of the fire-temples.

3. Reading pavan instead of barâ (see p. 176, note 5).

4. Or 'sea' (darîyâvö). This long-winded sentence is more involved and obscure in the original than in the translation.]

{p. 186}

8. And in the beginning of the creation[1] the whole earth was delivered over into the guardianship of the sublime Frôbak fire, the mighty Gûsnasp fire, and the beneficial Bûrzîn-Mitrô fire[2], which are like priest, warrior, and husbandman. 9. The place of the fire Frôbak was formed on the Gadman-hômand ('glorious') mountain in Khvârizem[3], the fire Gûsnasp was on the Asnavand mountain in Âtarô-pâtakân, and the fire Bûrzîn-Mitrô on the Rêvand mountain which is in the Ridge of Vistâsp, and its material manifestation in the world was the most complete.

10. In the reign of Hôshâng[4], when men were continually going forth to the other regions (kêshvar) on the ox Srûvô[5], one night, half-way, while admiring the fires, the fire-stands which were prepared in three places on the back of the ox, and in which the fire was, fell into the sea, and the substance of that one great fire which was manifest, is divided into three, and they established it on the three fire-stands, and it became itself three glories whose lodgments are in the Frôbak fire, the Gûsnasp fire, and the Bûrzîn-Mitrô[6].

[1. Literally, 'creature.'

2. The epithets of these three sacred fires are, respectively, vargân, tagîkö, and pûr-sûdö in Pahlavi.

3. See Bund. XVII, 5, 7, 8.

4. Bund. XVII, 4 says, 'in the reign of Takhmôrup,' his successor.

5. Sarsaok or Srisaok in the Bundahis.

6. The remainder of 'the sayings of Zâd-sparam, about the meeting of the beneficent spirit and the evil spirit,' have no special reference to the Bundahis. They treat of the following matters:--

The coming of the religion, beginning in the time of Frâsîyâv and Mânûskîhar, with an anecdote of Kâî-ûs and the hero Srîtô (Av. Thrita). The manifestation of the glory of Zaratûst {footnote p. 187} before his birth. The begetting of Zaratûst through the drinking of hôm-juice and cow's milk infused, respectively, with his guardian spirit and glory, as declared in the manuscript on 'the guidance of worship.' The connection of Zaratûst with Aûharmazd, traced back through his genealogy as far as Gâyômard. The persistent endeavours of the fiends to destroy Zaratûst at the time of his birth, and how they were frustrated. His receiving the religion from Aûharmazd, with another anecdote of Kâî-ûs and Srîtô, and of Zaratûst's exclamation on coming into the world. The enmity borne to him by five brothers of the Karapân family, and how it was frustrated; his own four brothers, and some of his wonderful deeds. The worthiness of his righteousness; his compassionate and liberal nature; his giving up worldly desires; his pity; his good selection of a wife; and what is most edifying for the soul. What occurred when he was thirty years old, and his being conducted by the archangel Vohûman to the assembly of the spirits. The questions asked by Zaratûst, and Aûharmazd's replies thereto. The seven questions he asked of the seven archangels in seven different places, in the course of one winter. [Westergaard's MS. K35 ends in the middle of the second of these questions.] The five dispositions of priests, and the ten admonitions. The three preservatives of religion, with particulars about the Gâthas and the connection of the Ahunavar with the Nasks. Zaratûst's obtaining one disciple, Mêdyôk-mâh, in the first ten years, and the acceptance of the religion by Vistâsp two years afterwards.

The second of the writings of Zâd-sparam consists of his sayings about the formation of men out of body, life, and soul;' and the third (which is imperfect in all known MSS.) contains his sayings about producing the renovation of the universe.']

Next: Bahman Yast