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1. For all divisions into chapters and sections the translator is responsible, as the original text is written continuously, with very few stops marked.

2. Italics are used for any English words which are not expressed, or fully understood, in the original text, but are added to complete the sense of the translation.

3. Oriental words are usually 'spaced.' Italics occurring in them, or in names, are intended to represent certain peculiar Oriental letters. The italic consonants d, n, v may be pronounced as in English; but g should be sounded like j, hv like wh, k like ch in 'church,' N like ng, s like sh, z like French j. For further information, see 'Transliteration of Oriental Alphabets adopted for the Translations of the Sacred Books of the East' at the end of the volume.

4. In Pahlavi words all circumflexed vowels and any final ö {o macron in original--jbh} are expressed in the Pahlavi original, but all other vowels are merely understood.

5. In the translation, words in parentheses are merely explanatory of those which precede them.

6. Abbreviations used are:-Av. for Avesta. Dâd. for Dâdistân-i Dînîk. Huz. for Huzvâris. Mkh. for Mainyô-i-khard, ed. West. Pahl. for Pahlavi. Pâz. for Pâzand. Pers. for Persian. Sans. for Sanskrit. Vend. for Vendîdâd, ed. Spiegel. Visp. for Visparad, ed. Sp. Yas. for Yasna, ed. Sp. Yt. for Yast, ed. Westergaard.

7. The manuscripts mentioned in the notes are:--

K20 (about 500 years old), No. 20 in the University Library at Kopenhagen.

K20b (uncertain date), a fragment of the text, No. 20b in the same library.

M6 (written A.D. 1397), No. 6 of the Haug Collection in the State Library at Munich.

TD (written about A.D. 1530), belonging to Mobad Tehmuras Dinshawji Anklesaria at Bombay.

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0. In the name of the creator Aûharmazd.

1. The Zand-âkâs ('Zand-knowing or tradition-informed[1]), which is first about Aûharmazd's original creation and the antagonism of the evil spirit[2] and afterwards about the nature of the creatures from the original creation till the end, which is the future existence (tanû-i pasinö). 2. As revealed by the religion of the Mazdayasnians, so it is declared that Aûharmazd is supreme in omniscience and goodness,

[1 The Pâzand and most of the modern Pahlavi manuscripts have, 'From the Zand-âkâs,' but the word min, 'from,' does not occur in the old manuscript K20, and is a modern addition to M6. From this opening sentence it would appear that the author of the work gave it the name Zand-âkâs.

2 The Avesta Angra-mainyu, the spirit who causes adversity or anxiety (see Darmesteter's Ormazd et Ahriman, pp. 92-95); the Pahlavi name is, most probably, merely a corrupt transliteration of the Avesta form, and may be read Ganrâk-maînôk, as the Avesta Spenta-mainyu, the spirit who causes prosperity, has become Spênâk-maînôk in Pahlavi. This latter spirit is represented by Aûharmazd himself in the Bundahis. The Pahlavi word for 'spirit,' which is read madônad by the Parsis, and has been pronounced mînavad by some scholars and mînôî by others, is probably a corruption of maînôk, as its Sasanian form was minô. If it were not for the extra medial letter in ganrâk, and for the obvious partial transliteration of spênâk, it would be preferable to read ganâk, 'smiting,' and to derive it from a supposed verb gandan, 'to smite' (Av. ghna), as proposed by most Zendists. A Parsi would probably suggest gandan, 'to stink.']

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and unrivalled[1] in splendour; the region of light is the place of Aûharmazd, which they call 'endless light,' and the omniscience and goodness of the unrivalled Aûharmazd is what they call 'revelation[2].' 3. Revelation is the explanation of both spirits together; one is he who is independent of unlimited time[3], because Aûharmazd and the region, religion, and time of Aûharmazd were and are and ever will be; while Aharman[4] in darkness, with backward understanding and desire for destruction, was in the abyss, and 'it is he who will not be; and the place of that destruction, and also of that darkness, is what they call the 'endlessly dark.' 4. And between them was empty space, that is, what they call 'air,' in which is now their meeting.

5. Both are limited and unlimited spirits, for the supreme is that which they call endless light, and the abyss that which is endlessly dark, so that between them is a void, and one is not connected with

[1. Reading aham-kaî, 'without a fellow-sovereign, peerless, unrivalled, independent.' This rare word occurs three times in 2, 3, and some Pâzand writers suggest the meaning 'everlasting' (by means of the Persian gloss hamîsah), which is plausible enough, but hâmakî would be an extraordinary mode of writing the very common word hamâî, 'ever.'

2. The word dînô (properly dênô), Av. daêna, being traceable to a root dî, to see,' must originally have meant a vision' (see Haug's Essays on the Religion of the Parsis, 2nd ed. p. 152, note 2), whence the term has been transferred to 'religion' and all religious observances, rules, and writings; so it may be translated either by 'religion' or by 'revelation.'

3. This appears to be the meaning, but the construction of 3 is altogether rather obscure, and suggestive of omissions in the text.

4 The usual name of the evil spirit; it is probably an older corruption of Angra-mainyu than Ganrâk-maînôk, and a less technical term. Its Sasanian form was Aharmanî.]

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the other; and, again, both spirits are limited as to their own selves. 6. And, secondly, on account of the omniscience of Aûharmazd, both things are in the creation of Aûharmazd, the finite and the infinite; for this they know is that which is in the covenant of both spirits. 7. And, again, the complete sovereignty of the creatures of Aûharmazd is in the future existence, and that also is unlimited for ever and everlasting; and the creatures of Aharman will perish at the time when[1] the future existence occurs, and that also is eternity.

8. Aûharmazd, through omniscience, knew that Aharman exists, and whatever he schemes he infuses with malice and greediness till the end; and because He accomplishes the end by man), means, He also produced spiritually the creatures which were necessary for those means, and they remained three thousand years in a spiritual state, so that they were unthinking[2] and unmoving, with intangible bodies.

9. The evil spirit, on account of backward knowledge, was not aware of the existence of Aûharmazd; and, afterwards, he arose from the abyss, and came in unto the light which he saw. 10. Desirous of destroying, and because of his malicious nature, he

[1. Substituting amat, 'when,' for mûn, 'which,' two Huzvâris forms which are frequently confounded by Pahlavi copyists because their Pâzand equivalents, ka and ke, are nearly alike.

2. Reading aminîdâr in accordance with M6, which has amînîdâr in Chap. XXXIV, 1, where the same phrase occurs. Windischmann and Justi read amûîtâr, 'uninjured, invulnerable,' in both places. This sentence appears to refer to a preparatory creation of embryonic and immaterial existences, the prototypes, fravashis, spiritual counterparts, or guardian angels of the spiritual and material creatures afterwards produced.]

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rushed in to destroy that light of Aûharmazd unassailed by fiends, and he saw its bravery and glory were greater than his own; so he fled back to the gloomy darkness, and formed many demons and fiends; and the creatures of the destroyer arose for violence.

11. Aûharmazd, by whom the creatures of the evil spirit were seen, creatures terrible, corrupt, and bad, also considered them not commendable (bûrzisnîk). 12. Afterwards, the evil spirit saw the creatures of Aûharmazd; they appeared many creatures of delight (vâyah), enquiring creatures, and they seemed to him commendable, and he commended the creatures and creation of Aûharmazd.

13. Then Aûharmazd, with a knowledge[1] of which way the end of the matter would be, went to meet the evil spirit, and proposed peace to him, and spoke thus: 'Evil spirit! bring assistance unto my creatures, and offer praise! so that, in reward for it, ye (you and your creatures) may become immortal and undecaying, hungerless and thirstless.'

14. And the evil spirit shouted thus[2]: 'I will not depart, I will not provide assistance for thy creatures, I will not offer praise among thy creatures, and I am not of the same opinion with thee as to good things. I will destroy thy creatures for ever and everlasting; moreover, I will force all thy creatures into disaffection to thee and affection for myself.' 15. And the explanation thereof is this, that the evil spirit reflected in this manner, that

[1. The Huz. khavîtûnast stands for the Pâz. dânist with the meaning, here, of 'what is known, knowledge,' as in Persian.

2. Literally, 'And it was shouted by him, the evil spirit, thus:' the usual idiom when the nominative follows the verb.]

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Aûharmazd was helpless as regarded him[1], therefore He proffers peace; and he did not agree, but bore on even into conflict with Him.

16. And Aûharmazd spoke thus: 'You are not omniscient and almighty, O evil spirit! so that it is not possible for thee to destroy me, and it is not possible for thee to force my creatures so that they will not return to my possession.'

17. Then Aûharmazd, through omniscience, knew that: If I do not grant a period of contest, then it will be possible for him to act so that he may be able to cause the seduction of my creatures to himself. As even now there are many of the intermixture of mankind who practise wrong more than right. 18. And Aûharmazd spoke to the evil spirit thus: 'Appoint a period! so that the intermingling of the conflict may be for nine thousand years.' For he knew that by, appointing this period the evil spirit would be undone.

19. Then the evil spirit, unobservant and through ignorance, was content with that agreement; just like two men quarrelling together, who propose a time thus: Let us appoint such-and-such a day for a fight.

20. Aûharmazd also knew this, through omniscience, that within these nine thousand years, for three thousand years everything proceeds by the will of Aûharmazd, three thousand years there is an intermingling of the wills of Aûharmazd and Aharman, and the last three thousand years the evil spirit is disabled, and they keep the adversary away[2] from the creatures.

[1. The words dên val stand for dên valman.

2. That is, 'the adversary is kept away.' In Pahlavi the third {footnote p. 8} person plural is the indefinite person, as in English. These 9000 years are in addition to the 3000 mentioned in 8, as appears more clearly in Chap. XXXIV, 1.]

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21. Afterwards, Aûharmazd recited the Ahunavar thus: Yathâ ahû vairyô ('as a heavenly lord is to be chosen'), &c.[1] once, and uttered the twenty-one words[2]; He also exhibited to the evil spirit His own triumph in the end, and the impotence of the evil spirit, the annihilation of the demons, and the resurrection and undisturbed future existence of the creatures for ever and everlasting. 22. And the evil spirit, who perceived his own impotence and the annihilation of the demons, became confounded, and fell back to the gloomy darkness; even so as is declared in revelation, that, when one of its (the Ahunavar's) three parts was uttered, the evil spirit contracted his body through fear, and when two parts of it were uttered he fell upon his knees, and when all of it was uttered he became confounded

[1. This is the most sacred formula of the Parsis, which they have to recite frequently, not only during the performance of their ceremonies, but also in connection with most of their ordinary duties and habits. It is neither a prayer, nor a creed, but a declaratory formula in metre, consisting of one stanza of three lines, containing twenty-one Avesta words, as follows:--

Yathâ ahû vairyô, athâ ratus, ashâd kîd hakâ,
Vangheus dazdâ mananghô, skyaothnanãm angheus mazdâi,
Khshathremkâ ahurâi â, yim dregubyô dadad vâstârem.

And it may be translated in the following manner: 'As a heavenly lord is to be chosen, so is an earthly master (spiritual guide), for the sake of righteousness, to be a giver of the good thoughts of the actions of life towards Mazda; and the dominion is for the lord (Ahura) whom he (Mazda) has given as a protector for the poor' (see Haug's Essays on the Religion of the Parsis, 2nd ed. pp. 125, 141).

2. The word mârik must mean 'word' here, but in some other places it seems to mean 'syllable' or 'accented syllable.']

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and impotent as to the harm he caused the creatures of Aûharmazd, and he remained three thousand years in confusion[1].

23. Aûharmazd created his creatures in the confusion of Aharman; first he produced Vohûman ('good thought'), by whom the progress of the creatures of Aûharmazd was advanced.

24. The evil spirit first created[2] Mîtôkht ('falsehood'), and then Akôman ('evil thought').

25. The first of Aûharmazd's creatures of the world was the sky, and his good thought (Vohûman), by good procedure[3], produced the light of the world, along with which was the good religion of the Mazdayasnians; this was because the renovation (frashakard)[4], which happens to the creatures was known to him. 26. Afterwards arose Ardavahist,

[1. This is the first third of the 9000 years appointed in 18, 20, and the second 3000 years mentioned in Chap. XXXIV, 1.

2. It is usual to consider dâdan (Huz. yehabûntan), when traceable to Av. dâ =Sans. dhâ, as meaning 'to create,' but it can hardly be proved that it means to create out of nothing, any more than any other of the Avesta verbs which it is sometimes convenient to translate by 'create.' Before basing any argument upon the use of this word it will, therefore, be safer to substitute the word 'produce' in all cases.

3. Or it may be translated, 'and from it Vohûman, by good procedure,' &c. The position here ascribed to Vohûman, or the good thought of Aûharmazd, bears some resemblance to that of the Word in John i. 1-5, but with this essential difference, that Vohûman is merely a creature of Aûharmazd, not identified with him; for the latter idea would be considered, by a Parsi, as rather inconsistent with strict monotheism. The I light of the world' now created must be distinguished from the I endless light' already existing with Aûharmazd in 2.

4. The word frashakard, 'what is made durable, perpetuation,' is applied to the renovation of the universe which is to take place about the time of the resurrection, as a preparation for eternity.]

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and then Shatvaîrô, and then Spendarmad, and then Horvadad, and then Amerôdad[1].

27. From the dark world of Aharman were Akôman and Andar, and then Sôvar, and then Nâkahêd, and then Tâîrêv and Zâîrîk[2].

28. Of Aûharmazd's creatures of the world, the first was the sky; the second, water; the third, earth; the fourth, plants; the fifth, animals; the sixth, mankind.


0. On the formation of the luminaries.

1. Aûharmazd produced illumination between the sky and the earth, the constellation stars and those also not of the constellations[3], then the moon, and afterwards the sun, as I shall relate.

[1. These five, with Vohûman and Aûharmazd in his angelic capacity, constitute the seven Ameshaspends, 'undying causers of prosperity, immortal benefactors,' or archangels, who have, charge of the whole material creation, They are personifications of old Avesta phrases, such as Vohû-manô, 'good thought;' Asha-vahista, 'perfect rectitude;' Khshathra-vairya, desirable dominion;' Spenta-ârmaiti, 'bountiful devotion;' Haurvatâd, 'completeness or health;' and Ameretâd, 'immortality.'

2. These six. demons are the opponents of the six archangels respectively (see Chap. XXX, 29); their names in the Avesta are, Akem-manô, 'evil thought;' Indra, Sauru, Naunghaithya, Tauru, Zairika (see Vendîdâd X, 17, 18 Sp., and XIX, 43 W.), which have been compared with the Vedic god Indra, Sarva (a name of Siva), the Nâsatyas, and Sans. tura, 'diseased,' and garas, 'decay,' respectively. For further details regarding them, see Chap. XXVIII, 7-13.

3. The word akhtar is the usual term in Pahlavi for a constellation of the zodiac; but the term apâkhtar, 'away from the akhtar,' means not only 'the north,' or away from the zodiac, but also 'a, {footnote p. 11} planet,' which is in the zodiac, but apart from the constellations. The meaning of akhtar, most suitable to the context here, appears to be the general term I constellation.']

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2. First he produced, the celestial sphere, and the constellation stars are assigned to it by him; especially these twelve whose names are Varak (the Lamb), Tôrâ (the Bull), Dô-patkar (the Two-figures or Gemini), Kalakang (the Crab), Sêr (the Lion), Khûsak (Virgo), Tarâzûk (the Balance), Gazdûm (the Scorpion), Nîmâsp (the Centaur or Sagittarius), Vahîk[1] (Capricomus), Dûl (the Waterpot), and Mâhîk (the Fish); 3. which, from their original creation, were divided into the twenty-eight subdivisions of the astronomers[2], of which the names are Padêvar, Pêsh-Parvîz, Parviz, Paha, Avêsar, Besn, Rakhvad, Taraha, Avra, Nahn, Miyân, Avdem, Mâshâha, Spûr, Husru, Srob, Nur, Gêl, Garafsa, Varant, Gau, Goî, Muru, Bunda, Kahtsar, Vaht, Miyân, Kaht[3]. 4. And all his original creations,

[1. Written Nahâzîk here, both in K20 and M6, which may be compared with Pers. nahâz, 'the leading goat of a flock;' but the usual word for 'Capricornus' is Vahîk, as in Chap. V, 6. None of the other names of the signs of the zodiac are written here in Pâzand, but it may be noted that if the ah in Vahîk were written in Pâzand (that is, in Avesta characters), the word would become the same as Nahâzîk in Pahlavi.

2. Literally, 'fragments of the calculators,' khurdak-i hâmârikân. These subdivisions are the spaces traversed daily by the moon among the stars, generally called 'lunar mansions.'

3 All these names are written in Pâzand, which accounts for their eccentric orthography, in which both K20 and M6 agree very closely. The subdivision Parviz is evidently the Pers. parvên, which includes the Pleiades, and corresponds therefore to the Sanskrit Nakshatra Krittikâ. This correspondence leads to the identification of the first subdivision, Padêvar, with the Nakshatra Asvinî. The Pâzand names are so corrupt that no reliance can be placed upon them, and the first step towards recovering the true {footnote p. 12} Pahlavi names would be to transliterate the Pâzand back into Pahlavi characters. The ninth subdivision is mentioned in Chap. VII, 1 by the name Avrak.]

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residing in the world, are committed to them[1]; so that when the destroyer arrives they overcome the adversary and their own persecution, and the creatures are saved from those adversities.

5. As a specimen of a warlike army, which is destined for battle, they have ordained every single constellation of those 6480 thousand small stars as assistance; and among those constellations four chieftains, appointed on the four sides, are leaders. 6. On the recommendation of those chieftains the many unnumbered stars are specially assigned to the various quarters and various places, as the united strength and appointed power of those constellations. 7. As it is said that Tîstar is the chieftain of the east, Satavês the chieftain of the west, Vanand the chieftain of the south, and Haptôk-rîng the chieftain of the north[2]. 8. The great one which they

[1. That is, to the zodiacal constellations, which are supposed to have special charge of the welfare of creation.

2. Of these four constellations or stars, which are said to act as leaders, there is no doubt that Haptôk-rîng, the chieftain of the north, is Ursa Major; and it is usually considered that Tîstar, the chieftain of the east, is Sirius; but the other two chieftains are not so well identified, and there may be some doubt as to the proper stations of the eastern and western chieftains. It is evident, however, that the most westerly stars, visible at any one time of the year, are those which set in the dusk of the evening; and east of these, all the stars are visible during the night as far as those which rise at daybreak, which are the most easterly stars visible at that time of the year. Tîstar or Sirius can, therefore, be considered the chieftain of the eastern stars only when it rises before daybreak, which it does at the latter end of summer; and Haptôk-rîng or Ursa Major is due north at midnight (on the meridian below the pole) at about the same time of the year. These stars, therefore, {footnote p. 13} fulfil the conditions necessary for being chieftains of the east and north at the end of summer, and we must look for stars capable of being chieftains of the south and west at the same season. Now, when Ursa Major is near the meridian below the pole, Fomalhaut is the most conspicuous star near the meridian in the far south, and is probably to be identified with Vanand the chieftain of the south. And when Sirius rises some time before daybreak, Antares (in Scorpio) sets some time after dusk in the evening, and may well be identified with Satavês the chieftain of the west assuming that there has been a precession of the equinoxes equivalent to two hours of time, since the idea of these chieftains (which may perhaps be traced to Avesta times) was first formed, it may be calculated that the time of year when these leading stars then best fulfilled that idea was about a month before the autumnal equinox, when Ursa Major would be due north three-quarters of an hour after midnight, and Fomalhaut due south three-quarters of an hour before midnight, Sirius would rise three hours before the sun, and Antares would set three hours after the sun. In the Avesta these leading stars are named Tistrya, Satavaêsa, Vanant, and Haptôi-ringa (see Tîstar Yt. 0, 8, 9, 12, 32, &c., Rashnu Yt. 26-28, Sîrôz. 13).]

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call a Gâh (period of the day), which they say is the great one of the middle of the sky, till just before the destroyer came was the midday (or south) one of the five, that is, the Rapîtvîn[1].

[1. This translation, though very nearly literal, must be accepted with caution. If the word mas be not a name it can hardly mean anything but 'great;' and that it refers to a constellation appears from Chap. V, i. The word khômsâk is an irregular form of the Huz. khômsyâ, 'five,' and may refer either too the five chieftains (including 'the great one') or to the five Gâhs or periods of the day, of which Rapîtvîn is the midday one (see Chap. XXV, 9). The object of the text seems to be to connect the Rapîtvîn Gâh with some great mid-sky and midday constellation or star, possibly Regulus, which, about B. C. 960, must have been more in the daylight than any other important star during the seven months of summer, the only time that the Rapîtvîn Gâh can be celebrated (see Chap. XXV, 7-14). Justi has, 'They call that the great one of the place, which is great in the middle of the sky; they say that before the enemy came it was always midday, that is, Rapîtvîn. {footnote p. 14} Windischmann has nearly the same, as both follow the Pâzand MSS. in reading hômîsak (as a variant of hamîsak), 'always,' instead of khômsâk.]

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9. Aûharmazd performed the spiritual Yazisn ceremony with the archangels (ameshêspendân) in the Rapîtvîn Gâh, and in the Yazisn he supplied every means necessary for overcoming the adversary[1]. 10. He deliberated with the consciousness (bôd) and guardian spirits (fravâhar) of men[2], and the omniscient wisdom, brought forward among men, spoke thus: 'Which seems to you the more advantageous, when[3] I shall present you to the world? that you shall contend in a bodily form with the fiend (drûg), and the fiend shall perish, and in the end I shall have you prepared again perfect and immortal, and in the end give you back to the world, and you will be wholly immortal, undecaying, and undisturbed; or that it be always necessary to provide you protection from the destroyer?'

11. Thereupon, the guardian spirits of men became of the same opinion with the omniscient wisdom about going to the world, on account of the evil that comes upon them, in the world, from the fiend (drûg) Aharman, and their becoming, at last, again unpersecuted by the adversary, perfect, and immortal, in the future existence, for ever and everlasting.

[1. Or 'adversity.'

2. These were among the fravashis already created (sec Chap. I, 8).

3. Reading amat, when,' instead of mûn, 'which' (see note to Chap. I, 7).]

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1. On the rush of the destroyer at the creatures it is said, in revelation, that the evil spirit, when he saw the impotence of himself and the confederate[1] (hâm-dast) demons, owing to the righteous man[2], became confounded, and seemed in confusion three thousand years. 2. During that confusion the archfiends[3] of the demons severally shouted thus: 'Rise up, thou father of us! for we will cause a conflict in the world, the distress and injury from which will become those of Aûharmazd and the archangels.'

3. Severally they twice recounted their own evil deeds, and it pleased him not; and that wicked evil spirit, through fear of the righteous man, was not able to lift up his head until the wicked Gêh[4] came, at the completion of the three thousand years. 4. And she shouted to the evil spirit thus: 'Rise up, thou father of us! for I will cause that conflict in the world wherefrom the distress and injury of Aûharmazd and the archangels will arise.' 5. And she twice recounted severally her own evil deeds, and it pleased him not; and that wicked evil spirit

[1. The Pâzand MSS. have garôist, for the Huz. hêmnunast, trusted.' Windischmann and Justi have 'all.'

2 Probably Gâyômard.

3. The word kamârakân is literally 'those with an evil pate,' and is derived from Av. kameredha, 'the head of an evil being,' also applied to 'the evil summit' of Mount Arezûra (Vend. XIX, 140, 142), which is supposed to be at the gate of hell (see Chap. XII, 8). That the chief demons or arch-fiends are meant, appears, more clearly in Chap. XXVIII, 12, 44, where the word is kamârîkân.

4. The personification of the impurity of menstruation.]

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rose not from that confusion, through fear of the righteous man.

6. And, again, the wicked Gêh shouted thus: 'Rise up, thou father of us! for in that conflict I will shed thus much vexation[1] on the righteous man and the labouring ox that, through my deeds, life will not be wanted, and I will destroy their living souls (nismô)[2]; I will vex the water, I will vex the plants, I will vex the fire of Aûharmazd, I will make the whole creation of Aûharmazd vexed.' 7. And she so recounted those evil deeds a second time, that the evil spirit was delighted and started up from that confusion; and he kissed Gêh upon the head, and the pollution which they call menstruation became apparent in Gêh.

8. He shouted to Gêh thus: 'What is thy wish? so that I may give it thee.' And Gêh shouted to the evil spirit thus: 'A man is the wish, so give it to me.'

9. The form of the evil spirit was a log-like lizard's (vazak) body, and he appeared a young man of fifteen years to Gêh, and that brought the thoughts of Gêh to him[3].

[1 The word vêsh or vîsh may stand either for bêsh, 'distress, vexation,' as here assumed, or for vish, 'poison,' as translated by Windischmann and Justi in accordance with the Paz. MSS.

2. That this is the Huzvâris of rûbân, 'soul,' appears from Chap. XV, 3-5, where both words are used indifferently; but it is not given in the Huz.-Pâz. Glossary. It is evidently equivalent to Chald. nismâ, and ought probably to have the traditional pronunciation nisman, an abbreviation of nismman.

3. This seems to be the literal meaning of the sentence, and is confirmed by Chap. XXVIII, i, but Windischmann and Justi understand that the evil spirit formed a youth for Gêh out of a toad's body. The incident in the text may be compared with Milton's idea of Satan and Sin in Paradise Lost, Book II, 745-765.]

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10. Afterwards, the evil spirit, with the confederate demons, went towards the luminaries, and he saw the sky; and he led them up, fraught with malicious intentions. 11. He stood upon one-third[1] of the inside of the sky, and he sprang, like a snake, out of the sky down to the earth.

12. In the month Fravardîn and the day Aûharmazd[2] he rushed in at noon, and thereby the sky was as shattered and frightened by him, as a sheep by a wolf. 13. He came on to the water which was arranged[3] below the earth, and then the middle of this earth was pierced and entered by him. 14. Afterwards, he came to the vegetation, then to the ox, then to Gâyômard, and then he came to fire[4]; so, just like a fly, he rushed out upon the whole creation; and he made the world quite as injured and dark[5] at midday as though it were in dark night. 15. And noxious creatures. were diffused by him over the earth, biting and venomous, such as the snake, scorpion, frog (kalvâk), and lizard (vazak),--so that not so much as the point of a needle remained free from noxious creatures. 16. And blight[6] was diffused by him over the

[1. Perhaps referring to the proportion of the sky which is overspread by the darkness of night. The whole sentence is rather obscure.

2. The vernal equinox (see Chap. XXV, 7).

3. Literally, 'and it was arranged.'

4. For the details of these visitations, see Chaps. VI-X.

5. Reading khûst tôm; but it may be hangîdtûm, most turbid, opaque.'

6. The word makhâ, 'blow, stroke,' is a Huzvâris logogram not found in the glossaries; M6 has dâr, 'wood,' but this may be a misreading, due to the original, from which M6 was copied, being difficult to read.]

{p. 18}

vegetation, and it withered away immediately. 17. And avarice, want, pain, hunger, disease, lust, and lethargy were diffused by him abroad upon the ox and Gâyômard.

18. Before his coming to the ox, Aûharmazd ground up the healing fruit[1], which some call 'bînâk,' small in water openly before its eyes, so that its damage and discomfort from the calamity (zanisn) might be less; and when it became at the same time lean and ill, as its breath went forth and it passed away, the ox also spoke thus: 'The cattle are to be created, and their work, labour, and care are to be appointed.'

19. And before his coming to Gâyômard, Aûharmazd brought forth a sweat upon Gâyômard, so long as he might recite a prayer (vâg) of one stanza (vikast); moreover, Aûharmazd formed that sweat into the youthful body of a man of fifteen years, radiant and tall. 20. When Gâyômard issued from the sweat he saw the world dark as night, and the earth as though not a needle's point remained free from noxious creatures; the celestial sphere was in revolution, and the sun and moon remained in motion: and the world's struggle, owing to the clamour of the Mâzînâkân demons[2], was with the constellations.

21. And the evil spirit thought that the creatures of Aûharmazd were all rendered useless except

[1. The word mîvang is an unusual form of mîvak, 'fruit.' It is probably to be traced to an Av. mivangh, which might mean 'fatness,' as Windischmann suggests.

2. The Mâzainya daêva of the Avesta, and Mâzendarân demons, or idolators, of Persian legends.]

{p. 19}

Gâyômard; and Astô-vîdâd[1] with a thousand demons, causers of death, were let forth by him on Gâyômard, 22. But his appointed time had not come, and he (Astô-vîdâd) obtained no means of noosing (âvizî-danö) him; as it is said that, when the opposition of the evil spirit came, the period of the life and rule of Gâyômard was appointed for thirty years. 23. After the coming of the adversary he lived thirty years, and Gâyômard spoke thus: 'Although the destroyer has come, mankind will be all of my race; and this one thing is good, when they perform duty and good works.'

24. And, afterwards, he (the evil spirit) came to fire, and he mingled smoke and darkness with it. 25. The planets, with many demons, dashed against the celestial sphere, and they mixed the constellations; and the whole creation was as disfigured as though fire disfigured every place and smoke arose over it. 26. And ninety days and nights the heavenly angels were contending in the world with the confederate demons of the evil spirit, and hurled them confounded to hell; and the rampart of the sky was formed so that the adversary should not be able to mingle with it.

27. Hell is in the middle of the earth; there where the evil spirit pierced the earth[2] and rushed in upon it, as all the possessions of the world were

[1. The demon of death, Astô-vîdhôtu in the Avesta (Vend. IV, 137, V, 25, 31), who is supposed 'to cast a halter around the necks of the dead to drag them to hell, but if their good works have exceeded their sins they throw off the noose and go to heaven' (Haug's Essays, 2nd ed. p. 321). This name is misread Asti-vihâd by Pâzand writers.

2. See 13.]

{p. 20}

changing into duality, and persecution, contention, and mingling of high and low became manifest.


1. This also is said, that when the primeval ox[1] passed away it fell to the right hand, and Gâyômard afterwards, when he passed away, to the left hand. 2. Gôsûrvan[2], as the soul of the primeval ox came out from the body of the ox, stood up before the ox and cried to Aûharmazd, as much as a thousand men when they sustain a cry at one time, thus: 'With whom is the guardianship of the creatures left by thee, when ruin has broken into the earth, and vegetation is withered, and water is troubled? Where is the man[3] of whom it was said by thee thus: I will produce him, so that he may preach carefulness?'

3. And Aûharmazd spoke thus: 'You are made ill 4, O Gôsûrvan! you, have the illness which the evil spirit brought on if it were proper to produce that man in this earth at this time, the. evil spirit would not have been oppressive in it.'

[1. Literally, 'the sole-created ox' from whom all the animals and some plants are supposed to have proceeded (see Chaps. X and XIV), as mankind proceeded from Gâyômard. It is the ox of the primitive creation, mentioned in Chap. III, 14, 18.

2. The spiritual representative of the primeval ox, called Geusurvâ, 'soul of the bull,' in the Avesta, of which name Gôsûrvan is a corruption. The complaint of Gôsûrvan is recorded in the Gâthas, the oldest part of the Avesta (see Yas, XXIX).

3. Referring to Zaratûst.

4. In K20, 'You are ill.']

{p. 21}

4. Forth Gôsûrvan walked to the star station (pâyak) and cried in the same manner, and forth to the moon station and cried in the same manner, and forth to the sun station, and then the guardian spirit of Zaratûst was exhibited to her, and Aûharmazd said thus[1]: 'I will produce for the world him who will preach carefulness.' 5. Contented became the spirit Gôsûrvan, and assented thus: 'I will nourish the creatures;' that is, she became again consenting to a worldly creation in the world.


1. Seven chieftains of the planets have come unto the seven chieftains of the constellations[2], as the planet Mercury (Tîr) unto Tîstar, the planet Mars (Vâhrâm) unto Haptôk-rîng, the planet Jupiter (Aûharmazd) unto Vanand, the planet Venus (Anâhîd) unto Satavês, the planet Saturn (Kêvân) unto the great one of the middle of the sky, Gôkîhar[3]

[1 As the text stands in the MSS. it means, 'and then the guardian spirit of Zaratûst demonstrated to her thus;' but whether it be intended to represent the fravâhar as producing the creature is doubtful. The angel Gôs, who is identified with Gôsûrvan, is usually considered a female, but this is hardly consistent with being the soul of a bull (see Chap. X, 1, 2), though applicable enough to a representative of the earth. In the Selections of Zâd-sparam, II, 6, however, this mythological animal is said to have been a female (see Appendix to Bundahis).

2. Five of these are mentioned in Chap. II, 7, 8, to which the sun and moon are here added.

3. As this name stands in the MSS. it may be read Gûrgdâr (as in the Pâz. MSS), Gûrkîhar, or Dûrkîhar; the reading is very uncertain, and Windischmann suggests Gûrg-kîhar, 'wolf progeny' (compare vehrkô-kithra in Ardabahist Yast 8). A shooting star, {footnote p. 22} or meteor, is probably meant (see Chap. XXX, 18, 3 1), and as it is the special disturber of the moon, it may be Gô-kîhar (Av. gao-kithra, of ox-lineage'), a common epithet of the moon; the Pahlavi letter k being often written something like the compound rk; and this supposition is confirmed by the Gôk-kihar of TD in Chap. XXVIII, 44.]

{p. 22}

and the thievish (dûggun) Mûspar[1], provided with tails, unto the sun and moon and stars. 2. The sun has attached Mûspar to its own radiance by mutual agreement, so that he may be less able to do harm (vinâs).

3. Of Mount Albûrz[2] it is declared, that around the world and Mount Têrak[3], which is the middle of the world, the revolution of the sun is like a moat[4] around the world; it turns back in a circuit[5] owing to the enclosure (var) of Mount Albûrz around Têrak. 4. As it is said that it is the Têrak of Albûrz from behind which my sun and moon and stars return again[6]. 5. For there are a hundred

[1. This is written Mûs-parîk in TD in Chap. XXVIII, 44, and seems to be the mûs pairika of Yas. XVII, 46, LXVII, 23, as noticed by Windischmann; it is probably meant here for a comet, as it is attached to the sun. The zodiacal light and milky way have too little of the wandering character of planets to be considered planetary opponents of the sun and moon.

2. The hara berezaiti, 'lofty mountain-range,' of the Avesta, which is an ideal representative of the loftiest mountains known to the ancient Iranians, the Alburz range in Mâzendarân, south of the Caspian. See Chaps. VIII, 2, XII, 1, 3.

3. The Taêra of Yas. XLI, 24, Râm Yt. 7, Zamyâd Yt. 6. See Chap. XII, 2, 4.

4. The word mayâ-gîr is a Huz. hybrid for âv-gîr, 'a water-holder, or ditch.'

5. The word may be either âvêgak or khavîgak, with this meaning.

6. This appears to be a quotation from the Rashnu Yast, 26. The Huz. word for 'month' is here used for the 'moon.']

{p. 23}

and eighty apertures (rôgîn) in the east, and a hundred and eighty in the west, through Albûrz; and the sun, every day, comes in through an aperture, and goes out through an aperture[1]; and the whole connection and motion of the moon and constellations and planets is with it: every day it always illumines (or warms) three regions (kêshvar)[2] and a half, as is evident to the eyesight. 6. And twice in every year the day and night are equal, for on the original attack[3], when[4] it (the sun) went forth from its first degree (khûrdak), the day and night were equal, it was the season of spring; when it arrives at the first degree of Kalakang (Cancer) the time of day is greatest, it is the beginning of summer; when it arrives at the sign (khûrdak) Tarâgûk (Libra) the day and night are equal, it is the beginning of autumn; when it arrives at the sign Vahîk (Capricorn) the night is a maximum, it is the beginning of winter; and when it arrives at Varak (Aries) the night and day have again become equal, as when it

[1. This mode of accounting for the varying position of sunrise and sunset resembles that in the Book of Enoch, LXXI, but only six eastern and six western gates of heaven are there mentioned, and the sun changes its gates of entrance and exit only once a month, instead of daily.

2. See s 9 and Chap. XI.

3. The reading of this word is doubtful, although its meaning is tolerably clear. The Pâz. MSS. read har dô, 'both;' Justi reads ardab, 'quarrel;' and in the Selections of Zâd-sparam it is written ârdîk. It seems probable that the word is kharah, 'attack,' which being written exactly like ardê (Av. ashya, see Yas. LVI, 1, 1) has had a circumflex added to indicate the supposed d, and this false reading has led to the more modern form ârdîk (Pers. ârd, 'anger'). But probabilities in obscure matters are often treacherous guides.

4. Reading amat, 'when,' instead of mûn, 'which,' throughout the sentence (see note to Chap. I, 7).]

{p. 24}

went forth from Varak. 7. So that when it comes back to Varak, in three hundred and sixty days and the five Gâtha days[1], it goes in and comes out through one and the same aperture; the aperture is not mentioned, for if it had been mentioned the demons would have known the secret, and been able to introduce disaster.

8. From there where the sun comes on on the longest day to where it comes on on the shortest day is the east region Savah; from there where it comes on on the shortest day to where it goes off on the shortest day is the direction of the south regions Fradadafsh and Vîdadafsh; from there where it goes in on the shortest day to where it goes in on the longest day is the west region Arzah; from there where it comes in on the longest day to there where it goes in on the longest day are the north regions Vôrûbarst and Vôrûgarst[2]. 9. When the sun comes on, it illumines (or warms) the regions of Savah, Fradadafsh, Vîdadafsh, and half of Khvanîras[3]; when it goes in on the dark side, it illumines the regions of Arzah, Vôrûbarst, Vôrûgarst, and one half of Khvanîras; when it is day here it is night there.

[1. The five supplementary days added to the last of the twelve months, of thirty days each, to complete the year. For these days no additional apertures are provided in Albûrz, and the sun appears to have the choice of either of the two centre apertures out of the 180 on each side of the world. This arrangement seems to indicate that the idea of the apertures is older than the rectification of the calendar which added the five Gâtha days to an original year of 360 days.

2. This sentence occurs, without the names of the kêshvars or regions, in the Pahl. Vend. XIX, 19. For the kêshvars see Chap. XI.

3. Often corrupted into Khantras in the MSS.]

{p. 25}


1. On the conflict[1] of the creations of the world with the: antagonism of the evil spirit it is said in revelation, that the evil spirit, even as he rushed in and looked upon the pure bravery of the angels and his own violence[2], wished to rush back. 2. The spirit of the sky is himself like one of the warriors who has put on armour; he arrayed the sky against the evil. spirit, and led on in the contest, until Aûharmazd had completed a rampart around, stronger than the sky and in front of the sky. 3. And his guardian spirits (fravâhar) of warriors and the righteous, on war horses and spear in hand, were around the sky; such-like as the hair on the head is the similitude (ângunî-aîtak) of those who hold the watch of the rampart. 4. And no passage was found by the evil spirit, who rushed back; and he beheld the annihilation of the demons and his own impotence, as Aûharmazd, did his own final triumph, producing the renovation of the universe for ever and everlasting.


1. The second conflict was waged with the water, because, as the star Tîstar was in Cancer, the water which is in the subdivision they call Avrak[3] was

[1. This is the doubtful word translated 'attack' in Chap. V, 6 (see the note there); it also occurs at the beginning of each of the following four chapters.

2. Reading zôrîh; but it may be zûrîh, 'falsity.'

3. The ninth lunar mansion (see Chap. II, 3) corresponding with the middle of Cancer. Tîstar (Sirius) being in Cancer probably {footnote p. 26} means that it rises about the same time as the stars of Cancer, as is actually the case.]

{p. 26}

pouring, on the same day when the destroyer rushed in, and came again into notice for mischief (âvârak) in the direction of the west. 2. For every single month is the owner of one constellation; the month Tîr is the fourth month[1] of the year, and Cancer the fourth constellation from Aries, so it is the owner of Cancer, into which Tîstar sprang, and displayed the characteristics of a producer of rain; and he brought on the water aloft by the strength of the wind. 3. Co-operators with Tîstar were Vohûman and the angel Hôm, with the assistance of the angel Bûrg and the righteous guardian spirits in orderly arrangement.

4. Tîstar was converted into three forms, the form of a man and the form of a horse and the form of a bull[2]; thirty days and nights he was distinguished in brilliance[3], and in each form he produced rain ten days and nights; as the astrologers say that every constellation has three forms. 5. Every single drop of that rain became as big as a bowl, and the water stood the height of a man over the whole of this earth; and the noxious creatures on the earth being all killed by the rain, went into the holes of the earth[4].

[1. See Chap. XXV, 20.

2. See Tîstar Yt. 13, 16, 18, where it is stated that Tîstar assumes the form of a man for the first ten nights, of a bull for the second ten nights, and of a horse for the third ten nights. Also in Vend. XIX, 126 Tîstar is specially invoked in his form of a bull.

3. Or it may be translated, 'he hovered in the light,' as Windischmann and Justi have it.

4. In comparing the inundation produced by Tîstar, with the Noachian deluge, it must be recollected that the former is represented as occurring before mankind had propagated on the earth.]

{p. 27}

6. And, afterwards, the wind spirit, so that it may not be contaminated (gûmîkht), stirs up the wind and atmosphere as the life stirs in the body; and the water was all swept away by it, and was brought out to the borders of the earth, and the wide-formed[1] ocean arose therefrom. 7. The noxious creatures remained dead within the earth, and their venom and stench were mingled with the earth, and in order to carry that poison away from the earth Tîstar went down into the ocean in the form of a white horse with long hoofs[2].

8. And Apâôsh[3], the demon, came meeting him in the likeness of a black horse with clumsy (kund) hoofs; a mile (parasang)[4] away from him fled Tîstar, through the fright which drove him away. 9. And Tîstar begged for success from Aûharmazd, and Aûharmazd gave him strength and power, as it is said, that unto Tîstar was brought at once the strength of ten vigorous horses, ten vigorous camels, ten vigorous bulls, ten mountains, and ten rivers[5]. 10. A mile away from him fled Apâôsh, the demon, through fright at his strength; on account of this they speak of an arrow-shot with Tîstar's strength in the sense of a mile.

[1. The term farâkû-kard, 'wide-formed,' is a free Pahlavi translation of Av. vouru-kasha, 'wide-shored,' or 'having wide abysses,' applied to the boundless ocean (see Chap. XIII, 1).

2. For the Avesta account of this expedition of Tîstar, see Tîstar Yt. 20-29.

3. Miswritten Apavs or Apavas in Pâzand, by all MSS. in this chapter, but see Chap. XXVIII, 39.

4. The word parasang is here used for Av. hâthra, which was about an English mile (see Chap. XXVI, 1).

5. A quotation from Tîstar Yt. 25.]

{p. 28}

11. Afterwards, with a cloud for a jar (khûmb)--thus they call the measure which was a means of the work--he seized upon the water and made it rain most prodigiously, in drops like bull's heads and men's heads, pouring in handfuls and pouring in armfuls, both great and small. 12. On the production of that rain the demons Aspengargâk[1] and Apâôsh contended with it, and the fire Vâzist[2] turned its club over; and owing to the blow of the club Aspengargâk made a very grievous noise, as even now, in a conflict with the producer of rain, a groaning and raging[3] are manifest. 13. And ten nights and days rain was produced by him in that manner, and the poison and venom of the noxious creatures which were in the earth were, all mixed up in the water, and the water became quite salt, because there remained in the earth some of those germs which noxious creatures ever collect.

14. Afterwards, the wind, in the same manner as before, restrained the water, at the end of three days, on various sides of the earth; and the three great seas and twenty-three small seas[4] arose therefrom, and two fountains (kashmak) of the sea thereby became manifest, one the Kêkast lake, and one the Sôvbar[5], whose sources are connected with the

[1. Mentioned in Vend. XIX, 135, thus: thou shouldst propitiate the fire Vâzista, the smiter of the demon Spengaghra.' It, is also written Spêngargâk in Chap. XVII, 1, and Aspengarôgâ in Chap. XXVIII, 39.

2. That is, the lightning (see Chap. XVII, 1).

3. Or, 'a tumult and flashing.' Justi has 'howling and shrieking;' the two words being very ambiguous in the original.

4. See Chap. XIII, 6.

5. See Chap. XXII, 1-3.]

{p. 29}

fountain of the sea. 15. And at its north side[1] two rivers flowed out, and went one to the east and one to the west; they are the Arag river and the Vêh river; as it is said thus: 'Through those finger-breadth tricklings do thou pour and draw forth two such waters, O Aûharmazd!' 16. Both those rivers wind about through all the extremities of the earth, and intermingle again with the water of the wide-formed ocean. 17. As those two rivers flowed out, and from the same place of origin as theirs, eighteen[2] navigable rivers flowed out, and after the other waters have flowed out from those navigable streams they all flow back to the Arag[3] river and Vêh river, whose fertilization (khvâpardârîh) of the world arises therefrom.


0. On the conflict which the evil spirit waged with the earth.

1. As the evil spirit rushed in, the earth shook[4], and the substance of mountains was created in the earth. 2. First, Mount Albûrz arose; afterwards,

[1. Probably meaning the north side of the Arêdvîvsûr fountain of the sea, which is said to be on the lofty Hûgar, a portion of Albûrz, from the northern side of which these two semi-mythical rivers are said to flow (see Chaps. XII, 5, XX,

2. See Chap. XX, 2.

3. Here written Arêng, but the usual Pahlavi reading is Arag; the nasal of the Av. Rangha being generally omitted in Pahlavi, as other nasals are sometimes; thus we often find sag for sang, 'stone.'

4. The word gudnîd is a transposition of gundîd, a graphical variant of gunbîd, 'shook.']

{p. 30}

the other ranges of mountains (kôfânîhâ) of the middle of the earth; for as Albûrz grew forth all the mountains remained in motion, for they have all grown forth from the root of Albûrz. 3. At that time they came up from the earth, like a tree which has grown up to the clouds and its root[1] to the bottom; and their root passed on that way from one to the other, and they are arranged in mutual connection. 4. Afterwards, about that wonderful shaking out from the earth, they say that a great mountain is the knot of lands; and the passage for the waters within the mountains is the root which is below the mountains; they forsake the upper parts so that they may flow into it, just as the roots of trees pass into the earth; a counterpart (ângunî-aîtak) of the blood in the arteries of men, which gives strength to the whole body. 5. In numbers[2], apart from Albûrz, all the mountains grew up out of the earth in eighteen years[3], from which arises the perfection[4] of men's advantage.


1. The conflict waged with plants was that when[5] they became quite dry. 2. Amerôdad the arch-angel,

[1. M6 has rakâk, but this and many other strange words are probably due to the copyist of that MS. having an original before him which was nearly illegible in many places.

2. Or, 'as it were innumerable;' the word amar meaning both 'number' and 'innumerable.'

3. See Chap. XII, 1.

4. The word must be farhâkhtagân, 'proprieties,' both here and in Chap. IX, 6, as farhâkhtisn is an ungrammatical form.

5. Reading amat, 'when,' instead of mûn, 'which' (see the note to Chap. 1, 7).]

{p. 31}

as the vegetation was his own, pounded the plants small, and mixed them up with the water whichstar seized, and Tîstar made that water rain down upon the whole earth. 3. On the whole earth plants grew up like hair upon the heads of men. 4. Ten thousand[1] of them grew forth of one special description, for keeping away the ten thousand species of disease which the evil spirit produced for the creatures; and from those ten thousand, the 100,000 species[2] of plants have grown forth.

5. From that same germ of plants the tree of all germs[3] was given forth, and grew up in the wide-formed ocean, from which the germs of all species of plants ever increased. 6. And near to that tree of all germs the Gôkard tree[4] was produced, for keeping away deformed (dûspad) decrepitude; and the full perfection of the world arose therefrom.


0. On the conflict waged with the primeval ox.

1. As it passed away[5], owing to the vegetable principle (kîharak) proceeding, from every limb of the ox, fifty and five species of grain[6] and twelve species of medicinal plants grew forth from the earth, and their splendour and strength were the

[1. See Chap. XXVII, 2.

2. Here 120,000 are mentioned, but see Chap. XXVII, 2, and Selections of Zâd-sparam, VIII, 2.

3. Or, 'of all seeds' (see Chap. XVIII, 9).

4. The white-Hôm tree (see Chaps. XVIII, 1-6, XXVII, 4).

5. See Chap. IV, 1.

6. See Chaps. XIV, 1, XXVII, 2.]

{p. 32}

seminal energy (tôkhmîh) of the ox. 2. Delivered to the moon station[1], that seed was thoroughly purified by the light of the moon, fully prepared in every way, and produced life in a body. 3. Thence arose two oxen, one male and one female; and, afterwards, two hundred and eighty-two species of each kind[2] became manifest upon the earth. 4. The dwelling (mânîst) of the birds is in the air, and the fish are in the midst of the water.


1. On the nature of the earth it says in revelation, that there are thirty and three kinds[3] of land. 2. On the day when Tîstar produced the rain, when its seas arose therefrom, the whole place, half taken up by water, was converted into seven portions; this portion[4], as much as one-half, is the middle, and six portions are around; those six portions are together as much as Khvanîras. 3. The name

[1. See Chap. XIV, 3. In the Mâh Yt. 0, 7, blessings are invoked for 'the moon of ox lineage' (gaokithra) in conjunction with the sole-created ox and the ox of many species.' In the Avesta the gender of these two primeval oxen appears doubtful, owing probably to the dual gen. masc. of their epithets being of the same form as a sing. gen. fem.

2. That is, of each sex. See Chap. XIV, 13, 27. In all three occurrences of this number K20 has 272, but all other MSS. have 282 (except M6 in this place only).

3. K20b has 'thirty-two kinds.'

4. That is, Khvanîras; or it may be 'one portion,' as hanâ, 'this,' is often used for aê, 'one,' because the Pâzand form of both words is e.]

{p. 33}

kêshvar ('zone or region') is also applied to them, and they existed side by side (kash kash)[1]; as on the east side of this portion (Khvanîras) is the Savah region, on the west is the Arzah region; the two portions on the south side are the Fradadafsh and Vidadafsh regions, the two portions on the north side are the Vôrûbarst and Vôrûgarst regions, and that in the middle is Khvanîras. 4. And Khvanîras has the sea, for one part of the wide-formed ocean wound about around it; and from Vôrûbarst and Vôrûgarst a lofty mountain grew tip; so that it is not possible for any one to go from region to region[2].

5. And of these seven regions every benefit was created most in Khvanîras, and the evil spirit also produced most for Khvanîras, on account of the superiority (sarîh)[3] which he saw in it. 6. For the Kayânians and heroes were created in Khvanîras; and the good religion of the Mazdayasnians was created in Khvanîras, and afterwards conveyed to the other regions; Sôshyans[4] is born in Khvanîras, who makes the evil spirit impotent, and causes the resurrection and future existence.

[1. Possibly an attempt to connect the term kêshvar with kash; but the sentence may also be translated thus: 'and they formed various districts like this portion; on the east side is the Savah region,' &c.

2. In the Pahlavi Vend. I, 4a, and in the Mainyô-i-khard, IX, 6, it is added, 'except with the permission of the angels' or the demons.

3. So in M6; but K20 has zadârîh, which would imply, 'for the destruction of what he saw of it.'

4. Always spelt so in the Bundahis MSS. K20 and M6, and corrupted into Sôshyôs in Pâzand; but it is more usually written Sôshâns in other Pahlavi works, and its Avesta form is Saoshyãs (see Chap. XXXII, 8).]

{p. 34}


1. On the nature of mountains it says in revelation, that, at first, the mountains have grown forth in eighteen years; and Albûrz ever grew, till the completion of eight hundred years; two hundred years up to the star station (pâyak), two hundred years to the moon station, two hundred years to the sun station, and two hundred years to the endless light[1]. 2. While the other mountains have grown out of Albûrz, in number 2244 mountains, and are Hûgar the lofty[2], Têrak of Albûrz, Kakâd-i-Dâîtîk, and the Arezûr ridge, the Aûsîndôm mountain, Mount Apârsên which they say is the mountain of Pârs, Mount Zarid also which is Mount Mânûs, Mount Aîrak, Mount Kaf, Mount Vâdgês, Mount Aûshdâstâr, Mount Arezûr-bûm, Mount Rôyisn-hômand, Mount Padashkhvârgar which is the greatest in Khvârîh, the mountain which they call Kînö, Mount Rêvand, Mount Dârspêt the Bakyir mountain, Mount Kabeds-ikaft, Mount Sîyâk-mûîmand, Mount Vafar-hômand, Mount Spendyâd and Kôndrâsp, Mount Asnavand and Kôndras, Mount

[1. These are the four grades of the Mazdayasnian heaven.

2. In all the geographical details, mentioned in the Bundahis, there is a strange mixture of mythical tradition with actual fact. The author of the work finds names mentioned in the Avesta, by old writers of another country, and endeavours to identify them with places known to himself; much in the same way as attempts have been made to identify the geographical details of the garden of Eden. Most of the names of these mountains occur in the Zamyâd Yast, or in other parts of the Avesta, as will be noticed in detail further on. The number 2244 is also mentioned in 7 of that Yast. A very able commentary on this chapter will be found in Windischmann's Zoroastriche Studien, pp. 1-19.]

{p. 35}

Sikidâv[1], a mountain among which are in Kangdez[2], of which they say that they are a comfort and delight of the good creator, the smaller hills.

3. I will mention them also a second time; Albûrz[3] is around this earth and is connected with the sky. 4. The Têrak[4] of Albûrz is that through which the stars, moon, and sun pass[5] in, and through it they come back. 5. Hûgar the lofty[6] is that from which the water of Arêdvîvsûr[7] leaps down the height of a thousand men. 6. The Aûsîndôm[8] mountain is that which, being of ruby

[1. The Av. Sikidava of Zamyâd Yt. 5.

2. See Chap. XXIX, 4, 10; the name is here written Kandez in R20. In M6 the word is kôf, 'mountain,' which is almost identical in form; if this be the correct reading, the translation will be, 'a mountain among those in the mountain which they say is agreeable and the delight,' &c. This mountain is, however, probably intended for the Av. Antare-kangha, 'within Kangha,' of Zamyâd Yt. 4.

3. The Haraiti-bares of Zamyâd Yt. r; but it is more usually called Hara berezaiti (see Chap. V, 3).

4. A central peak of the mythic Albûrz, around which the heavenly bodies are said to revolve (see Chap. V, a). It is the Av. Taêra, mentioned in Yas. XLI, 24, Râm Yt. 7, Zamyâd Vt. 6.

5. So in M6, but K20 has 'go in.'

6. This appears to be another peak of the mythic Albûrz, probably in the west. as it is connected with Satavês, the western chieftain of the constellations (see Chaps. XXIV, 17 and II, 7), It is the Av. Hukairya berezô, of Yas. LXIV, 14, Âbân Yt. 3, 25, 96, Gôs Yt. 8 Mihir Yt. 88, Rashnu Yt. 24, Fravardîn Yt. 6, Râm Yt. 15.

7. See Chap. XIII, 3-5.

8. In Aûharmazd Yt. 3x and Zamyâd Yt. 2, 66, an Ushidhâo mountain is mentioned as having many mountain waters around it, but this seems to be a near neighbour of the Ushidarena mountain (see 15). The details in the text correspond with the description of the Hindva mountain, given in Tîstar Yt. 32, thus: us Hindvad paiti garôid yô histaiti maidhîm zrayanghô vouru-kashahê, 'up on the Hindva mountain, which stands amid the wide-shored {footnote p. 36} ocean;' and the Pahlavi name, Aûsîndôm, has probably arisen from the us Hindvad of this passage, as suggested by Justi. (See Chaps. XIII, 5, and XVIII, 10, 11.)]

{p. 36}

(khûn-âhinö), of the substance of the sky[1], is in the midst of the wide-formed ocean, so that its water, which is from Hûgar, pours down into it (the ocean). 7. Kakâd-i-Dâîtîk ('the judicial peak') is that of the middle of the world, the height of a hundred men, on which the Kînvar bridge[2] stands; and they take account of the soul at that place. 8. The Arezûr[3] ridge [of the Albûrz mountain] is a summit at the gate of hell, where they always hold the concourse of the demons. 9. This also is said, that, excepting Albûrz, the Apârsên[4] mountain is the

[1. The sky is considered to be a true firmament, or hard and indestructible dome.

2. The Kinvatô-peretu of the Avesta, mentioned even in the Gâthas. In the Pahlavi Vend. XIX, 101, it is stated that 'they pass across by the Kinvad bridge, whose two extremities are their own heavenly angels, one stands at Kakâd-i-Dâîtîk, and one at Albûrz;' the former mountain seems not to be mentioned in the Avesta, but the bridge is the path of the soul to the other world if righteous the soul passes by it easily over Albûrz (the confines of this world) into paradise, but if wicked it drops off the bridge into hell.

3. See Vend III, 23, XIX, 140. The words in brackets may perhaps be inserted by mistake, but they occur in. all MSS. examined, and there is nothing inconsistent with tradition in supposing Arezûr to be the extreme northern range of the mythic Albûrz which surrounds the earth, being the place where demons chiefly congregate.

4. Justi adopts the reading Harpârsên, which occurs in K20 four times out of eleven, but is corrected thrice. Windischmann suggests that this mountain is the Av. skyata (or iskatâ) upairi-saêna of Yas. X, 29, and Zamyâd Yt. 3, which the Pahlavi translator of the Yasna explains as 'the Pârsên crag.' It seems to be a general name for the principal mountain ranges in the south and east of Iran, as maybe seen on comparing this passage and Chap. XXIV, {footnote p. 37}2 8, with Chap. XX, 16, 17, 21, 22, where the Haro, Hêtûmand, Marv, and Balkh rivers are said to spring from Mount Apârsên; but its application to the southern range is perhaps due to the etymological attempt, in the text, to connect it with Pârs. The Selections of Zâd-sparam, VII, 7, have Kînîstân for Khûgistân.]

{p. 37}

greatest; the Apârsên mountain they call the mountain of Pars, and its beginning is in Sagastân[1] and its end in Khûgistân. 10. Mount Manûs[2] is great; the mountain on which Mânûskîhar was born.

11. The remaining mountains have chiefly grown from those; as it is said that the elevation (afsârîh) of the districts had arisen most around those three mountains[3]. 12. Mount Aîrak[4] is in the middle from Hamadân to Khvârizem, and has grown from Mount Apârsên. 13. Mount [Kînö][5], which is on its east, on the frontier of Tûrkistân, is connected also with Apârsên. 14. Mount Kaf[6] has grown from the same Mount Apârsên. 15. Mount

[1. This name can also be read Sîstân.

2. In 2 it is also called Zarid, but in Zamyâd Yt. 1 Zeredhô and Aredhô-manusha are mentioned as neighbouring mountains. The word 'great' is omitted in M6.

3. That is, around the ranges of Albûrz, Apârsên, and Mânûs.

4 Perhaps intended for the Erezishô of Zamyâd Yt. 2. The description would apply to any of the mountains near Nîsâpûr.

5. This name is omitted in the MSS., but is taken from 2 as suggested by Justi. Perhaps it maybe connected with the country of Sênî' (Chap. XV, 29), which is explained as being Kînîstân, probably the land of Samarkand, which place was formerly called Kîn, according to a passage in some MSS. of Tabari's Chronicle, quoted in Ouseley's Oriental Geography, p. 298.

6. Not Kâf, nor is it mentioned in the Pahlavi Vend. V, 57, as supposed by Justi; the kâf kôp ârâyad of Spiegel's edition of the Pahlavi text being a misprint for kâfakö pârâyad, 'it traverses a fissure' (see Haug's Essays. 2nd ed. p. 326, note 2).]

{p. 38}

Aûshdâstâr[1] is in Sagastân. 16. Mount Arezûr[2] is that which is in the direction of Arûm. 17. The Padashkhvârgar[3] mountain is that which is in Taparîstân and the side of Gîlân. 18. The Rêvand[4] mountain is in Khûrâsân[5], on which the Bûrzîn fire[6] was established; and its name Rêvand means this, that it is glorious. 19. The Vâdgês[7] mountain is that which is on the frontier of the Vâdgêsians; that quarter is full of timber and full of trees. 20. The Bakyîr[8] mountain is that which Frâsiyâv of Tûr used as a stronghold, and he made his residence within it; and in the days of Yim[9] a myriad towns and cities were erected on its pleasant and prosperous territory. 21. Mount Kabed-sikaft[10] ('very rugged')

[1 The Av. Ushi-darena of Yas. I, 41, II, 54, III, 65, IV, 45, XXII, 31, XXV, 22, Aûharmazd Yt. 31, Zamyâd Yt. 0, 2, 97.

2. Called Arezûr-bûm in 2, which name stands for the sixth and seventh mountains, Erezurô and Bumyô, in Zamyâd Yt. 2. The land of Arûm was the eastern empire of the Romans.

3. Evidently the mountain range south of the Caspian, now called Albûrz; but whether this actual Albûrz is to be considered a part of the mythic Albûrz is not very clear.

4. The Av. Raêvaus, 'shining,' of Zamyâd Yt. 6. It is also called the Ridge of Vistâsp (see 34).

5. Or, 'the east.'

6. See Chap. XVII, 8.

7. The Av. Vâiti-gaêsô, the twelfth mountain in Zamyâd. Yt. 2; Bâdghês in Persian.

8. In 2 it is Bakyir, which Justi thinks is another name for Mount Dârspêt ('white poplar'); the latter name not being repeated here makes this supposition probable.

9. K20 has rûm and M6 has lanman, but both explained by the Pâz. gloss Yim, which is also the reading of the Pâz. MSS. If the gloss be rejected the most probable translation would be, 'and in our days Shatrô-râm (or râmisn), the victorious, erected on it a myriad towns and cities.'

10. Windischmann suggests that this may he intended for the Av. skyata or iskatâ mentioned in the note on Apârsên in 9.]

{p. 39}

is that in Pârs, out of the same Mount Apârsên. 22. Mount Sîyâk-hômand ('being black') and Mount Vafar-hômand ('having snow')[1], as far as their Kâvûl borders, have grown out of it (Apârsên) towards the direction of Kînö. 23. The Spendyâd[2] mountain is in the circuit (var) of Rêvand[3]. 24. The Kôndrâsp[4] mountain, on the summit of which is Lake Sôvbar[5], is in the district (or by the town) of Tûs. 25. The Kondrâs[6] mountain is in Aîrân-vêg[6]. The Asnavand[7] mountain is in Âtarô-pâtakân. 27. The Rôyisn-hômand[8] ('having growth') mountain is that on which vegetation has grown.

28. Whatever[9] mountains are those which are in every place of the various districts and various

[1. The Av. Syâmaka and Vafrayau of Zamyâd Yt. 5; and probably the Siyâh-kôh and Safêd-kôh of Afghânistân. With regard to Kînö, see the note on 13. The former mountain is called Sîyâk-mûî-mand, 'having black hair,' in 2, which is certainly a more grammatical form than Sîyâk-hômand.

2. The Av. Spentô-dâta of Zamyâd Yt. 6.

3. The term var often means 'lake,' but we are not informed of any Lake Rêvand, though a mountain of that name is described in 18; so it seems advisable to take var here in its wider sense of 'enclosure, circuit, district.'

4. The Av. Kadrva-aspa of Zamyâd Yt. 6.

5. See Chap. XXII, 3. All MSS. have Sôbar here.

6. If the circumflex be used in Pahlavi to indicate not only the consonant d, but also the vowel î, ê when it follows a vowel, as seems probable, this name can be read Kôîrâs; in any case, it is evidently intended for the Av. Kaoirisa in Zamyâd Yt. 6. It is written Kôndras in 2.

7. The Av. Asnavau of Zamyâd Yt. 5, Âtash Nyây. 5, Sîrôz. 9. See also Chap. XVII, 7.

8. The Av. Raoidhitô, the eighth mountain of Zamyâd Yt. 2.

9. So in M6 and the Pâz. MSS., but K20 has, 'The country mountains.']

{p. 40}

countries, and cause the tillage and prosperity therein, are many in name and many in number, and have grown from these same mountains. 29. As Mount Ganâvad, Mount Asparôg, Mount Pâhargar, Mount Dimâvand, Mount Râvak, Mount Zarîn, Mount Gêsbakht, Mount Dâvad, Mount Mîgîn, and Mount Marak[1], which have all grown from Mount Apârsên, of which the other mountains are enumerated. 30. For the Dâvad[2] mountain has grown into Khûgîstân likewise from the Apârsên mountain. 31. The Dimâvand[3] mountain is that in which Bêvarâsp is bound. 32. From the same Padashkhvârgar mountain unto Mount Kûmîs[4], which they call Mount Madôfryâd ('Come-to-help')--that in which Vistâsp routed Argâsp--is Mount Mîyân-i-dast ('mid-plain')[5], and was broken off from that mountain there. 33. They say, in the war of the religion, when there was confusion among the Iranians it broke off from that mountain, and slid down into the middle of the plain; the Iranians were saved by

[1. This list is evidently intended to include the chief mountains known to the author of the Bundahis, which he could not identify with any of those mentioned in the Avesta.

2. This is the Pâzand reading of the name, on which very little reliance can be placed; the Pahlavi can also be read Dânad, and it may be the Deana mountain, 12,000 feet high, near Kaski-zard.

3. See Chap. XXIX, 9. This volcanic mountain, about 20,000 feet high and near Teheran, still retains this ancient Persian name, meaning 'wintry.' It is the chief mountain of the Padashkhvârgar range, which the Bundahis evidently considers as an offshoot of the Apârsên ranges.

4. The present name of a mountain between Nîsâpûr and the desert.

5. The name of a place about midway between Astarâbâd and Nîsâpûr. This mountain is called Mîgîn in 29, probably from a place called Mezinan in the same neighbourhood.]

{p. 41}

it, and it was called, 'Come-to-help' by them. 34. The Ganâvad[1] mountain is likewise there, on the Ridge of Vistâsp (pûst-i Vistâspân)[2] at the abode of the Bûrzîn-Mitrô fire, nine leagues (parasang) to the west. 35. Râvak Bîsan[3] is in Zrâvakad; this place, some say, is Zravad, some call itsan, some Kalâk; from this the road of two sides of the mountain is down the middle of a fortress; for this reason, that is, because it is there formed, they call Kalâk a fortress this place they also call within the land of Sarak. 36. Mount Asparôg[4] is established from the country of Lake Kêkast unto Pârs. 37. Pâhargar ('the Pâhar range') is in Khûrâsân. 38. Mount Marak[6] is in Lârân. 39. Mount Zarîn is in Tûrkîstân. 40. Mount Bakht-tan[7] is in Spâhân.

41. The rest, apart from this enumeration, which they reckon as fostering hills of the country in the religion of the Mazdayasnians, are the small hills, those which have grown piecemeal in places.


1. On the nature of seas it says in revelation, that the wide-formed ocean keeps one-third of this earth on the south side of the border of Albûrz[8], and so

[1. The Pers. Kanâbad, or Gunâbad, is near Gumin.

2. Another name for Mount Rêvand ( 18). See Chap. XVII, 8.

3. Probably in Kirmân.

4. The mountain ranges of western Persia, including the Mount Zagros of classical writers.

5. See Chap. XXII, 2.

6. Probably the Merkhinah range in northern Lâristân.

7. The Bakhtiyârî range in the province of Ispahân.

8. Or perhaps better thus: 'the wide-formed ocean is, in the {footnote p. 42} direction of the south limit of Albûrz, and possesses one-third of this earth.']

{p. 42}

wide-formed is the ocean that the water of a thousand lakes is held by it, such as the source Arêdvîvsûr[1], which some say is the fountain lake. 2. Every particular lake is of a particular kind[2], some are great, and some are small; some are so large that a man with a horse might compass them around in forty days[3], which is 1700 leagues (parasang) in extent.

3. Through the warmth and clearness of the water, purifying more than other waters, everything continually flows from the source Arêdvîvsûr. 4. At the south of Mount Albûrz a hundred thousand golden channels are there formed, and that water goes with warmth and clearness, through the channels, on to Hûgar the lofty[4]; on the summit of that mountain is a lake[5]; into that lake it flows, becomes quite purified, and comes back through a different golden channel. 5. At the height of a thousand men an open golden branch from that channel is connected with Mount Aûsîndôm[6], amid the wide-formed ocean; from there one portion flows forth to the ocean for the purification of the sea, and one portion drizzles in moisture upon the whole of this earth, and all the creations of Aûharmazd acquire

[1. The Av. Ardvî sûra of Âbân Yt. 1, &c.

2. Literally, 'for every single lake there is a single kind;' but we may perhaps read lâ, 'not,' instead of the very similar râî, 'for,' and translate as follows: 'every single lake is not of one kind;' which expresses very nearly the same meaning.

3. Compare Âbân Yt. 101.

4. See Chap. XII, 5.

5. Lake Urvis (see Chap. XXII, 11).

6. See Chaps. XII, 6, and XVIII, 10, 11.]

{p. 43}

health from it, and it dispels the dryness of the atmosphere.

6. Of the salt seas three are principal, and twenty-three are small. 7. of the three which are principal, one is the Pûtîk, one the Kamrûd, and one the Sahî-bûn. 8. of all three the Pûtîk[1] is the largest, in which is a flow and ebb, on the same side as the wide-formed ocean, and it is joined to the wide-formed ocean. 9. Amid this wide-formed ocean, on the Pûtîk side, it has a sea which they call the Gulf (var) of Satavês[2]. 10. Thick and salt the stench[3] wishes to go from the sea Pûtîk to the wide-formed ocean; with a mighty high wind therefrom, the Gulf of Satavês drives away whatever is stench, and whatever is pure and clean goes into the wide-formed ocean and the source Arêdvîvsûr; and that flows back a second time to Pûtîk[4]. 11. The control[5] of this sea (the Pûtîk) is connected with the

[1. The Av. Pûitika of Vend. V, 52, 57, and evidently the Persian Gulf.

2. So called from the constellation Satavês ( 12), see Chap. 11, 7. The details given in the text are applicable to the Gulf and Sea of `Umân, the Arabian Sea of Europeans. The description of this Gulf, given in the Pahl. Vend. V, 57, which is rather obscure, is as follows: 'In purification the impurities flow, in the purity of water, from the sea Pûtîk into the wide-formed ocean; at the southernmost side the water stands back in mist, and the blue body of Satavês stands back around it. Pûtîk stands out from the side of Satavês, this is where it is. From which side it stands is not clear to me. The water comes to Satavês through the bottom; some say that it traverses a fissure.'

3. Perhaps a better reading would be stûrg sûr-i gôndakîh, 'the intense saltness which is stench.' The author appears to have had some vague idea of the monsoon.

4. Or, perhaps, 'the other (the stench) flows back to Pûtîk.'

5. Reading band; but it may be bôd, 'consciousness, sensitiveness.']

{p. 44}

moon and wind; it comes again and goes down, in increase and decrease, because of her revolving. 12. The control[1] also of the Gulf of Satavês is attached to the constellation Satavês, in whose protection are the seas of the southern quarter, just as those on the northern side are in the protection of Haptôk-ring[2]. 13. Concerning the flow and ebb it is said, that everywhere from the presence of the moon two winds continually blow, whose abode is in the Gulf of Satavês, one they call the down-draught, and one the up-draught; when the up-draught blows it is the flow, and when the down-draught blows it is the ebb[3]. 14. In the other seas there is nothing of the nature of a revolution of the moon therein, and there are no flow and ebb. 15. The sea of Kamrûd[4] is that which they pass by, in the north, in Taparîstân; that of Sahî-bûn[5] is in Arûm.

16. Of the small seas that which was most

[1. See p. 43, note 5.

2. See Chap. II, 7.

3. This is not a confused attempt to explain the tides as the effect of the land and sea breezes, as might be suspected at first, but is a reasonable conclusion from imaginary facts. Assuming that the wind always blows eastward and westward from the moon, it follows that as the moon rises an easterly wind must blow, which may be supposed to drive the flood tide westward into the Persian Gulf; until the moon passes the meridian, when the wind, changing to the west, ought to drive the ebb tide eastward out of the Gulf thus accounting for one flow and ebb every day, dependent on the position of the moon.

4. Evidently the Caspian, which lies north of Taparîstân, a province including part of Mâzendarân.

5. Or perhaps Gâhî-bûn, meaning probably the Mediterranean or Euxine, if not both of them; the author-appears merely to have heard of the existence of such a sea in Asia Minor (Arûm). In the Selections of Zâd-sparam, VI, 14, it is called Gêhân-bûn.]

{p. 45}

wholesome[1] was the sea Kyânsîh[2], such as is in Sagastân; at first, noxious creatures, snakes, and lizards (vazagh) were not in it, and the water was sweeter than in any of the other seas; later (dadîgar) it became salt; at the closest, on account of the stench, it is not possible to go so near as one league, so very great are the stench and saltness through the violence of the hot wind. 17. When the renovation of the universe occurs it will again become sweet[3].


1. On the nature of the five classes of animals (gôspend) it says in revelation, that, when the primeval ox passed away[4], there where the marrow came out grain grew up[5], of fifty and five species, and twelve[6] species of medicinal plants grew; as it says, that out of the marrow is every separate creature, every single thing whose lodgment is in the marrow[7]. 2. From the horns arose peas (mîgûk),

[1. Comparing nîstûm with Pers. nist, 'healthy.'

2. The Av. Kãsu of Vend. XIX, 18, and Zamyâd Yt. 66, 92 (see also Chaps. XX, 34, and XXI, 7). A brackish lake and swamp now called Hâmûn, 'the desert,' or Zarah, 'the sea,' and which formerly contained fresher water than it does now.

3. The MSS. here add the first sentence of Chap. XX, and there is every reason to believe that Chaps. XX-XXII originally occupied this position, between XIII and XIV, (see the list of the contents of TD in the Introduction.).

4. See Chaps. IV, 1, and X, 1.

5. All MSS. have lakhvâr, 'again,' but this is probably a blunder . for lâlâ, 'up.'

6. K20 has 'fifteen' here, but 'twelve' in Chaps. X, 1, and XXVII, 2.

7. K20 has 'of every single thing the lodgment is in the marrow.']

{p. 46}

from the nose the leek, from the blood the grapevine[1] from which they make wine--on this account wine abounds with blood--from the lungs the rue-like herbs, from the middle of the heart[2] thyme for keeping away stench, and every one of the others as revealed in the Avesta.

3. The seed of the ox was carried up to the moon station[3]; there it was thoroughly purified, and produced the manifold species of animals[4]. 4. First, two oxen, one male and one female, and, afterwards, one pair of every single species was let go into the earth, and was discernible in Aîrân-vêg for a Hâsar ('mile'), which is like a Parasang ('league')[5]; as it says, that, on account of the valuableness of the ox, it was created twice, one time as an ox, and one time as the manifold species of animals. 5. A thousand days and nights they were without eating, and first water and afterwards herbage (aûrvar) were devoured by them.

6. And, afterwards, the three classes (kardak) of animals were produced therefrom, as it says that first were the goat and sheep, and then the camel

[1. Probably kadûk-i raz may mean 'the pumpkin and grape.'

2. Reading dîl; but the word may also be read sar, 'the head,' or jigar, 'the liver.'

3. See Chap. X, 2.

4. This translation suits both text and context very welt but gôspend pûr-sardak is evidently intended for the Av. gâus pouru-saredhô, 'the ox of many species,' of Mâh Yt. 0, 7, and Sîrôz. 12.

5. Reading mûn aê parasang humânâk; if 3 be read for aê the translation must be, 'three of which are like a Parasang,' for a Hâsar cannot be equal to three Parasangs (see Chaps. XVI, 70 and XXVI). The phrase in the text probably means merely that a Hâsar is a measure for long distances, just as a Parasang is.]

{p. 47}

and swine, and then the horse and ass. 7. For, first, those suitable for grazing were created therefrom, those are now kept in the valley (lâî); the second created were those of the hill summits (sar-i dêz)[1], which are wide-travellers, and habits (nihâdak) are not taught to them by hand; the third created were those dwelling in the water.

8. As for the genera (khadûînak), the first genus is that which has the foot cloven in two, and is suitable for grazing; of which a camel larger than a horse is small and new-born. 9. The second genus is ass-footed, of which the swift[2] horse is the largest, and the ass the least. 10. The third genus is that of the five-dividing paw, of which the dog is the largest, and the civet-cat the least. 11. The fourth genus is the flying, of which the griffon of three natures[3] is the largest, and the chaffinch[4] the least. 12. The fifth genus is that of the water, of which the Kar fish[5] is the largest, and the Nemadu[6] the least.

13, These five genera are apportioned out into

[1. Justi reads gîrîsak, the Av. gairishâkô, 'mountain-frequenting,' of Tîstar Yt. 36; but this is doubtful.

2. Pahl. zibâl = Pers. zîbâl.

3. The Paz. sin-i se avinâ is the Pahl. sên-i 3 khadûînak of Chap. XXIV, II, 29, the Sîn bird or Sîmurgh of Persian legends, the Av. saêna. The word avinâ is a Pâz. misreading either of âînak, 'kind, sort,' or of anganâk, 'dividing.' The mixture of Pâzand and Pahlavi in this and some other chapters is rather perplexing, but the Pâzand misreadings can usually be corrected after transliterating them back into Pahlavi characters.

4. Reading va taru (Pers. tar).

5. See Chaps. XVIII, 3, and XXIV, 13.

6. If this Pâzand word be written in Pahlavi letters it may be read va magan, which may stand for va magil, 'and the leech;', but this is very uncertain.]

{p. 48}

two hundred and eighty-two[1] species (sardak). 14. First are five species of goat, the ass-goat[2], the milch-goat, the mountain-goat, the fawn, and the common goat. 15. Second, five species of sheep, that with a tail, that which has no tail, the dog-sheep, the wether, and the Kûrisk sheep, a sheep whose horn is great; it possesses a grandeur[3] like unto a horse, and they use it mostly for a steed (bâra), as it is said that Mânûskîhar kept a Kûrisk as a steed. 16. Third, two species of camel, the mountain one and that suitable for grazing; for one is fit to keep in the mountain, and one in the plain; they are one-humped and two-humped. 17. Fourth, fifteen species of ox, the white, mud-coloured[4], red, yellow, black, and dappled, the elk, the buffalo, the camel-leopard ox, the fish-chewing[5] ox, the Fars ox, the Kagau, and other species of ox. 18. Fifth, eight species of horse, the Arab, the Persian, the mule[6], the ass, the wild ass (gôr), the hippopotamus (asp-i âvî), and other species of horse. 19. Sixth, ten species of dog, the shepherd's dog, the village-dog which is the house-protector, the blood-hound, the slender hound[7], the

[1. K20 alone has 272 (see Chap. X. 3).

2. The khar-bûz (see Chap. XXIV, 2).

3. Supposing se koh to be a Pâz. misreading of Pahl. sukûh. Justi's translation is: 'it inhabits the three mountains, like the horse.'

4. Pâz. ashgun is evidently for Pahl. hasgûn.

5. Transcribing the Pâz. mâhi khu ushân into Pahlavi it may be read mâhîkân-khvashân (khashân?).

6. Instead of these first three species M6 has 'the white, black, yellow, bay, and chestnut.' K20 omits 'the ass' by mistake.

7. These first four species are the Av. pasus-haurvô, vis-haurvô, vôhunazgô, and taurunô of Vend. V, 92-98, XIII, 21, 26-74, 117, 164, 165.]

{p. 49}

water-beaver[1] which they call the water-dog, the fox, the ichneumon (râsu), the hedgehog which they call 'thorny-back,' the porcupine[2], and the civet-cat; of which, two species are those accustomed[3] to burrows, one the fox and one the ichneumon; and those accustomed to jungle are such as the porcupine which has spines on its back, and the hedgehog which is similar. 20. Seventh, five species of the black[4] hare; two are wild species, one dwelling in a burrow[5] and one dwelling in the jungle. 21. Eighth, eight species of weasel; one the marten, one the black marten, the squirrel, the Bez ermine[6], the white ermine, and other species of weasel. 22. Ninth, eight species of musk animals; one is that which is recognised by its musk[7], one

[1. The Av. bawris upâpô of Âbân Yt. 129.

2. The word indra has usually been taken as a Pâz. misreading of the Pahl. aûdrak (Av. udra, 'otter,' of Vend. XIII, 48, 167, 169, XIV, 2), but this would be more probably read andra. The Pahl. sûgar, 'porcupine,' is just as likely to be misread indra, and its meaning suits the context better.

3. The Paz. âmokhtesn, which is an ungrammatical form, is evidently a misreading of the Pahl. âmûkhtagân.

4. K20 has seyâ, M6 has zyâgi hest. Perhaps some old copyist has corrected siyâk-gôsh into khar-gôsh, and so both the epithets have crept into the text, the word 'black' being superfluous.

5. Reading khan-mânist, the Pâz. khu being an obvious misreading of khan.

6. The Pâz. bez is written bedh in the Pâzand MS. (the z in M6 being shaped something like dh), and Justi supposes it represents the Arabic abyadh or baîdhâ, 'white,' and is explained by the Pers. sapêd, 'white,' which follows; but there is nothing in the text to indicate that the second name is an explanation of the first. It is more probable that bez represents the Pers. bîgâd, 'reddish, rufous, variegated,' an epithet quite applicable to the ermine in its summer fur.

7. Or, 'is known as the musk animal.']

{p. 151}

the musk animal with a bag in which is their pleasant scent, the Bis-musk[1] which eats the Bis-herb, the black musk which is the enemy of the serpent that is numerous in rivers, and other species of musk animals. 23. Tenth, one hundred and ten species of birds; flying creatures (vey = vâî) such as the griffon bird[2], the Karsipt[3], the eagle, the Kahrkâs[4] which they call the vulture, the crow, the Ardâ, the crane, and the tenth[5] is the bat. 24. There are two of them which have milk in the teat and suckle their young, the griffon bird and the bat which flies in the night; as they say that the bat is created of three races (sardak), the race (âyina) of the dog, the bird, and the musk animal; for it flies like a bird, has many teeth like a dog, and is dwelling in holes like a musk-rat. 25. These hundred and ten species of birds are distributed into eight groups (khadûînak), mostly as scattered about as when a man scatters seed, and drops the seed in his fingers to the ground, large, middling, and small. 26. Eleventh[6], fish were created of ten

[1. A kind of musk-rat; the bîs it eats is said to be the Napellus Moysis.

2. Pahl. sênô mûrûk, the sîmurgh of Persian tradition, and Av. mereghô saênô of Bahrâm Yt. 41.

3. See Chap. XIX, 16.

4. See Chap. XIX, 25.

5. Counting the 'flying creatures' and 'the vulture' as distinct species, 'the bat' is the tenth. It has been generally supposed that we should read 'eleventh,' and consider the bats as an eleventh group, especially as the MSS. call the next group (the fish) the 'twelfth;' but this view is contradicted by the remarks about the bats being mingled with those about the birds, and also by Zâd-sparam in his Selections, Chap. IX, 14 (see App. to Bund.), not mentioning any group of bats among the other animals.

6 All the MSS. have 'twelfth,' but they give no 'eleventh' nor 'thirteenth,' though they have I fourteenth' in 29. These. irregularities seem to indicate that part of this chapter has been omitted by some old copyist.]

{p. 51}

species; first, the fish Ariz[1], the Arzuvâ, the Arzukâ, the Marzukâ, and other Avesta names[2]. 27. Afterwards, within each species, species within species are created, so the total is two hundred and eighty-two species[3].

28. Of the dog they say that out of the star station, that is, away from the direction of the constellation Haptôk-rîng, was given to him further by a stage (yôgist)[4] than to men, on account of his protection of sheep, and as associating with sheep and men; for this the dog is purposely adapted[5], as three more kinds of advantage are given to him than to man, he has his own boots, his own clothing[6], and may wander about without self-exertion. 29. The twelfth[7] is the sharp-toothed beast of

[1. See Chaps. XVIII, 5, and XXIV, 13.

2. None of these names are found in the portion of the Avesta now extant.

3. K20 alone has 272 (see Chap. X, 3). The actual total number of species mentioned is 186, leaving ninety-six for the 'species within species.' Zâd-sparam in his Selections, Chap. IX,

14, differs from the numbers given in the text merely in giving ten species of ox, instead of fifteen; so the total of his details is 181, leaving 101 sub-species to make up his; grand total of 282 (see App. to Bund.)

4. A yôgist (compare Sans. yogana) was probably from fifteen to sixteen English miles, as it consisted of sixteen hâsar, each of one thousand steps of the two feet (see Chap. XXVI, 1). This sentence seems to imply that on account of the useful qualities of the dog he has a part of the lowermost grade of paradise allotted to him, further from the demon-haunted north than that allotted to the men whose inferior order of merit does not entitle them to enter the higher grades of paradise.

5. Reading âhang-hômand, 'having a purpose.'

6. Compare Vend. XIII, 106.

7. All the MSS. have 'fourteenth,' but they give no 'thirteenth.']

{p. 52}

which the leader of the flock is in such great fear, for that flock of sheep is very badly maintained which has no dog.

30. Aûharmazd said when the bird Vâresha[1] was created by him, which is a bird of prey, thus: 'Thou art created by me, O bird Vâresha! so that my vexation may be greater than my satisfaction with thee, for thou doest the will of the evil spirit more than that of me; like the wicked man who did not become satiated with wealth, thou also dost not become satiated with the slaughter of birds; but if thou be not created by me, O bird Vâresha! thou wouldst be created by him, the evil spirit, as a kite[2] with the body of a Varpa[3], by which no creature would be left alive.'

31. Many animals are created in all these species for this reason, that when one shall be perishing through the evil spirit, one shall remain.


1. On the nature of men it says in revelation, that Gâyômard, in passing away[4], gave forth seed; that seed was thoroughly purified by the motion of

[1. No doubt 'a hawk' (Pers. vâsah or bâsah), as mentioned by Justi; Av. vâre would become vâ or bâ in Persian.

2. Compare gûrîk with Pers. varik, varkâ, varkâk, varkak, vargâh, 'an eagle, falcon, kite, or hawk.'

3. Transcribing the Pâz. varpa êyi into Pahlavi we have varpak-aê, which is very nearly the same in form as varîkak-aê, 'a hut or cottage' (Pers. gurîkah-ê); so the formidable bird which the evil spirit might have created was 'a kite with a body like a cottage.'

4. See Chap. IV, 1.]

{p. 53}

the, light of the sun, and Nêryôsang[1] kept charge of two portions, and Spendarmad[2] received one portion. 2. And in forty years, with the shape of a one stemmed Rîvâs-plant[3], and the fifteen years of its fifteen leaves, Matrô and Matrôyâô[4] grew up from the earth in such a manner that their arms rested behind on their shoulders (dôsh), and one joined to the other they were connected together and both alike. 3. And the waists of both of them were brought close and so connected together that it was not clear which is the male and which the female, and which is the one whose living soul (nismô) of Aûharmazd is not away[5]. 4. As it is said thus: 'Which is created before, the soul (nismô) or the body? And Aûharmazd said that the soul is created before, and the body after, for him who was

[1. Av. Nairyô-sangha of Yas. XVII, 68, LXX, 92, Vend. XIX, 111, 112, XXII, 22, &c.; the angel who is said to be Aûharmazd's usual messenger to mankind.

2. The female archangel who is supposed to have special charge of the earth (see Chap. I, 26).

3. A plant allied to the rhubarb, the shoots of which supply an acid juice used by the Persians for acidulating preserves and drinks.

4. These names are merely variants of the Mâshya and Mâshyôî of the latter part of this chapter (nom. dual, m. and f., of Av. mashya, 'mortal'). This is shown by the Pandnâmak-i Zaratûst, saying: 'and my human nature is from Matrôîh and Matrô-yâôîh, from which first generation and seed from Gâyômard I have sprung.' And the names are also found in the more Persian forms Maharîh and Maharîyâôyîh (seethe note to 22). Windischmann considered the meaning to be that 'they grew up on the day Mitrô of the month Mitrô,' that is, the sixteenth day of the seventh month of the Parsi year; this is not confirmed, however, by Zâd-sparam in his Selections, Chap. X, 4 (see App. to Bund.)

5. That is, whether they had souls or not. That nismô is the Huzvâris for rûbân, 'soul,' appears clearly in 4, where both words are used for the same thing.]

{p. 54}

created; it is given into the body that it may produce activity, and the body is created only for activity;' hence the conclusion is this, that the soul (rûbân) is created before and the body after. 5. And both of them changed from the shape of a plant into the shape of man, and the breath (nismô) went spiritually into them, which is the soul (rûbân); and now, moreover, in that similitude a tree had grown up whose fruit was the ten varieties of man[1].

6. Aûharmazd spoke to Mashya and Mashyôî thus: 'You are man, you are the ancestry of the world, and you are created perfect in devotion[2] by me; perform devotedly the duty of the law, think good thoughts, speak good words, do good deeds, and worship no demons!' 7. Both of them first thought this, that one of them should please the other, as he is a man for him; and the first deed done by them was this, when they went out they washed[3] themselves thoroughly; and the first words spoken by them were these, that Aûharmazd created the water and earth, plants and animals, the stars, moon, and sun, and all prosperity whose origin and effect are from the manifestation of righteousness[4]. 8. And, afterwards, antagonism rushed into their minds, and their minds were

[1. This evidently refers to another tree, which is supposed to have produced the ten varieties of human monstrosities (see 31).

2. This would be a translation of the Avesta phrase, 'the best of Ârmaiti (the spirit of the earth).'

3. Comparing mêgîd with Pers. magîd; but the verb is very ambiguous, as it may mean, 'they feasted themselves,' or 'they made water.'

4. The last phrase appears to be quoted from the Pahlavi Hâdôkht Nask, I, 2.]

{p. 55}

thoroughly corrupted, and they exclaimed that the evil spirit created the water and earth, plants and animals, and the other things as aforesaid. 9. That false speech was spoken through the will of the demons, and the evil spirit possessed himself of this first enjoyment from them; through that false speech they both became wicked, and their souls are in hell until the future existence.

10. And they had gone thirty days without food[1], covered with clothing of herbage (giyâh); and after the thirty days they went forth into the wilderness, came to a white-haired goat, and milked the milk from the udder with their mouths. 11. When they had devoured the milk Mâshya said to Mâshyôî thus: 'My delight was owing to it when I had not devoured the milk, and my delight is more delightful now when it is devoured by my vile body.' 12. That second false speech enhanced the power of the demons, and the taste of the food was taken away by them, so that out of a hundred parts one part remained.

13. Afterwards, in another thirty days and nights they came to a sheep, fat[2] and white-jawed, and they slaughtered it; and fire was extracted by them out of the wood of the lote-plum[3] and box-tree, through the guidance of the heavenly angels, since both woods were most productive of fire for them;

[1. Reading akhûrisn instead of the khûrisn of all MSS. which is hardly intelligible. Perhaps âv-khûrisn, 'drinking water,' ought to be read, as it is alluded to in Chap. XXX, 1.

2. Comparing gefar with Av. garewa and Pers. garb, but this identification may not be correct.

3. The kûnâr, a thorny tree, allied to the jujube, which bears a small plum-like fruit.]

{p. 56}

and the fire was stimulated by their mouths; and the first fuel kindled by them was dry grass, kendâr, lotos, date palm leaves, and myrtle; and they made a roast of the sheep. 14. And they dropped three handfuls of the meat into the fire, and said: 'This is the share of the fire[1].' One piece of the rest they tossed to the sky, and said: 'This is the share of the angels.' A bird, the vulture, advanced and carried some of it away from before them, as a dog ate the first meat. 15. And, first, a clothing of skins covered them; afterwards, it is said, woven garments were prepared from a cloth woven[2] in the wilderness. 16. And they dug out a pit in the earth, and iron was obtained by them and beaten out with a stone, and without a forge they beat out a cutting edge[3] from it; and they cut wood with it, and prepared a wooden shelter from the sun (pês-khûr).

17. Owing to the gracelessness which they practised, the demons became more oppressive, and they themselves carried on unnatural malice between themselves; they advanced one against the other, and smote and tore their hair and cheeks[4]. 18. Then the demons shouted out of the darkness

[1. Most of this sentence is omitted in K20 by mistake.

2. Reading khês-i-i tad, which Pahlavi words might be easily misread ashâbê tad, as given in Pâzand in the text. That Pâz. tadha stands for Pahl. tadak (Pers. tadah, I spun, woven') is quite certain.

3. Or 'an axe,' according as we read têkh or tash. The order of the foregoing words, barâ tapâk-I, 'without a forge,' appears to have been reversed by mistake.

4. Reading rôd as equivalent to Pers. rûî, 'face,' but it ought to be rôd. Perhaps the word is lût, 'bare,' and the translation should be, 'tore their hair bare.']

{p. 57}

thus: 'You are man; worship the demon! so that your demon of malice may repose.' 19. Mâshya went forth and milked a cow's milk, and poured it out towards the northern quarter; through that the demons became more powerful, and owing to them they both became so dry-backed that in fifty winters they had no desire for intercourse, and though they had had intercourse they would have had no children. 20. And on the completion of fifty years the source of desire arose, first in Mâshya and then in Mâshyôî, for Mâshya said to Mâshyôî thus: 'When I see thy shame my desires arise.' Then Mâshyôî spoke thus: 'Brother Mâshya! when I see thy great desire I am also agitated[1].' 21. Afterwards, it became their mutual wish that the satisfaction of their desires should be accomplished, as they reflected thus: 'Our duty even for those fifty years was this.'

22. From them was born in nine months a pair, male and female; and owing to tenderness for offspring[2] the mother devoured one, and the father one. 23. And, afterwards, Aûharmazd took tenderness for offspring away from them, so that one may nourish a child, and the child may remain.

24. And from them arose seven pairs, male and

[1. This is merely a paraphrase of the original.

2. Or, 'the deliciousness of children' (shîrînîh-i farzand). Justi has, 'owing to an eruption on the children the mother deserted one,' &c.; but the legend of devouring the first children is still more clearly mentioned in the Pahlavi Rivâyat, which forms the first book of the Dâdistân-i Dînîk (preceding the ninety-two questions and answers to which that name is usually applied) as follows: Maharîh va Maharîyâôyîh dûshâram râî nazdistô farzand-i nafsman barâ vastamûnd, 'Mashya and Mâshyôî, through affection, at first ate up their own offspring.']

{p. 58}

female, and each was a brother and sister-wife; and from every one of them, in fifty years, children were born, and they themselves died in a hundred years. 25. of those seven pairs one was Sîyâkmak, the name of the man, and Nasâk[1] of the woman; and from them a pair was born, whose names were Fravâk of the man and Fravâkaîn of the woman. 26. From them fifteen pairs were born, every single pair of whom became a race (sardak); and from them the constant continuance of the generations of the world arose.

27. Owing to the increase (zâyisn) of the whole fifteen races, nine races proceeded on the back of the ox Sarsaok[2], through the wide-formed ocean, to the other six regions (keshvar), and stayed there; and six races of men remained in Khvanîras. 28. of those six races the name of the man of one pair was Tâz and of the woman Tâzak, and they went to the plain of the Tâzîkân (Arabs); and of one pair Hôshyang[3] was the name of the man and Gûzak of the woman, and from them arose the Airânakin (Iranians); and from one pair the Mâzendarân[4] have arisen. 29. Among the number (pavan aê mar) were those who are in the countries

[1. Or 'Vasâk.'

2. See Chaps. XVII, 4, XIX, 13; the name is here written Srisaok in the MSS., and is a Pâzand reading in all three places.

3. Av. Haoshyangha of Âbân Yt. 21, Gôs Yt. 3, Fravardîn Yt. 137, Râm Yt. 7, Ashi Yt. 24, 26, Zamyâd Yt. 26. His usual epithet is paradhâta (Pahl. pês-dâd), which is thus explained in the Pahlavi Vend. XX, 7: 'this early law (pês-dâdîh) was this, that he first set going the law of sovereignty.' For this reason he is considered to be the founder of the earliest, or Pêsdâdian, dynasty. See Chaps. XXXI, 1, XXXIV, 3, 4.

4. The people of the southern coast of the Caspian, the Mâzainya daêva, 'Mâzainyan demons or idolators,' of the Avesta.]

{p. 59}

of Sûrâk[1], those who are in the country of Anêr[2], those who are in the countries of Tûr, those who are in the country of Salm which is Arûm, those who are in the country of Sênî, that which is Kînîstân, those who are in the country of Dâî[3], and those who are in the country of Sînd[4]. 30. Those, indeed, throughout the seven regions are all from the lineage of Fravâk, son of Sîyâkmak, son of Mâshya.

31. As there were ten varieties of man[5], and fifteen races from Fravâk, there were twenty-five races all from the seed of Gâyômard; the varieties are such as those of the earth, of the water, the breast-eared, the breast-eyed, the one-legged, those also who have wings like a bat, those of the forest, with tails, and who have hair on the body[6].

[1. Not Syria (which is Sûristân, see Chap. XX, 10), but the Sûrîk of the Pahlavi Vend. I, 14, which translates Av. Sughdha, the land east of the Oxus (see Chap. XX, 8). Windischmann reads it as Pâz. Erâk.

2. Probably for Av. anairya, 'non-Aryan,' which seems specially applied to the lands east of the Caspian.

3. The countries of Tûr, Salm, Sênî, and Dâî are all mentioned successively in Fravardîn Yt. 143, 144, in their Avesta forms Tûirya, Sairima, Sâini and Dâhi. The country of Tûr was part of the present Turkistân, that of Salm is rightly identified with Arûm (the eastern Roman Empire, or Asia Minor) in the text; the country of Sênî (miswritten Sênd), being identified with Kînîstân, was probably the territory of Samarkand, and may perhaps be connected with Mount Kînö (see Chap. XII, 2, 13); and the land of Dâî must be sought somewhere in the same neighbourhood.

4. Bactria or any part of north-western India may be intended; wherever Brahmans and Buddhists existed (as they did in Bactria) was considered a part of India in Sasanian times.

5. Grown on a separate tree (see 5).

6. Only seven varieties of human monsters are here enumerated, {footnote p. 60} for the last three details seem to refer to one variety, the monkeys. The Parsi MS. of miscellaneous texts, M7 (fol. 120), says, 'The names of the ten species of men are the breast-eyed, the three-eyed, the breast-eared, the elephant-cared, the one-legged, the web-footed, the leopard-headed, the lion-headed, the camel-headed, and the dog-headed.']

{p. 60}


1. On the nature of generation it says in revelation, that a woman when she comes out from menstruation, during ten days and nights, when they go near unto her, soon becomes pregnant. 2. When she is cleansed from her menstruation, and when the time for pregnancy has come, always when the seed of the man is the more powerful a son arises from it; when that of the woman is the more powerful, a daughter; when both seeds are equal, twins and triplets. 3. If the male seed comes the sooner, it adds to the female, and she becomes robust; if the female seed comes the sooner, it becomes blood, and the leanness of the female arises therefrom.

4. The female seed is cold and moist, and its flow is from the loins, and the colour is white, red, and yellow; and the male seed is hot and dry, its flow is from the brain of the head, and the colour is white and mud-coloured (hasgûn). 5. All[1] the seed of the females which issues beforehand, takes a place within the womb, and the seed of the males will remain above it, and will fill the space of the womb; whatever refrains therefrom becomes blood again, enters into the veins of the females, and at the time any one is born it becomes milk and'

[1. M6 has 'always.']

{p. 61}

nourishes him, as all milk arises from the seed of the males, and the blood is that of the females.

6. These four things, they say, are male, and these female: the sky, metal, wind, and fire are male, and are never otherwise; the water, earth, plants, and fish are female, and are never otherwise; the remaining creation consists of male and female.

7. As regards the fish[1] it says that, at the time of excitement, they go forwards and come back in the water, two and two, the length of a mile (hâsar), which is one-fourth of a league (parasang), in the running water; in that coming and going they then rub their bodies together, and a kind of sweat drops out betwixt them, and both become pregnant.


1. On the nature of fire it says in revelation, that fire is produced of five kinds, namely, the fire Berezi-savang[2], the fire which shoots up before Aûharmazd the lord; the fire Vohu-fryãn[3], the fire which is in the bodies of men and animals; the fire Urvâzist[4], the fire which is in plants; the fire

[1. K20 has 'the male fish,' which is inconsistent with the preceding sentence.

2. These Avesta names of the five kinds of fire are enumerated in Yas. XVII, 63-67, and the Pahlavi translation of that passage interchanges the attributes ascribed to the first and fifth in the text, thus it calls the first 'the fire of sublime benefit in connection with Varahrân (Bahrâm).' See also Selections of Zâd-sparam, XI, 1.

3. 'The fire of the good diffuser (or offerer), that within the bodies of men' (Pahl. Yas. XVII, 64).

4. 'The fire of prosperous (or abundant) life, that within plants' (Pahl. Yas. XVII, 65).]

{p. 62}

zist[1], the fire which is in a cloud which stands opposed to Spêngargâk in conflict; the fire Spênist[2], the fire which they keep in use in the world, likewise the fire of Vâhrâm[3]. 2. of those five fires one consumes both water and food, as that which is in the bodies of men; one consumes water and consumes no food, as that which is in plants, which live and grow through water; one consumes food and consumes no water, as that which they keep in use in the world, and likewise the fire of Vâhrâm; one consumes no water and no food, as the fire Vâzist. 3. The Berezi-savang is that in the earth and mountains and other things, which[4] Aûharmazd created, in the original creation, like three breathing souls (nismô); through the watchfulness and protection due to them the world ever develops (vakhshêd).

4. And in the reign of Takhmôrup[5], when men continually passed, on the back of the ox Sarsaok[6], from Khvanîras to the other regions, one night

[1. 'The fire Vâzist, that which smites the demon Spengargâ' (Pahl. Yas. XVII, 66). See Chap. VII, 12.

2. The propitious fire which stands in heaven before Aûharmazd in a spiritual state' (Pahl. Yas. XVII, 67).

3. The Bahrâm fire, or sacred fire at places of worship.

4. M6 has min, instead of mûn, which alters the translation, but not the meaning. This appears to be a different account of the fire Berezi-savang to that given in 1, but it merely implies that it is fire in its spiritual state, and the name can, therefore, be applied to any natural fire which can be attributed to supernatural agency, such as burning springs of petroleum, volcanic eruptions, ignis fatuus, phosphorescence of the sea, &c.

5. The second Pêsdâdian monarch (see Chaps. XXXI, 2, 3, XXXIV, 4).

6. Written Srisaok in the MSS. in Chap. XV, 27; where it also appears that the sea was 'the wide-formed ocean.' See likewise Chap. XIX, 13.]

{p. 63}

amid the sea the wind rushed upon[1] the fireplace--the fireplace in which the fire was, such as was provided in three places on the back of the ox--which the wind dropped with the fire into the sea; and all those three fires, like three breathing souls, continually shot up in the place and position of the fire on the back of the ox, so that it becomes quite light, and the men pass again through the sea. 5. And in the reign of Yim[2] every duty was performed more fully through the assistance of all those three fires; and the fire Frôbak[3] was established by him at the appointed place (dâd-gâs) on the Gadman-hômand ('glorious') mountain in Khvârizem[4], which Yim constructed for them; and the glory of Yim saves the fire Frôbak from the hand of Dahâk[5]. 6. In the reign of King Vistâsp, upon revelation from the religion[6], it was established, out of Khvârizem, at the Rôshan ('shining') mountain in Kâvulistân, the country of Kâvul (Kâbul), just as it remains there even now.

7. The fire Gûsasp, until the reign of Kaî-Khûsrôb[7] continually afforded the world protection in the manner aforesaid; and when Kaî-Khûsrôb[7] was

[1. Compare staft with Pers. sitâftan, 'to hasten.'

2. The third Pêsdâdian monarch (see Chaps. XXXI, 3, 4, XXXIV, 4).

3. Also written Frôbö, Frôbâ, Frôbâk, or Frôbâg.

4. The Av. Hvâirizem of Mihir Yt. 14, a province east of the Caspian.

5. It is doubtful whether va gadman, 'and the glory,' or nismô, 'the soul, reason' (see Chaps. XXIII, 1, XXXIV, 4), should he read. And it may even be that I the fire Frôbak saves the soul of Yim,' &c. For Dahâk see Chaps. XXXI, 6, XXXIV, 5.

6. Or, I upon declaration from revelation!

7. Here written Kai-Khûsrôbî.

8 In 3. The 'three breathing souls' of spiritual fire are supposed {footnote p. 64} to be incorporated in its three earthly representatives, the fires Frôbak, Gûsasp, and Bûrzîn-Mitrô respectively.]

{p. 64}

extirpating the idol-temples of Lake Kêkast[1] it settled upon the mane of his horse, and drove away the darkness and gloom, and made it quite light, so that they might extirpate the idol-temples; in the same locality the fire Gûsasp was established at the appointed place on the Asnavand mountain[2].

8. The fire Bûrzîn-Mitrô, until the reign of King Vistâsp, ever assisted[3], in like manner, in the world, and continually afforded protection; and when the glorified[4] Zaratûst was introduced to produce confidence in the progress of the religion, King Vistâsp and his offspring were steadfast in the religion of God.[5], and Vistâsp established this fire at the appointed place on Mount Rêvand, where they say the Ridge of Vistâsp (pûst-i Vistâspân) is[6].

9. All those three fires are the whole body of the fire of Vâhrâm, together with the fire of the world, and those breathing souls are lodged in them; a counterpart of the body of man when it forms in the womb of the mother, and a soul from the spirit-world settles within it, which controls the body while living; when that body dies, the body mingles with the earth, and the soul goes back to the spirit.

[1. That is, of the province around that lake (see Chap. XXII, 2).

2. See Chap. XII, 26. Compare Selections of Zâd-sparam, VI, 22.

3. Taking vagîd as equivalent to Pers. guzîd; but it may be equivalent to Pers. vazîd, 'grew, shot up.'

4. The epithet anôshak-rûbân (Pers. nôshirvân) means literally 'immortal-souled.'

5. Or, 'of the angels,' which plural form is often used to express 'God.'

6. See Chap. XII, 18, 34.]

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1. On the nature of the tree they call Gôkard[1] it says in revelation, that it was the first day when the tree they call Gôkard grew in the deep mud[2] within the wide-formed ocean; and it is necessary as a producer of the renovation of the universe, for they prepare its immortality therefrom. 2. The evil spirit has formed therein, among those which enter as opponents, a lizard[3] as an opponent in that deep water, so that it may injure the Hôm[4]. 3. And for keeping away that lizard, Aûharmazd has created there ten Kar fish[5] which, at all times, continually circle around the Hôm, so that the head of one of those fish is continually towards the lizard. 4. And together with the lizard those fish are spiritually fed[6], that is, no food is necessary for them; and till the renovation of the universe they remain in contention. 5. There are places where that fish is

[1. A corruption of the Av. gaokerena of Vend. XX, 17, Aûharmazd Yt. 30, Haptân Yt. 3, Sîrôz, 7. In the old MSS. of the Bundahis the form gôkard occurs thrice, gôkarn once, and gogrv once.

2. Reading gil, 'mud.' Windischmann and Justi prefer gar, 'mountain,' and have 'depth of the mountain.'

3. That the writer of the Bundahis applies the term vazagh to a lizard, rather than a frog, appears from the 'log-like lizard's body' of Chap. III, 9.

4. That is, the Gôkard tree, which is the white Hôm (see Chap. XXVII, 4).

5. The Av. karô masyô of Vend. XIX, 140, Bahrâm Yt. 29, Din Yt. 7; see also Chap. XXIV, 13.

6. Windischmann and Justi prefer translating thus: 'Moreover, the lizard is the spiritual food of those fish;' but this can hardly be reconciled with the Pahlavi text.]

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written of as 'the Ariz[1] of the water;' as it says that the greatest of the creatures of Aûharmazd is that fish, and the greatest of those proceeding from the evil spirit is that lizard; with the jaws of their bodies, moreover, they snap in two whatever of the creatures of both spirits has entered between them, except that one fish which is the Vâs of Pankâsadvarân[2]. 6. This, too, is said, that those fish are so serpent-like[3] in that deep water, they know the scratch (mâlisn) of a needle's point by which the water shall increase, or by which it is diminishing.

7. Regarding the Vâs of Pankâsadvarân it is declared that it moves within the wide-formed ocean, and its length is as much as what a man, while in a swift race, will walk from dawn till when the sun goes down; so much that it does not itself move[4] the length of the whole of its great body. 8. This, too, is said, that the creatures of the waters live also specially under its guardianship.

9. The tree of many seeds has grown amid the wide-formed ocean, and in its seed are all plants; some say it is the proper-curing, some the energetic-curing, some the all-curing[5].

[1. See Chaps. XIV, 26, and XXIV, 13.

2. The Av. vâsîm yãm pankâsadvarãm of Yas. XLI, 27.

3. Transcribing the Pâz. mârâdu into Pahlavi we have mâr âyin, 'snake's manner.' Compare the text with Bahrâm Yt. 29.

4. K20 omits the words from 'walk' to 'move.'

5. This is the tree of the saêna or Simurgh, as described in Rashnu Yt. 17, and these three epithets are translations of its three titles, hubis, eredhwô-bis, and vîspô-bis. See also Chap. XXVII, 2, 3.]

{p. 67}

10. Between[1] these trees of such kinds[2] is formed the mountain with cavities, 9999 thousand myriads in number, each myriad being ten thousand. 11. Unto that mountain is given the protection of the waters, so that water streams forth from there, in the rivulet channels, to the land of the seven regions, as the source of all the sea-water in the land of the seven regions is from there[3].


1. Regarding the three-legged a ass[4] they say, that it stands amid the wide-formed ocean, and its feet are three, eyes six, mouths[5] nine, ears two, and horn

[1. This must have been the original meaning of the Huz. dên (dên in the Sasanian inscriptions) before it was used as a synonym of Pâz. andar, 'within.' The mountain is between the white-Hôm tree and the tree of many seeds.

2. Transcribing the Pâz. oînoh into Pahlavi we have ân-gûnak, 'that kind;' or the word may be a miswriting of Pâz. ânô, 'there.'

3. This description of the mountain seems to identify it with the Aûsîndôm mountain of Chaps. XII, 6, and XIII, 5.

4. The Av. khara, 'which is righteous and which stands in the middle of the wide-shored ocean' (Yas. XLI, 28). Darmesteter, in his Ormazd et Ahriman (pp. 148-151), considers this mythological monster as a meteorological myth, a personification of clouds and storm; and, no doubt, a vivid imagination may trace a striking resemblance between some of the monster's attributes and certain fanciful ideas regarding the phenomena of nature; the difficulty is to account for the remaining attributes, and to be sure that these fanciful ideas were really held by Mazdayasnians of old. Another plausible view is to consider such mythological beings as foreign gods tolerated by the priesthood, from politic motives, as objects worthy of reverence; even as the goddess Anâhita was tolerated in the form of the angel of water.

5. This is the traditional meaning of the word, which (if this {footnote p. 67} meaning be correct) ought probably to be read yông, and be traced to Av. eeaungh (Yas. XXVIII, ii). In the MSS. the word is marked as if it were pronounced gûnd, which means 'a testicle.']

{p. 68}

one, body white, food spiritual, and it is righteous. 2. And two of its six eyes are in the position of eyes, two on the; top of the head, and two in the position of the hump[1]; with the sharpness of those six eyes it overcomes and destroys. 3. Of the nine mouths three are in the head, three in the hump, and three in the inner part of the flanks; and each mouth is about the size of a cottage, and it is itself as large as Mount Alvand[2]. 4. Each one of the three feet, when it is placed on the ground, is as much as a flock (gird) of a thousand sheep comes under when they repose together; and each pastern[3] is so great in its circuit that a thousand men with a thousand horses may pass inside. 5. As for the two ears it is Mâzendarân which they will encompass. 6. The one horn is as it were of gold and hollow, and a thousand branch horns[4] have grown upon it, some befitting[5] a camel, some befitting a horse, some befitting an ox, some befitting an ass, both great and small. 7. With that horn it will vanquish and dissipate all the vile corruption due to the efforts of noxious creatures.

[1. The hump is probably supposed to be over the shoulders, as in the Indian ox, and not like that of the camel.

2. Near Hamadân, rising 11,000 feet above the sea, or 6000 above Hamadân. It may be one of the Av. Aurvantô of Zamyâd Yt. 3. The Pâzand MSS. read Hunavand.

3. Literally, 'the small of the foot,' khûrdak-i ragelman.

4. Or, 'a thousand cavities (srûbö, Pers. surub, 'cavern') have grown in it.'

5. Reading zîyâk; compare Pers. ziyîdan, 'to suit, befit.']

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8. When that ass shall hold its neck in the ocean its ears will terrify (asahmêd), and all the water of the wide-formed ocean will shake with agitation, and the side of Ganâvad[1] will tremble (shîvanêd). 9. When it utters a cry all female water-creatures, of the creatures of Aûharmazd, will become pregnant; and all pregnant noxious water-creatures, when they hear that cry, will cast their young. 10. When it stales in the ocean all the sea-water will become purified, which is in the seven regions of the earth--it is even on that account when all asses which come into water stale in the water-as it says thus: 'If, O three-legged ass! you were not created for the water, all the water in the sea would have perished from the contamination which the poison of the evil spirit has brought into its water, through the death of the creatures of Aûharmazd.'

11. Tîstar seizes the water[2] more completely from the ocean with the assistance of the three-legged ass. 12. Of ambergris also (ambar-ik) it is declared, that it is the dung of the three-legged ass; for if it has much spirit food, then also the moisture of the liquid nourishment goes through the veins pertaining to the body into the urine, and the dung is cast away.

13. Of the ox Hadhayôs[3], which they call Sarsaok[4], it says, that in the original creation men passed from region to region upon it, and in the

[1. A mountain (see Chap. XII, 29, 34).

2. See Chap. VII, 11.

3. Written Hadayâvs in the MSS. in Chap. XXX, 25, and Hadhayãs in the Dâdistân-i Dînîk, Part II, reply 89; it is a Pâzand reading in all three places.

4. See Chaps. XV, 27, XVII, 4.]

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renovation of the universe they prepare Hûsh (the beverage producing immortality) from it. 14. It is said, that life is in the hand of that foremost man, at the end of his years[1], who has constructed the most defences around this earth, until the renovation of the universe is requisite.

15. Regarding the bird Kâmrôs[2] it says, that it is on the summit of Mount Albûrz; and every three years many come from the non-Iranian districts for booty (gird)[3], by going to bring damage (zîyân) on the Iranian districts, and to effect the devastation of the world; then the angel Bûrg[4], having come up from the low country of Lake Arag[5], arouses that very bird Kâmrôs, and it flies upon the loftiest of all the lofty mountains, and picks up all those non-Iranian districts as a bird does corn.

16. Regarding Karsipt[6] they say, that it knew how to speak words, and brought the religion to the enclosure which Yim made, and circulated it; there they utter the Avesta in the language of birds.

[1. Transcribing the Pâz. svadyi into Pahlavi we have snatîh, 'term of years.' The whole sentence is very obscure.

2. Written Kamrôs in Chap. XXIV, 29. It is the Av. Kamraos (gen. of Kamru) of Fravardîn Yt. 109. See also Chap. XVII, 3.

3. Or, 'to an assembly.'

4. The Av. Beregya of Yas. I, 21, II, 27, III, 35, 'a spirit cooperating with the Ushahina Gâh, who causes the increase of herds and corn.'

5. Or, 'of the district of Arag'(see the note on Chap. XII, 23). Although no Lake Arag is described in Chap. XXII, some of the epithets referring to its Avesta equivalent Rangha are more applicable to a Like titan to a river, as in Bahrâm Yt. 29. Possibly the low lands between the Caspian and Aral, or on the shores of the Caspian, are meant.

6. The Av. vis karsipta of Vend. II, 139, where, however, vis {footnote p. 71} does not mean 'bird,' and the Pahlavi translator calls it 'a quadruped.' In the Pahl. Visp. I, 1, 'the Karsipt is the chief of flying creatures,' and the Bundahis also takes it as a bird (see Chaps. XIV, 23, XXIV, 11).]

{p. 71}

17. Regarding the ox-fish they say, that it exists in all seas; when it utters a cry all fish become pregnant, and all noxious water-creatures cast their young.

18. The griffon bird[1], which is a bat, is noticed (kard) twice in another chapter (babâ).

19. Regarding the bird Ashôzust[2], which is the bird Zobara[3]-vahman and also the bird Sôk[4], they say that it has given an Avesta with its tongue; when it speaks the demons tremble at it and take nothing away there; a nail-paring, when it is not prayed over (afsûd), the demons and wizards seize, and like an arrow it shoots at and kills that bird. 20. On this account the bird seizes and devours a nail-paring, when it is prayed over, so that the demons may not control its use; when it is not prayed over it does not devour it, and the demons are able to commit an offence with it.

21. Also other beasts and birds are created all in opposition to noxious creatures, as it says, that when the birds and beasts are all in opposition to noxious creatures and wizards, &c.[5] 22. This, too, it says, that of all precious[6] birds the crow (valâgh) is the most precious. 23, Regarding the white falcon it

[1. See Chaps. XIV, 11, 23, 24, XXIV, 11, 29.

2. The Av. Ashô-zusta of Vend. XVII, 26, 28.

3. Compare Pers. zûlah, 'a sparrow or lark.'

4. Compare Pers. sak, 'a magpie.'

5. This quotation is evidently left incomplete.

6. The Pahlavi word is ambiguous; it may be read zîl, 'cheap, common,' or it may be zagar = yakar, 'dear, precious,' but the {footnote p. 72} latter seems most probable, although the crow is perhaps as 'common' as it is 'precious,' as a scavenger in the East. Singularly enough Pers. arzân is a synonym to both words, as it means both 'cheap' and 'worthy.']

{p. 72}

says, that it kills the serpent with wings. 24. The magpie (kâskînak) bird kills the locust, and is created in opposition to it. 25. The Kahrkâs[1], dwelling in decay, which is the vulture, is created for devouring dead matter (nasâl); so also are the crow (valâk)[2] and the mountain kite.

26. The mountain ox, the mountain goat, the deer, the wild ass, and other beasts devour all snakes. 27. So also, of other animals, dogs are created in opposition to the wolf species, and for securing the protection of sheep; the fox is created in opposition to the demon Khava; the ichneumon is created in opposition to the venomous snake (garzak) and other noxious creatures in burrows; so also the great musk-animal is created in opposition[3] to ravenous intestinal worms (kadûk-dânak garzak). 28. The hedgehog is created in opposition to the ant which carries off grain[4], as it says, that the hedgehog, every time that it voids urine into an ant's nest, will destroy a thousand ants; when the grain-carrier travels over the earth it produces

[1. The Av. kahrkâsa of Vend. III, 66, IX, 181, Âbân Yt. 61, Mihir Yt. 129; its epithet zarmân-mânisn, 'dwelling in decay,' is evidently intended as a translation of the Av. zarenumainis, applied to it in Bahrâm Yt. 33, Dîn Yt. 13.

2. The text should probably be valâk-i sîyâk va sâr-i gar, 'the black crow and the mountain kite,' which are given as different birds in Shâyast-lâ-shâyast, II, 5.

3. K20 omits the words from this 'opposition' to the next one.

4. The môr-i dânak-kash is the Av. maoiris dânô-karsô of Vend. XIV, 14, XVI; 28, XVIII, 146.]

{p. 73}

a hollow track[1]; when the hedgehog travels over it the track goes away from it, and it becomes level. 29. The water-beaver is created in opposition to the demon which is in the water. 30. The conclusion is this, that, of all beasts and birds and fishes, every one is created in opposition to some noxious creature.

31. Regarding the vulture (karkâs) it says, that, even from his highest flight, he sees when flesh the size of a fist is on the ground; and the scent of musk is created under his wing, so that if, in devouring dead matter, the stench of the dead matter comes out from it, he puts his head back under the wing and is comfortable again. 32. Regarding the Arab horse they say, that if, in a dark night, a single hair occurs on the ground, he sees it.

33. The cock is created in opposition to demons and wizards, co-operating with the dog; as it says in revelation, that, of the creatures of the world, those which are co-operating with Srôsh[1], in destroying the fiends, are the cock and the dog. 34. This, too, it says, that it would not have been managed if I had not created the shepherd's dog, which is the Pasus-haurva[3], and the house watchdog, the Vis-haurva[3]; for it says in revelation, that the dog is a destroyer of such a fiend as covetousness,

[1. Comparing sûrâk with Pers. surâgh in preference to sûrâkh or sûlâkh, 'a hole.'

2. Av. Sraosha, the angel who is said specially to protect the world from demons at night; he is usually styled 'the righteous,' and is the special opponent of the demon Aêshm, 'Wrath' (see Chap. XXX, 29).

3. These are the Avesta names of those two kinds of dog (see Chap. XIV, 19).]

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among those which are in the nature (aîtîh) of man and of animals. 35. Moreover it says, that, inasmuch as it will destroy all the disobedient, when it barks it will destroy pain[1]; and its flesh and fat are remedies for driving away decay and pain from men[2].

36. Aûharmazd created nothing useless whatever, for all these (kolâ aê) are created for advantage; when one does not understand the reason of them, it is necessary to ask the Dastûr ('high-priest'), for his five dispositions (khûk)[3] are created in this way that he may continually destroy the fiend (or deceit).


1. On the nature of rivers it says in revelation, that these two rivers flow forth from the north, part from Albûrz and part from the Albûrz of

[1. Or it may be thus: 'For it says thus: Wherewith will it destroy? When it barks it will destroy the assembly (gird) of all the disobedient.'

2. This is the most obvious meaning, but Spiegel (in a note to Windischmann's Zoroastrische Studien, p. 95) translates both this sentence and the next very differently, so as to harmonize with Vend. XIII, 78, 99.

3. The five dispositions (khîm) of priests are thus detailed in old Pahlavi MSS.: 'First, innocence; second, discreetness of thoughts, words, and deeds; third, holding the priestly office as that of a very wise and very true-speaking master, who has learned religion attentively and teaches it truly; fourth, celebrating the worship of God (yazdân) with a ritual (nîrang) of rightly spoken words and scriptures known by heart (narm naskîhâ); fifth, remaining day and night propitiatingly in his vocation, struggling with his own resistance (hamêstâr), and, all life long, not turning away from steadfastness in religion, and being energetic in his vocation.']

{p. 75}

Aûharmazd[1]; one towards the west, that is the Arag[2], and one towards the east, that is the Vêh river. 2. After them eighteen rivers flowed forth from the same source, just as the remaining waters have flowed forth from them in great multitude; as they say that they flowed out so very fast, one from the other, as when a man recites one Ashem-vohû[3] of a series (padisâr). All of those, with the same water, are again mingled with these rivers, that is, the Arag river and Vêh river. 4. Both of them continually circulate through the two extremities of the earth, and pass into the sea; and all the regions feast owing to the discharge (zahâk) of both, which, after both arrive together at the wide-formed ocean, returns to the sources whence they flowed out; as it says in revelation, that just as the light comes in through Albûrz and goes out through Albûrz[4], the

[1. So in K20, and if correct (being only partially confirmed by the fragment of this chapter found in all MSS. between Chaps. XIII and XIV) this reading implies that the rivers are derived partly from the mountains of Albûrz, and partly from the celestial Albûrz, or the clouds in the sky. M6 has 'flow forth from the north part of the eastern Albûrz.'

2. For further details regarding these two semi-mythical rivers see 8, 9.

3. The sacred formula most frequently recited by the Parsis, and often several times in succession, like the Pater-noster of some Christians; it is not, however, a prayer, but a declaratory formula in 'praise of righteousness' (which phrase is often used as its name in Pahlavi). It consists of twelve Avesta words, as follows:

Ashem vohû vahistem astî,
ustâ astî; ustâ ahmâi
hyad ashâi vahistâi ashem.

And it may be translated in the following manner. 'Righteousness is the best good, a blessing it is; a blessing be to that which is righteousness to perfect rectitude' (Asha-vahista the archangel).

4. See Chap. V, 5.]

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water also comes out through Albûrz and goes away through Albûrz. 5. This, too, it says, that the spirit of the Arag begged of Aûharmazd thus: 'O first omniscient creative power[1]! from whom the Vêh river begged for the welfare that thou mightest grant, do thou then grant it in my quantity!' 6. The spirit of the Vêh river similarly begged of Aûharmazd for the Arag river; and on account of loving assistance, one towards the other, they flowed forth with equal strength, as before the coming of the destroyer they proceeded without rapids, and when the fiend shall be destroyed[2] they will again be without rapids.

7. Of those eighteen principal rivers, distinct from the Arag river and Vêh river, and the other rivers which flow out from them, I will mention the more famous[3]: the Arag river, the Vêh river, the Diglat[4] river they call also again the Vêh river[5], the Frât river, the Dâîtîk river, the Dargâm river, the Zôndak river, the Harôî river, the Marv river, the Hêtûmand river, the Akhôshir river, the Nâvadâ[6] river, the Zîsmand river, the Khvegand river, the Balkh river, the Mehrvâ river they call the Hendvâ river, the Spêd[7] river, the Rad[8] river which they call also the Koir, the Khvaraê river which they call

[1. So in M6, but K20 has, 'First is the propitiation of all kinds.'

2. Literally, 'when they shall destroy the fiend.'

3. For details regarding these rivers see the sequel.

4. The Pâz. Deyrid is evidently a misreading of Pahl. Diglat or Digrat, which occurs in 12.

5. So in K20, but M6 (omitting two words) has, 'they call also the Didgar.'

6. No further details are given, in this chapter, about this river, but it seems to be the river Nâhvtâk of Chap. XXI, 6, the Nâîvtâk of Chap. XXIX, 4. 5.

7. K20 has 'Spend.'

8. Called Tort in 24.]

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also the Mesrgân, the Harhaz[1] river, the Teremet river, the Khvanaîdis[2] river, the Dâraga river, the Kâsîk river, the Sêd[3] ('shining') river Pêdâ-meyan or Katru-meyan river of Mokarstân.

8. I will mention them also a second time: the Arag[4] river is that of which it is said that it comes out from Albûrz in the land of Sûrâk[5], in which they call it also the Âmi; it passes on through the land of Spêtos, which they also call Mesr, and they call it there the river Nîv[6]. 9. The Vêh[7] river

[1. Miswritten Araz in Pâzand, both here and in 27.

2. M6 has Khvanaînidis, but in K20 it is doubtful whether the extra syllable (which is interlined) is intended to be inserted or substituted; the shorter form is, however, more reconcilable with the Pahlavi form of Vendeses in 29.

3. As there is no description of any Sêd river it is probably only an epithet of the Pêdâ-meyan or Katru-meyan (pêdâk being the usual Pahlavi equivalent of Av. kithrô). Justi suggests that Mokarstân (Mokarsta rûd in M6) stands for Pers. Moghulstân, 'the country of the Moghuls,' but this is doubtful.

4. Sometimes written Arang or Arêng, but the nasal is usually omitted; it is the Av. Rangha of Âbân Yt. 63, Rashnu Yt. 18, Râm Yt. 27, which is described more like a lake or sea in Vend. I, 77, Bahrâm Yt. 29. This semi-mythical river is supposed to encompass a great part of the known world (see Chap. VII, 16), and the Bundahis probably means to trace its course down the Âmû (Oxus) from Sogdiana, across the Caspian, up the Aras (Araxes) or the Kur (Cyrus), through the Euxine and Mediterranean, and up the Nile to the Indian Ocean. The Âmû (Oxus) is also sometimes considered a part of the Vêh river or Indus (see 22, 28).

5. Sogdiana (see Chap. XV, 29), the country of the Âmû river.

6. The combination of the three names in this clause, as Justi observes, renders it probable that we should read, 'the land of Egypt,' which is called Misr, and where the river Is the Nile. The letter S in Pâz. Spêtos is very like an obsolete form of Av. g, or it may be read as Pahl. îk or îg, so the name may originally have been Gpêtos or Ikpêtos; and the Pâz. Niv, if transcribed into Pahlavi, can also be read Nîl.

7. The good river, which, with the Arag and the ocean, completes {footnote p. 78} the circuit of the known world, and is evidently identified with the Indus; sometimes it seems also to include the Âmû (Oxus), as Bactria was considered a part of India; thus we find the Balkh and Teremet rivers flowing into the Vêh (see 22, 28).]

{p. 78}

passes on in the east, goes through the land of Sînd[1], and flows to the sea in Hindûstân, and they call it there the Mehrâ[2] river. 10. The sources of the Frât[3] river are from the frontier of Arûm, they feed upon it in Sûristân, and it flows to the Diglat river; and of this Frât it is[4] that they produce irrigation over the land. 11. It is declared that Mânûskîhar excavated the sources, and cast back the water all to one place, as it says thus 'I reverence the Frât, full of fish, which Mânûskîhar excavated for the benefit of his own soul, and he seized the water and gave to drink[5],' 12. The Diglat[6] river comes out from Salmân[7], and flows to the sea in Khûgistân. 13. The Dâîtîk[8] river is the river

[1. See 30.

2. No doubt the Mehrvâ or Hendvâ river of 7, and the Mihrân of Ouseley's Oriental Geography of the pseudo Ibn 'Haûqal, pp. 148-155, which appears to combine the Satlig and lower Indus. The final n is usually omitted by the Bundahis after â in Pâzand words. This river is also called Kâsak (see 30).

3. The Euphrates, which rises in Armenia (part of the eastern empire of the Romans), traverses Syria, and joins the Tigris.

4. Or, 'and its convenience is this;' a play upon the words farhat and Frât, which are identical in Pahlavi.

5. Referring probably to canals for irrigation along the course of the Euphrates.

6. The Tigris (Arabic Diglat), Hiddekel of Gen. ii. 14, Dan. x. 4, and perhaps the Av. tighris of Tîstar Yt. 6, 37; misread Dêîrid in Pâzand.

7. The country of Salm (see Chap. XV, 29), son of Frêdûn (see Chap. XXXI, 9, 10). The name can also be read Dîlmân, which is the name of a place in the same neighbourhood.

8. The Av. Dâitya of Vend. XIX, 5, Aûharmazd Yt. 21, Âbân Yt. 112, Gôs Yt. 29. The 'good dâitya of Airyana-vaêgô' is also {footnote p. 79} mentioned in Vend. I, 6, II, 42, 43, Âbân Yt. 17, 104, Râm Yt. 2, but this may not be a river, though the phrase has, no doubt, led to locating the river Dâîtîk in Aîrân-vêg.]

{p. 79}

which comes out from Aîrân-vêg, and goes out through the hill-country[1]; of all rivers the noxious creatures in it are most, as it says, that the Dâîtîk river is full of noxious creatures. 14. The Dargâm river is in Sûde. 15. The Zend[2] river passes through the mountains of Pangistân, and flows away to the Haro river. 16. The Haro[3] river flows out from the Apârsên range[4]. 17. The Hêtûmand[5] river is in Sagastân, and its sources are from the Apârsên range; this is distinct from that which Frâsîyâv conducted away[6]. 18. The river Akhôshir is in Kûmîs[7]. 19. The Zîsmand[8] river, in the direction

[1. Pâz. gopestân in K20, which is evidently Pahl. kôfistân, but not the Kôhistân of southern Persia. M6 has 'the mountain of Pangistân,' which must be incorrect, as according to 15, 16, this is in north-east Khurâsân, and too far from Aîrân-vêg in Âtarô-pâtakân (Âdar-bîgân), see Chap. XXIX, 12. Justi proposes to read Gurgistân (Georgia), and identifies the Dâîtîk with the Araxes, but, adhering to the text of K20, the Dâîtîk rises in Âdar-bîgân and departs through a hill-country, a description applicable, not only to the Araxes, but also more particularly to the Safêd Rûd or white river; although this river seems to be mentioned again as the Spêd or Spend river in 23.

2. Written Zôndak in 7. This can hardly be the Zendah river of Ispahan, but is probably the Tegend river, which flows past Meshhed into the Heri river.

3. This is the Heri, which flows past Herat.

4. See Chap. XII, 9.

5. The Etymander of classical writers, now the Hêlmand in Afghânistân. The Av. Haêtumat of Vend. I, 50, XIX, 130, Zamyâd Yt. 66, is the name of the country through which it flows.

6. See 34 and Chap. XXI, 6.

7. The district about Dâmaghân.

8. Perhaps the Zarafsân.]

{p. 80}

of Soghd, flows away towards the Khvegand river. 20. The Khvegand[1] river goes on through the midst of Samarkand and Pargâna, and they call it also the river Ashârd. 21. The Marv[2] river, a glorious river in the east[3], flows out from the Apârsên range. 22. The Balkh river comes out from the Apârsên mountain of Bâmîkân[4], and flows on to the Vêh[5] river. 23. The Spêd[6] river is in Âtarô-pâtakân; they say that Dahâk begged a favour[7] here from Aharman and the demons. 24. The Tort[8] river, which they call also the Koir, comes out from

[1. This is evidently not the small affluent now called the Khugand, but the great Syr-darya or Iaxartes, which flows through the provinces of Farghânah and Samarkand, past Kokand, Khugand, and Tashkand, into the Aral. The Pâz. Ashârd represents Pahl. Khshârt, or Ashârt (Iaxartes).

2. The Murghâb.

3. Or, 'in Khûrâsân.'

4. Bâmian, near which the river of Balkh has its source.

5. Justi observes that it should be 'the Arag river;' but according to an Armenian writer of the seventh century the Persians called the Oxus the Vêh river, and considered it to be in India, because Buddhists occupied the country on its banks (see Garrez in Journal Asiatique for 1869, pp. 161-198). It would seem, therefore, that the Oxus was sometimes (or in early times) considered a part of the Arag (Araxes), and sometimes (or in later times) a part of the Vêh (Indus).

6. So in M6, but K20 has 'Spend,' both here and in 7. The name of this river corresponds with that of the Safêd Rûd, although the position of that river agrees best with the account given of the Dâîtîk in 13.

7. Compare Râm Yt. 19, 20. K20 has 'there,' instead of 'here.'

8. Called Rad in 7 (by the loss of the first letter of the original Pahlavi name); by its alternative name, Koir, Justi identifies it as the Kûr in Georgia, flowing into the Caspian, or sea of Vergân, the Av. Vehrkâna (Hyrcania) of Vend. I, 42, which is Gûrgân in Pahlavi.]

{p. 81}

the sea of Gîklân[1], and flows to the sea of Vergân[2]. 25. The Zahâvayi[3] is the river which comes out from Âtarô-pâtakân, and flows to the sea in Pârs. 26. The sources of the Khvaraê[4] river are from Spâhân[5]; it passes on through Khûgîstân, flows forth to the Diglat[6] river, and in Spâhân they call it the Mesrkân[7] river. 27. The Harhaz[8] river is in Taparîstân, and its sources are from Mount Dimâvand. 28. The Teremet[9] river flows away to the Vêh river. 29. The Vendeses[10] river is in that part of Pârs which they call Sagastân. 30. The Kâsak[11] river comes out through a ravine (kâf) in the province of Tûs[12], and they call it there the Kasp river; moreover,

[1. M6 has Pâz. Keyâseh, but this is in Sagastân (see Chap. XIII, 16).

2. The MSS. have Vergâ, but the final nasal after i is often omitted in Pâzand reading in the Bundahis.

3. Not mentioned in 7. Possibly one of the rivers Zâb, which rise on the borders of Âdarbîgân, flow into the Tigris, and so reach the Persian Gulf, the sea on the coast of Pârs. Or it may be the Shirvân, another affluent of the Tigris, which flows through the district of Zohab.

4. The Kuran, upon which the town of Shûstar was founded by one of the early Sasanian kings, who also dug a canal, east of the town, so as to form a loop branch of the river; this canal was called Nahr-i Masrûqân by Oriental geographers (see Rawlinson, journal Roy. Geogr. Soc. vol. ix. pp. 73-75).

5. Ispahân in Persian.

6. Miswritten Dayrid in Pâzand (see 12).

7. Written in Pâzand without the final n, as usual. This is the old name of the canal forming the eastern branch of the Kuran at Shûstar, it is now called Âb-i Gargar.

8. Flows into the Caspian near Amûl.

9. Probably the river which flows into the Âmû (Oxus) at Tarmaz; but, in that case, the Oxus is here again identified with the Vêh (Indus) as in 22, instead of the Arag (Araxes) as in 8.

10. Called Khvanaîdis, or Khvanaînidis, in 7.

11. Called Kâsîk in 7.

12. Close to Meshhed.]

{p. 82}

the river, which is there the Vêh, they call the Kâsak[1]; even in Sînd they call it the Kâsak. 31. The Pêdâk-mîyân[2], which is the river Katru-mîyân, is that which is in Kangdez[3]. 32. The Dâraga river is in Aîrân-vêg, on the bank (bâr) of which was the dwelling of Pôrûshasp, the father of Zaratûst[4]. 33. The other innumerable waters and rivers, springs and channels are one in origin with those[5]; so in various districts and various places they call them by various names.

34. Regarding Frâsîyâv[6] they say, that a thousand springs were conducted away by him into the sea Kyânsîh[7], suitable for horses, suitable for camels, suitable for oxen, suitable for asses, both great and small[8]; and he conducted the spring Zarînmand (or golden source), which is the Hêtûmand[9] river they say, into the same sea; and he conducted the seven navigable waters of the source of the Vakaêni[10] river into the same sea, and made men settle there.

[1. Or, 'this same Vêh river they call there the Kâsak; even in Sênî they call it the Kâsak; Sênî is apt to be miswritten Sênd or Sînd (see Chap. XV, 29).

2. See 7. The latter half of both names can also be read mâhan, mâhô, or mahân. Pêshyôtan, son of Vistâsp, seems to have taken a surname from this river (see Chap. XXIX, 5).

3. See Chap. XXIX, 10.

4. See Chaps. XXIV, 15, XXXII, 1, 2.

5. Or, 'are from those as a source.'

6. The MSS. have 'Pôrûshasp,' but compare 17 and Chap. XXI, 6. The two names are somewhat alike in Pahlavi writing.

7. See Chap. XIII, 16.

8. Compare Chap. XIX, 6. K20 Omits the words 'suitable for asses' here.

9. Another Hêtûmand according to 17. Possibly a dried-up bed of that river.

10. K20 has Vataêni; k and t being much alike in Pâzand. The {footnote p. 83} 'navigable (nâvtâk) waters' may be 'the Nâvadâ river' of 7, 'the river Nâîvtâk' of Chap. XXI, 6, and Nâîvtâk of Chap. XXIX, 4, 5.]

{p. 83}


1. In revelation they mention seventeen[2] species of liquid (mâyâ), as one liquid resides in plants [3]; second, that which is flowing from the mountains, that is, the rivers; third, that which is rain-water; fourth, that of tanks and other special constructions; fifth, the semen of animals and men; sixth, the urine of animals and men[4]; seventh, the sweat of animals and men; the eighth liquid is that in the skin of animals and men; ninth, the tears of animals and men; tenth, the blood of animals and men; eleventh, the oil in animals and men, a necessary in both worlds[5]; twelfth, the saliva of animals and men, with which they nourish the embryo[6]; the thirteenth is that which is under the bark[7] of plants, as it is said that every bark has a liquid, through which a drop appears on a twig (têkh) when placed four finger-breadths before a fire[8]; fourteenth, the milk of animals and men. 2. All these, through growth, or

[1. This chapter is evidently a continuation of the preceding one.

2. Only fourteen are mentioned in the details which follow.

3. Most of these details are derived from the Pahl. Yas. XXXVIII, 7-9, 13, 14; and several varieties of water are also in Yas. LXVII, 15.

4 This sixth liquid is omitted by K20.

5. Departed souls are said to be fed with oil in paradise.

6. K20 omits the word pûs, 'embryo.'

7. The meaning 'bark' for Pâz. ayvan is merely a guess; Anquetil has 'sap' (compare Pers. âvînâ, 'juice'), but this is hardly consistent with the rest of the sentence.

8. See Chap. XXVII, 25.]

{p. 84}

the body which is formed, mingle again with the rivers, for the body which is formed and the growth are both one.

3. This, too, they say, that of these three rivers, that is, the Arag river, the Marv river, and the Vêh[1] river, the spirits were dissatisfied, so that they would not flow into the world, owing to the defilement of stagnant water (armêst) which they beheld, so that they were in tribulation through it until Zaratûst was exhibited to them, whom I (Aûharmazd) will create, who will pour sixfold holy-water (zôr) into it and make it again wholesome; he will preach carefulness[2]. 4. This, too, it says, that, of water whose holy-water is more and pollution less, the holy-water has come in excess, and in three years it goes back to the sources[3]; that of which the pollution and holy-water have both become equal, arrives back in six years; that of which the pollution is more and holy-water less, arrives back in nine years. 5. So, also, the growth of plants is connected, in this manner, strongly with the root[4]; so, likewise, the blessings (âfrîn). which the righteous utter, come back, in this proportion, to themselves.

6. Regarding the river Nâhvtâk[5] it says, that Frâsîyâv of Tûr conducted it away; and when

[1. K20 has 'Hêlmand,' but M6 has 'Sapîr,' the Huz. equivalent of 'Vêh,' which is more probable.

2. Or, 'abstinence from impurity.'

3. The source Arêdvîvsûr (see Chap. XIII, 3, 10).

4. That is, by the sap circulating like the waters of the earth. The greater part of this sentence is omitted in K20.

5. Probably 'the Nâvadâ' and 'navigable waters' of Chap. XX, 7, 34, and Nâîvtâk of Chap. XXIX, 4, 5.

6. Reading amat, 'when,' instead of mûn, 'which' (see note to Chap. I, 7).]

{p. 85}

Hûshêdar[1] comes it will flow again suitable for horses; so, also, will the fountains of the sea Kyânsîh[2]. 7. Kyânsîh[2] is the one where the home (ginâk) of the Kayân race is.


1. On the nature of lakes it says in revelation, that thus many fountains of waters have come into notice, which they call lakes (var); counterparts of the eyes (kashm) of men are those fountains (kashmak) of waters; such as Lake Kêkast, Lake Sôvbar, Lake Khvârizem[3], Lake Frazdân, Lake Zarînmand, Lake Âsvast, Lake Husru, Lake Satavês, Lake Urvis.

2. I will mention them also a second time: Lake Kêkast is in Âtarô-pâtakân, warm is the water and opposed to harm, so that nothing whatever is living in it; and its source is connected with the wide-formed ocean[5]. 3. Lake Sôvbar is in the upper district and country on the summit of the mountain of Tûs[6]; as it says, that the Sûd-bâhar[7] ('share of benefit') is propitious and good from which abounding

[1. Written Khûrshêdar, as usual in Bundahis (see Chap. XXXII, 8).

2. Written Kayâseh in Pâzand (see Chap. XIII, 16).

3. Pâz. Khvârazm both here and in s 4.

4 Av. Kkasta of Âbân Yt. 49, Gôs Yt. 18, 21, 22, Ashi Yt. 38, 41, Sîrôz. 9. The present Lake Urumiyah in Âdarbîgân, which is called Khegest, or Kegest, by 'Hamdu-l-lâh Mustaûfî.

5. Implying that the water is salt.

6. The Kôndrâsp mountain (see Chap. XII, 24). This lake is probably a small sheet of water on the mountains near Meshhed.

7. Evidently a punning etymology of the name of this lake.]

{p. 86}

liberality is produced. 4. Regarding Lake Khvârizem[1] it says that excellent benefit is produced from it, that is, Arshisang[2] the rich in wealth, the well-portioned with abounding pleasure. 5. Lake Frazdân[3] is in Sagastân; they say, where a generous man, who is righteous, throws anything into it, it receives it; when not righteous, it throws it out again; its source also is connected with the wide-formed ocean. 6. Lake Zarînmand is in Hamadân[4]. 7. Regarding Lake Âsvast it is declared that the undefiled[5] water which it contains is always constantly flowing into the sea, so bright and copious[6] that one might say that the sun had come into it and looked at Lake Âsvast, into that water which is requisite for restoring the dead in the renovation of the universe. 8. Lake Husru[7] is within fifty[8]

[1. The province of Khvârizem was between the Aral and Caspian, along the ancient course of the Oxus (see Chap. XVII, 5). This lake has been identified with the Aral.

2. Av. ashis vanguhi, 'good rectitude,' personified as a female angel whose praises are celebrated in the Ashi Yast; in later times she has been considered as the angel dispensing wealth and possessions. She is also called Ard (Av. areta, which is synonymous with asha), see Chap. XXVII, 24.

3. The 'Frazdânava water' of Âbân Yt. 108 and Farhang-i Oîm-khadûk, p. 17. Justi identifies it with the Âb-istâdah ('standing water') lake, south of Ghaznî. It is here represented as a salt lake.

4. K20 adds, 'they say.' This lake cannot be the spring Zarînmand of Chap. XX, 34.

5. Pâz. avnasti transcribed into Pahlavi is avinastag, 'unspoiled,' the equivalent of Av. anâhita in Yas. LXIV, 1, 16, Visp. I, 18.

6. K20 has 'glorious' as a gloss to 'copious.'

7. The Av. Haosravangha of Sîroz. 9, 'the lake which is named Husravau' of Zamyâd Yt. 56. It may be either Lake Van or Lake Sevan, which are nearly equidistant from Lake Urumiyah.

8. M6 has 'four leagues.']

{p. 87}

leagues (parasang). of Lake Kêkast. 9. Lake (or, rather, Gulf) Satavês[1] is that already written about, between the wide-formed ocean and the Pûtîk. 10. It is said that in Kamîndân is an abyss (zafar), from which everything they throw in always comes back, and it will not receive it unless alive (gânvar); when they throw a living creature into it, it carries it down; men say that a fountain from hell is in it. 11. Lake Urvis is on Hûgar the lofty[2].


1. On the nature of the ape and the bear they say, that Yim, when reason (nismô) departed from, him[3], for fear of the demons took a demoness as wife, and gave Yimak, who was his sister, to a demon as wife; and from them have originated the tailed ape and bear and other species of degeneracy.

2. This, too, they say, that in the reign of Az-i Dahâk[4] a young woman was admitted to a demon, and a young man was admitted to a witch (parîk), and on seeing them they had intercourse; owing to that one intercourse the black-skinned negro arose from them. 3. When Frêdûn[5] came to them they fled from the country of Iran, and settled upon the sea-coast; now, through the invasion of the Arabs, they are again diffused through the country of Iran.

[1. See Chap. XIII, 9-13.

2. See Chaps. XII, 5, XIII, 4.

3. See Chap. XXXIV, 4. This is the Jamshêd of the Shâhnâmah. Perhaps for 'reason' we should read 'glory.'

4. See Chaps, XXXI, 6, XXXIV, 5.

5. See Chap. XXXIV, 6.]

{p. 88}


1. On the chieftainship of men and animals and every single thing it says in revelation, that first of the human species Gâyômard was produced, brilliant and white, with eyes which looked out for the great one, him who was here the Zaratûstrôtûm (chief high-priest); the chieftainship of all things was from Zaratûst[1]. 2. The white ass-goat[2], which holds its head down, is the chief of goats, the first of those species created[3]. 3. The black sheep which is fat and white-jawed is the chief of sheep; it was the first of those species created[3]. 4. The camel with white-haired knees and two humps is the chief of camels. 5. First the black-haired ox with yellow knees was created; he is the chief of oxen. 6. First the dazzling white (artûs) horse, with yellow ears, glossy hair, and white eyes, was produced; he is the chief of horses. 7. The white, cat-footed[4] ass is the chief of asses. 8. First of dogs the fair (arûs) dog with yellow hair was produced; he is the chief of dogs. 9. The hare was produced brown

[1. So in all MSS., but by reading mûn, 'who,' instead of min, 'from,' we should have, 'him who was here the chief high-priest and chieftainship of all things, who was Zaratûst.' The Pahlavi Visp. I. 1, gives the following list of chiefs: 'The chief of spirits is Aûharmazd, the chief of worldly existences is Zaratûst, the chief of water-creatures is the Kar-fish, the chief of land-animals is the ermine, the chief of flying-creatures is the Karsipt, the chief of the wide-travellers is the . . . , the chief of those suitable for grazing is the ass-goat.'

2. See Chap. XIV, 14.

3. It is doubtful whether the phrase, 'the first of those species created,' belongs to this sentence or the following one.

4. Or, 'cat-legged.']

{p. 89}

(bûr); he is the chief of the wide-travellers. 10. Those beasts which have no dread whatever of the hand are evil. 11. First of birds the griffon of three natures[1] was created, not for here (this world), for the Karsipt[2] is the chief, which they call the falcon (kark), that which revelation says was brought to the enclosure formed by Yim. 12. First of fur animals the white ermine was produced; he is the chief of fur animals; as it says that it is the white ermine which came unto the assembly of the archangels. 13. The Kar-fish, or Ariz[3], is the chief of the water-creatures. 14. The Dâîtîk[4] river is the chief of streams. 15. The Dâraga[5] river is the chief of exalted rivers, for the dwelling of the father of Zaratûst was on its banks[6], and Zaratûst was born there. 16. The hoary forest[7] is the chief of forests. 17. Hûgar the lofty[8], on which the water of Arêdvîvsûr flows and leaps, is the chief of summits, since it is that above which is the revolution of the constellation Satavês[9], the chief of

[1. The Sîmurgh (see 29 and Chap. XIV, 11, 23, 24). In Mkh. LXII, 37-39, it is mentioned as follows: 'And Sînamrû's resting-place is on the tree which is opposed to harm, of all seeds; and always when he rises aloft a thousand twigs will shoot forth from that tree; and when he alights he will break off the thousand twigs, and he sheds their seed therefrom.'

2. See Chap. XIX, 16. In 29 Kamrôs is said to be the chief.

3. See Chaps. XIV, 12, 26, XVIII, 3-6.

4. See Chap. XX, 13

5. See Chap. XX, 32.

6. The MSS. have 'in Balkh' instead of 'on the banks.'

7. The arûs-i razur is the Av. spaêtitem razurem of Râm Yt. 31.

8. See Chap. XII, 5.

9. See Chap. II, 7.]

{p. 90}

reservoirs[1]. 18. The Hôm which is out-squeezed is the chief of medicinal plants[2]. 19. Wheat is the chief of large-seeded[3] grains. 20. The desert wormwood is the chief of unmedicinal[4] plants. 21. The summer vetch, which they also call 'pag' (gâvirs), is the chief of small-seeded grains[5]. 22. The Kûstik (sacred thread-girdle) is the chief of clothes. 23. The Bâzâyvâna[6] is the chief of seas. 24. Of two men, when they come forward together, the wiser and more truthful is chief.

25. This, too, it says in revelation, that Aûharmazd created the whole material world one abode, so that all may be one; for there is much splendour and glory of industry in the world. 26. Whatsoever he performs, who practises that which is good, is the value of the water of life[7]; since water is not created alike[8] in value, for the undefiled water of Arêdvîvsûr 'is worth the whole water of the sky and earth of Khvanîras[9], except the Arag river[10], created by Aûharmazd. 27. Of trees the myrtle and date,

[1. The meaning of Pâz. gobarâ is doubtful, but it is here taken as standing for Pahl. gôbalân, equivalent to the plural of Pers. gôl or kôl, 'a reservoir;' Satavês being a specially 'watery' constellation (see Tîstar Yt. 0). Justi traces gobarân to Av. gufra, and translates it by 'protecting stars.'

2. Pâz. khvad and bakagâ evidently stand for Pahl. hûd (Av. huta) and bezashk.

3. Compare Av. as-dânunãm-ka yavananãm (Tîstar Yt. 29).

4. Pâz. abakagâ stands for Pahl. abezashk.

5. Compare Av. kasu-dânunãm-ka vâstranãm (Tîstar Yt. 29).

6. Justi identifies this with Lake Van, but perhaps Lake Sevan may be meant.

7. Or, 'its value is water.' K20 omits the word 'water.'

8. Reading ham instead of hamâk, 'all.'

9. See Chap. XI, 2-6.

10. See Chap. XX, 8.]

{p. 91}

on which model, it is said, trees were formed, are worth all the trees of Khvanîras, except the Gôkard tree[1] with which they restore the dead.

28. Of mountains Mount Apârsên's beginning is in Sagastân and end in Khûgistân, some say it is all the mountains of Pârs, and is chief of all mountains except Albûrz. 29. Of birds Kamrôs[2] is chief, who is worth all the birds in Khvanîras, except the griffon of three natures. 30. The conclusion is this, that every one who performs a great duty has then much value.


1. On matters of religion[3] it says in revelation thus: 'The creatures of the world were created by me complete in three hundred and sixty-five days,' that is, the six periods of the Gâhanbârs which are completed in a year. 2. It is always necessary first to count the day and afterwards the night, for first the day goes off, and then the night comes on[4]. And from the season (gâs) of Mêdôk-shêm[5],

[1. See Chap. XVIII, 1-4.

2. See Chap. XIX, 115, where it is written Kâmrôs. This is at variance with 11, which gives the chieftainship to Karsipt.

3. That is, 'on the periods for observance of religious duties.'

4. The Jewish and Muhammadan practice is just the contrary.

5. The Av. maidhyô-shema of Yas. I, 27, II, 36, III, 41, Visp. I, 3, II, 1, Âfrîngân Gâhanbâr 2, 8. It is the second season-festival, held on the five days, ending with the 105th day of the Parsi year, which formerly corresponded approximately to midsummer, according to the Bundahis. Later writings assert that it commemorates the creation of water.]

{p. 92}

which is the auspicious[1] day Khûr of the month Tir[2], to the season of Mêdîyârêm[3], which is the

[1. A dispute as to the meaning of this word formed no small part of the Kabîsah controversy, carried on between the leaders of the two rival sects of Parsis in Bombay about fifty years ago. Dastur Edalji Dârâbji, the high-priest of the predominant sect (who adhered to the traditional calendar of the Indian Parsis), insisted that it meant 'solar,' or 'belonging to the calendar rectified for solar time by the intercalation of a month every 120 years;' Mullâ Firûz, the high-priest of the new sect (who had adopted the calendar of the Persian Parsis, which is one month in advance of the other), asserted that the word had no connection with intercalation, but meant 'commencing,' or 'pertaining to New-year's day,' as translated into Sanskrit, by Nêryôsang, in Mkh. XLIX, 27. Anquetil translates it either as 'inclusive' or 'complete;' Windischmann simply skips it over; and Justi translates it everywhere as 'inclusive.' Dastur Edalji reads the word vehîgakî or vehîgak; Nêryôsang has vahesa, Mullâ Firûz reads nâîkakîk in the Bundahis, but vêhîgakîk in the Dînkard, where the word also occurs; Justi has nâîkakîk. The meaning 'inclusive' suits the context in nearly all cases in the Bundahis, but not elsewhere; if it had that meaning the most probable reading would be vikhêgakîk or nikhêgakîk, 'arising, leaping over, including.' It is nearly always used in connection with dates or periods of time, and must be some epithet of a very general character, not only applicable to intercalary periods, but also to New-Year's day and dates in general; something like the Arabic epithet mubârak, 'fortunate,' so commonly used in Persian dates. Dastur Edalji compares it with Pers. bîhrak or bihtarak, 'intercalary month,' which is probably a corruption of it; and this suggests veh, 'good,' as one component of the epithet. The word may be read veh-yazakîk, 'for reverencing the good,' but as veh, 'good,' is an adjective, this would be an irregular form; a more probable reading is veh-îkakîk, 'for anything good,' which, when applied to a day, or any period of time, would imply that it is suitable for anything good, that is, it is 'auspicious.' Sometimes the word is written vehîkak, vêhîkakîk, or vêhîkö; and epithets of similar forms in Pahlavi are applied by the writers of colophons to themselves, but these should be read vakhêzak or nisîvak, 'lowly, abject.'

2. The eleventh day of the fourth month, when the festival commences.

3. The Av. maidhyâirya of Yas. I, 30, II, 39, III, 44, Visp. I, {footnote p. 93} 6, II, 1, Âf. Gâhan. 2, 11. It is; the fifth season-festival, held on the five days ending with the 290th day of the Parsi year, which formerly corresponded approximately to midwinter, according to the Bundahis. Later writings assert that it commemorates the creation of animals.]

{p. 93}

auspicious day Vâhrâm of the month Dîn[1]--the shortest day--the night increases; and from the season of Mêdîyârêm to the season of Mêdôk-shêm the night decreases and the day increases. 4. The summer day is as much as two of the shortest[2] winter days, and the winter night is as much as two of the shortest summer nights[3]. 5. The summer day is twelve Hâsars, the night six Hâsars; the winter night is twelve Hâsars, the day six; a Hâsar being a measure of time and, in like manner, of land[4]. 6. In the season of Hamêspamadâyêm[5], that is, the

[1. The twentieth day of the tenth month, when the festival ends.

2. The word kah-aît is merely a hybrid Huzvâris form of kahist, 'shortest,' which occurs in the next phrase.

3. This statement must be considered merely as an approximation. The longest day is twice the length of the shortest one in latitude 49, that is, north of Paris, Vienna, and Odessa, if the length of the day be computed from sunrise to sunset; and, if twilight be included, it is necessary to go still further north. In Âdarbîgân, the northern province of Persia, the longest day is about 14 hours from sunrise to sunset, and the shortest is about 9 hours.

4. According to this passage a hâsar of time is one hour and twenty minutes; it is the Av. hâthra of the Farhang-i Oîm-khadûk (P. 43, ed. Hoshangji), which says, 'of twelve Hâsars is the longest day, and the day and night in which is the longest day are twelve of the longest Hâsars, eighteen of the medium, and twenty-four of the least--an enumeration of the several measures of the Hâsar.' For the hâsar measure of land, see Chap. XXVI.

5. So in K20, but this name is rarely written twice alike; it is the Av. hamaspathmaêdaya of Yas. I, 31, II, 40, III, 45, Visp, I. 7, II, 1, Âf. Gâhan. 2, 12. It is the sixth season-festival, held on the five Gâtha days which conclude the Parsi year, just before {footnote p. 94} the vernal equinox, according to the Bundahis. Later writings assert that it commemorates the creation of man.]

{p. 94}

five supplementary days at the end of the month Spendarmad, the day and night are again equal.

7. As from the auspicious day Aûharmazd of the month Fravardîn to the auspicious day Anîrân of the month Mitrô[1] is the summer of seven months, so from the auspicious day Aûharmazd of the month Âvân to the auspicious month Spendarmad, on to the end of the five supplementary days[2], is winter of five months. 8. The priest fulfils the regulation (vakar) about a corpse and other things, by this calculation as to summer and winter. 9. In those seven months[3] of summer the periods (gâs) of the days and nights are five--since one celebrates the Rapîtvîn--namely, the period of daybreak is Hâvan, the period of midday is Rapîtvîn, the period of afternoon is Aûzêrîn, when the appearance of the stars has come into the sky[4] until midnight is the period of Aîbisrûtêm, from midnight until the stars become imperceptible is the period of Aûshahîn[5]. 10. In winter are four periods, for from daybreak till Aûshahîn is all Hâvan, and the rest as I have said; and the reason of it is this, that the appearance[6] of winter is in the direction of the

[1. That is, from the first day of the first month to the last day of the seventh month.

2. That is, from the first day of the eighth month to the last of the five Gâtha days, which are added to the twelfth month to complete the year of 365 days.

3. All MSS. have 'five months' here.

4. K20 has 'when the stars have come into sight.'

5. The Avesta names of the five Gâhs are Hâvani, Rapithwina, Uzayêirina, Aiwisrûthrema, and Ushahina.

6. Pâz. ashâris is evidently a misreading of Pahl. âshkârîh.]

{p. 95}

north, where the regions Vôrûbarst[1] and Vôrûgarst are; the original dwelling of summer, too, is in the south, where the regions Fradadafsh and Vidadafsh are; on the day Aûharmazd of the auspicious month Âvân the winter acquires strength and enters into the world, and the spirit of Rapîtvîn goes from above-ground to below-ground, where the spring (khânî) of waters is, and diffuses[2] warmth and moisture in the water, and so many roots of trees do not wither with cold and drought. 11. And on the auspicious day Âtarô of the month Dîn[3] the winter arrives, with much cold, at Aîrân-vêg; and until the end, in the auspicious month Spendarmad, winter advances through the whole world; on this account they kindle a fire everywhere on the day Âtarô of the month Din, and it forms an indication that winter has come. 12. In those five months the water of springs and conduits is all warm[4], for Rapîtvîn keeps warmth and moisture there, and one does not celebrate the period of Rapîtvîn. 13. As the day Aûharmazd of the month Fravardîn advances it diminishes the strength which winter possesses, and summer comes in from its own original dwelling, and receives strength and dominion. 14. Rapîtvîn comes up from below-ground, and ripens the fruit of the trees; on this account

[1. See Chaps. V, 8, XI, 3. The north, being opposed to the south or midday quarter, is opposed to the midday period of Rapîtvîn, which, therefore, disappears as winter approaches from the north.

2 If, instead of khânî for khânîk, 'spring,' we read ahû-i, 'lord of,' the translation will be, 'so that the angel of waters may diffuse,' &c.

3. The ninth day of the tenth month.

4. That is, warmer than the air, as it is cooler in summer.]

{p. 96}

the water of springs is cold in summer[1], for Rapîtvîn is not there; and those seven[2] months one celebrates the Rapîtvîn, and summer advances through the whole earth. 15. And yet in the direction of Hindûstân, there where the original dwelling of summer is nearer, it is always neither cold nor hot; for in the season which is the dominion of summer, the rain always dispels most of the heat, and it does not become perceptible; in the winter rain does not fall, and the cold does not become very perceptible[3]. 16. In the northern direction, where the preparation of winter is, it is always cold[4]; for in the summer mostly, on account of the more oppressive winter there, it is not possible so to dispel the cold that one might make it quite warm. 17. In the middle localities the cold of winter and heat of summer both come on vehemently.

18. Again, the year dependent on the revolving moon is not equal to the computed year on this account, for the moon[5] returns one time in twenty-nine, and one time in thirty days, and there are four

[1. K20 has 'winter' by mistake.

2. K20 has 'six,' and M6 'five,' instead of 'seven.'

3. This is a fairly accurate account of the effect of the monsoons over the greater part of India, as understood by a foreigner unacquainted with the different state of matters in a large portion of the Madras provinces.

4. M6 has khûrâsân instead of ârâyisn, 'preparation,' which alters the sense into I that is, Khûrâsân, of which the winter is always cold.'

5. The MSS. have the Huzvâris term for 'month,' which is sometimes used, by mistake, for 'moon.' It is doubtful which word the author intended to use here, but it is usual to count the days of a lunar month from the first actual appearance of the new moon, which usually occurs a full day after the change of the moon.]

{p. 97}

hours (zamân) more than such a one of its years[1]; as it says, that every one deceives where they speak about the moon (or month), except when they say that it comes twice in sixty days. 19. Whoever keeps the year by the revolution of the moon mingles summer with winter and winter with summer[2].

20. This, too, it says, that the auspicious month Fravardîn, the month Ardavahist, and the month Horvadad[3] are spring; the month Tîr, the. month Amerôdad, and the month Shatvaîrô are summer; the month Mitrô, the month Âvân, and the month Âtarô are autumn; the month Dîn, the month Vohûman, and the month Spendarmad are winter[4]. 21. And the sun comes from the sign (khûrdak) of Aries, into which it proceeded in the beginning, back to that same place in three hundred and sixty-five days and six short times (hours), which are one year. 22. As every three months it (the sun) advances through three constellations, more or less, the moon comes, in a hundred and eighty days, back to the place out of which it travelled in the beginning[5].

[1. Meaning, probably, that the lunar year is four hours more than twelve months of 29 and 30 days each, alternately. It should be 8 hours, 48 minutes, and 37 seconds. The sentence seems defective, but it is evident from 21 that zamân means 'hour.'

2. That is, the lunar year being eleven days shorter than the solar one, its months are constantly retrograding through the seasons.

3. Generally written Avardâd in Pâzand, and Khurdâd in Persian.

4. The names of the months are selected from the names of the days of the month (see Chap. XXVII, 24), but are 'arranged in a totally different order.

5. Probably meaning, that the new moon next the autumnal {footnote p. 98} equinox is to be looked for in the same quarter as the new moon nearest the vernal equinox, the moon's declination being nearly the same in both cases.]

{p. 98}


1. A Hâsar[1] on the ground is a Parasang of one thousand steps of the two feet. 2. A Parasang[2] is a measure as much as a far-seeing man may look out, see a beast of burden, and make known that it is black or white. 3. And the measure of a man is eight medium spans[3].

[1. Av. hâthra of Vend. II, 65, VIII, 280, 287, 291, Tîstar Yt. 23, 29. The statements regarding the length of a Hâsar are rather perplexing, for we are told that it is like a Parasang' (Chap. XIV, 4), that 'the length of a Hâsar is one-fourth of a Parasang' (Chap. XVI, 7), and that 'a medium Hâsar on the ground, which they also call a Parasang, is a thousand steps of the two feet when walking with propriety' (Farhang-i Oîm-khadûk, ed. Hosh. p. 42). To reconcile these statements we must conclude that the Hâsar is like a Parasang merely in the sense of being a long measure of distance, that it is really the mille passus or mile of the Romans, and that it is a quarter of the actual Parasang. At the same time, as it was usual to call a Hâsar by the name of a Parasang, we are often left in doubt whether a mile or a league is meant, when a Hâsar or Parasang is mentioned. The Farhang-i Oîm-khadûk (p. 41) also mentions other measures of distance, such as the takar (Av. takara) of two Hâsars, the asvâst (or aêast) of four Hâsars, the dashmêst (Av. dakhshmaiti) of eight, Hâsars, and the yôgêst (Av. yigaiasti or yugaiasti) of sixteen Hâsars.

2. A Parasang is usually from 3 to 4 English miles, but perhaps a Hâsar is meant here.

3. Reading vitast-i miyânak instead of vitast damânak. The Farhang-i Oîm-khadûk (p. 41) mentions three kinds of spans, the Av. vitasti (Vend. VIII, 243, 245, XVII, 13) of twelve finger-breadths (angûst), or about 9 inches, which is a full span between the thumb and little finger (the one mentioned in the text); the Av. disti (Vend. XVII, 13) of ten finger-breadths, or about 7 inches, which is a span between the thumb and middle finger; and the {footnote p. 99} Av. uzasti (Pahl. lâlâ-ast) of eight finger-breaths, or about 6 inches which is a span between the thumb and fore-finger. Other measures mentioned by the same authority are the pâî (Av. padha, Vend. IX, 15, 20, 29), 'foot,' of fourteen finger-breadths, or about 10 inches; the gâm (Av. gâya, Vend. III, 57, &c.), 'step,' which 'in the Vendîdâd is three pâî,' or about 2 feet 7 inches, 'and in other places is said to be two frârâst' (Av. frârâthni in Vend. VII, 76, 79, 87); so the frârâst, which is probably the distance from the neck to the extended elbow, is half a gâm, or from 15 to 16 inches. Two other measures are mentioned in Vend. VII, 7 9, 87, 90, IX, 8, the Av. frâbâzu, 'fore-arm or cubit' from elbow to finger-ends, which is about 18 inches (or it may be a half fathom); and Av. vîbâzu, which is probably the 'fathom,' or extent of the two arms out-stretched, from 5 to 6 feet.]

{p. 99}


1. On the nature of plants it says in revelation, that, before the coming of the destroyer, vegetation had no thorn and bark about it; and, afterwards, when the destroyer came, it became coated with bark and thorny[1], for antagonism mingled with every single thing; owing to that cause vegetation is also much mixed with poison, like Bis the height of hemp (kand)[2], that is poisonous, for men when they eat it die.

2. In like manner even as the animals, with grain of fifty and five species and twelve species of medicinal plants, have arisen from the primeval ox[3], ten thousand[4] species among the species of principal

[1. M6 has 'poisonous,' but is evidently copied from an original almost illegible in some places.

2. Perhaps 'hemp the height of Bîs' would better express the Pahlavi words, but Bîs (Napellus Moysis).is often mentioned as a poisonous plant. The phrase may also be translated 'like Bîs and tall hemp.'

3. See Chap. XIV, 1.

4. M6 has 'a thousand,' but marks an omission. See Chap. IX. 4.]

{p. 100}

plants, and a hundred thousand species among ordinary plants have grown from all these seeds of the tree opposed to harm[1], the many-seeded, which has grown in the wide-formed ocean. 3. When the seeds of all these plants, with those from the primeval ox, have arisen upon it, every year the bird[2] strips that tree and mingles all the seeds in the water; Tîstar seizes them with the rain-water and rains them on to all regions. 4. Near to that tree the white Hôm, the healing and undefiled, has grown at the source of the water of Arêdvîvsûr[3]; every one who eats it becomes immortal, and they call it the Gôkard[4] tree, as it is said that Hôm is expelling death[5]; also in the renovation of the universe they prepare its immortality therefrom[6]; and it is the chief of plants[7].

5. These are as many genera of plants as exist: trees and shrubs, fruit-trees, corn, flowers, aromatic herbs, salads, spices, grass, wild plants, medicinal

[1. See Chaps. IX, 5, XVIII, 9, XXIX, 5.

2 .The apparently contradictory account in Chap. IX, 2, refers only to the first production of material plants from their spiritual or ideal representative. The bird here mentioned is Kamrôs (see Chaps. XIX, 15, XXIV, 29), as appears from the following passage (Mkh. LXII, 40-42): 'And the bird Kamrôs for ever sits in that vicinity; and his work is this, that he collects that seed which sheds from the tree of all seeds, which is opposed to harm, and conveys it there where Tîstar seizes the water, so that Tîstar may seize the water with that seed of all kinds, and may rain it on the world with the rain.'

3. See Chaps. XII, 5, XIII, 3-5.

4. Here written Gôkarn in all MSS. See Chaps. IX, 6, XVIII, I, 2.

5. That is, in Yas. IX, where Haoma is entitled dûraosha. See Chap. XXIV, 27.

6. See Chap. XXIV, 18.]

{p. 101}

plants, gum plants, and all producing[1] oil, dyes, and clothing. 6. I will mention them also a second time: all whose fruit is not welcome as food of men, and are perennial (sâlvâr), as the cypress, the plane, the white poplar, the box, and others of this genus, they call trees and shrubs (dâr va dirakht). 7. The produce of everything welcome as food of men, that is perennial, as the date, the myrtle, the lote-plum[2], the grape, the quince, the apple, the citron, the pomegranate, the peach, the fig, the walnut, the almond, and others in this genus, they call fruit (mîvak). 8. Whatever requires labour with the spade[3], and is perennial, they call a shrub (dirakht). 9. Whatever requires that they take its crop through labour, and its root withers away, such as wheat, barley, grain, various kinds[4] of pulse, veches, and others of this genus, they -call corn (gûrdâk). 10. Every plant with fragrant leaves, which is cultivated by the hand-labour of men, and is perennial (hamvâr), they call an aromatic herb (siparam). 11. Whatever sweet-scented blossom arises at various seasons through the hand-labour of men, or has a perennial root and blossoms in its season with new shoots and sweet-scented blossoms, as the rose, the narcissus, the jasmine, the dog-rose (nêstarûn),

[1. Comparing this list with the subsequent repetition it appears probable that hamâk barâ is a corruption of aesam bôd (see 19, 21), and that we ought to read 'gum plants, woods, scents, and plants for oil, dyes, and clothing.' M6 has 'oil and dyes for clothing.'

2. The kûnâr (see Chap. XV, 13).

3. The Pâz. pêhani (which is omitted in K20) is evidently a misreading of Pahl. pashang, 'a hoe-like spade.'

4 M6 adds Pâz. gavina (Pahl. gûnak) to gvîd gvîd mungân, without altering the meaning materially.]

{p. 102}

the tulip, the colocynth (kavastîk), the pandanus (kêdi), the kamba, the ox-eye (hêri), the crocus, the swallow-wort (zarda), the violet, the kârda, and others of this genus, they call a flower (gûl). 12. Everything whose sweet-scented fruit, or sweet-scented blossom, arises in its season, without the hand-labour of men, they call a wild plant (vahâr or nihâl). 13. Whatever is welcome as food of cattle and beasts of burden, they call grass (giyâh). 14. Whatever enters into cakes (pês-pârakîhâ) they call spices (âvzârîhâ). 15. Whatever is welcome in eating of bread, as torn shoots[1] of the coriander, water-cress (kakîg), the leek, and others of this genus, they call salad (têrak)[2]. 16. Whatever is like spinning[3] cotton, and others of this genus, they call clothing plants (gâmak). 17. Whatever lentil[4] is greasy, as sesame, dûshdâng, hemp, zandak[5], and others of this genus, they call an oil-seed (rôkanô). 18. Whatever one can dye clothing with, as saffron, sapan-wood, zakava, vaha, and others of this genus, they call a dye-plant (rag). 19. Whatever root, or gum[6], or wood

[1. Reading stâk darîd; Justi has 'baked shoots;' Anquetil has the three following;' M6 has stâk va karafs, 'shoots and parsley.'

2. Or târak in 5, Pers. tarah.

3. Reading Huz. neskhunân, 'twisting,' but the word is doubtful. Justi has 'sitting on the plant,' which is a rather singular description for cotton.

4. Reading makag; Anquetil, Windischmann, and Justi read mazg, 'marrow,' but this is usually written otherwise.

5. Perhaps for zêtô, 'olive,' as Anquetil supposes, and Justi assumes.

6. Reading tûf (compare Pers. tuf, 'saliva').]

{p. 103}

is scented, as frankincense[1], varâst[2], kust, sandalwood, cardamom[3], camphor, orange-scented mint, and others of this genus, they call a scent (bôd). 20. Whatever stickiness comes out from plants[4] they call gummy (zadak). 21. The timber which proceeds, from the trees, when it is either dry or wet, they call wood (kîbâ). 22. Every one of all these plants which is so, they call medicinal (dârûk)[5].

23. The principal fruits are of thirty kinds (khadûînak), and ten species (sardak) of them are fit to eat inside and outside, as the fig, the apple, the quince, the citron, the grape, the mulberry, the pear, and others of this kind; ten are fit to eat outside, but not fit to eat inside, as the date, the peach, the white apricot, and others of this kind; those which are fit to eat inside, but not fit to eat outside, are the walnut, the almond, the pomegranate, the cocoanut[6], the filbert[7], the chesnut[8], the pistachio nut, the vargân, and whatever else of this description are very remarkable.

24. This, too, it says, that every single flower is appropriate to an angel (ameshôspend)[10], as the

[1. Pâz. kendri for Pahl. kundur probably.

2. Justi compares Pers. barghast.

3. Pâz. kâkura may be equivalent to Pers. qaqulah, 'cardamoms,' or to Pers. kâkul or kâkûl, 'marjoram.'

4. K20 omits a line, from here to the word 'either.'

5. The line which contained this sentence is torn off in K20.

6. Pâz. anârsar is a misreading of Pahl. anârgîl (Pers. nârgîl, 'cocoa-nut').

7. Pâz. pendak, a misreading of Pahl. funduk.

8. Pâz. shahbrôd, a misreading of Pahl. shahbalût; omitted in M6.

9. M6 begins a new chapter here.

10. These are the thirty archangels and angels whose names are applied to the thirty days of the Parsi month, in the order in {footnote p. 104} which they are mentioned here, except that Aûharmazd is the first day, and Vohûman is the second.]

{p. 104}

white[1] jasmine (saman) is for Vohûman, the myrtle and jasmine (yâsmin) are Aûharmazd's own, the mouse-ear (or sweet marjoram) is Ashavahist's[2] own, the basil-royal is Shatvaîrô's own, the musk flower is Spendarmad's, the lily is Horvadad's, the kamba is Amerôdad's, Dîn-pavan-Âtarô has the orange-scented mint (vâdrang-bôd), Âtarô has the marigold[3] (âdargun), the water-lily is Âvân's, the white marv is Khtûrshêd's, the ranges[4] is Mâh's, the violet is Tîr's, the mêren[5] is Gôs's, the kârda is Dîn-pavan-Mitrô's, all violets are Mitrô's, the red chrysanthemum (khêr) is Srôsh's, the dog-rose (nestran) is Rashnû's, the cockscomb is Fravardîn's, the sisebar is Vâhrâm's, the yellow chrysanthemum is Râm's, the orange-scented mint is Vâd's[6], the trigonella is Dîn-pavan-Dîn's, the hundred-petalled rose is Dîn's, all kinds of wild flowers (vahâr) are Ard's[7], Âstâd has all the white Hôm[8], the bread-baker's basil is Asmân's, Zamyâd has the crocus, Mâraspend has the flower[9] of Ardashîr,

[1. M6 has 'yellow.'

2. Synonymous with the Ardavahist of Chap. I, 26.

3. Anquetil, Windischmann, and Justi have 'the poppy.'

4. M6 has Pâz. lg as only the first part of the word, and Justi translates it by 'red lac,' which is not a plant. Transcribing the Pâzand into Pahlavi, perhaps the nearest probable word is rand, 'laurel.'

5. M6 has Pâz. mênr; Anquetil has 'vine blossom,' and is followed by Windischmann and Justi, but the word is very uncertain.

6. The remainder of this chapter is lost from K20.

7. This female angel is also called Arshisang (see Chap. XXII, 4). See 4.

8. M6 leaves a blank space for the name of the flower; perhaps it is the marv-i Ardashîrân.]

{p. 105}

Anîrân has this Hôm of the angel Hôm[1], of three kinds.

25. It is concerning plants that every single kind with a drop of water on a twig (teh) they should hold four finger-breadths in front of the fire[2]; Most of all it is the lotos (kûnâr) they speak of.


[ 1. On the evil-doing of Aharman and the demons it says in revelation, that the evil which the evil spirit has produced for the creation of Aûharmazd it is possible to tell by this winter[4]; and his body is that of a lizard (vazagh)[5] whose place is filth (kalk). 2. He does not think, nor speak, nor act for the welfare (nadûkîh) of the creatures of Aûharmazd; and his business is unmercifulness and the destruction of this welfare, so that the creatures which Aûharmazd shall increase he will destroy; and his eyesight (kashm mîkisn)[6] does not refrain from doing the creatures harm. 3. As it says that, 'ever

[1. Reading, in Pahlavi, Hôm yêdatô aê hôm.

2. See Chap. XXI, 1. Referring to the necessity of drying firewood before putting it on the fire. The kûnâr is specially mentioned, as one of the first fire-woods used by mankind, in Chap. XV, 13.

3. Chaps. XXVIII, XXIX, and XXXI are omitted in M6 and all MSS. descended from it, whether Pahlavi or Pâzand; and, owing to the loss of a folio from K20 before any of its extant copies were written, the first quarter of Chap. XXVIII has hitherto been missing, but is here supplied (enclosed in brackets) from TD, a MS. belonging to Mobad Tahmuras Dinshaw (see Introduction).

4. Winter being one of the primary evils brought upon creation by Angra-mainyu (see Vend. I, 8-12).

5. See Chap. III, 9.

6. Referring to 'the evil eye.']

{p. 106}

since a creature was created by, us, I, who am Aûharmazd, have not rested at ease, on account of providing protection for my own creatures; and likewise not even he, the evil spirit, on account of contriving evil for the creatures.' 4. And by their devotion to witchcraft (yâtûk-dînôîh) he seduces mankind into affection for himself and disaffection to Aûharmazd[1], so that they forsake the religion of Aûharmazd, and practise that of Aharman. 5. He casts this into the thoughts of men, that this religion of Aûharmazd is nought, and it is not necessary to be steadfast in it. 6. Whoever gives that man anything, in whose law (dâd) this saying is established, then the evil spirit is propitiated by him, that is, he has acted by his pleasure.

7. The business of Akôman[2] is this, that he gave vile thoughts and discord to the creatures. 8. The business of the demon Andar is this, that he constrains the thoughts of the creatures from deeds of virtue, just like a leader who has well-constrained (sardâr-i khûp afsârdö); and he casts this into the thoughts of men, that it is not necessary to have the sacred shirt and thread-girdle. 9. The business of the demon Sâvar[3], that is a leader of the demons, is this, that is, misgovernment, oppressive anarchy, and drunkenness. 10. The business of the demon Nâîkîyas[4] is this, that he gives discontent to the creatures; as it says, that should this one

[1. Compare Chap. I, 14.

2. The six arch-fiends of this paragraph are those mentioned in Chaps. I, 27, XXX, 29.

3. Written Sôvar in Chap. I, 27.

4. Written Nâkahêd in Chap. I, 27, Nâîkîyas when repeated in this sentence, and Pâz. Nâûnghas in Chap. XXX, 29.]

{p. 107}

give anything to those men whose opinion (dâd) is this, that it is not necessary to have the sacred shirt and thread-girdle, then Andar, Sâvar, and Nâîkîyas are propitiated by him. 11. The demon Taprêv[1] is he who mingles poison with plants and creatures; as it says thus: 'Taprêv the frustrater, and Zâîrîk the maker of poison.' 12. All those six, it is said, are arch-fiends[2] of the demons; the rest are cooperating and confederate with them. 13. This, too, it says, that][3] should one give [anything to] a man who says [that it is proper to have one boot], and in his law walking with one boot [is established, then][4] the fiend Taprêv is propitiated [by him].

14. The demon Tarômat[5] [is he who] produces disobedience; the demon Mîtôkht[6] is the liar (drôgan) of the evil spirit[7]; the demon Arask[8] ('malice') is the spiteful fiend of the evil eye. 15. Theirs are the same appliances as the demon Aeshm's[10], as it

[1. Written Tâîrêv in Chap. I, 27.

2. See Chap. III, 2.

3. From this point the Pahlavi text is extant in K20, except some illegible words, the translation of which (supplied from TD) is here enclosed in brackets.

4. Anquetil, misled by the lacuna in his MS., thought that there was a change of subject here, and began a new chapter at this point. On this account the numbers of his chapters are henceforth one in excess of those in this translation.

5. Written Tarôkmatö in TD, and identified with Nâûnghas (Nâîkîyas) in Chap. XXX, 29; a personification of the Av. tarômaiti, 'disobedience,' of Yas. XXXIII, 4, LIX, 8.

6. A personification of the Av. mithaokhta, 'false-spoken,' of Yas. LIX, 8, Vend. XIX, 146, Visp. XXIII, 9, Zamyâd Yt. 96.

7. TD has drûg gûmânîkîh, the fiend of scepticism.'

8. Av. araska of Yas. IX, 18, Râm Yt. 16, personified.

9. The word hômanam in K20 is a false Huzvâris reading of ham, owing to the copyist reading am, 'I am;' TD has hamafzâr, 'having like means.'

10. Or Khashm, 'wrath;' so written in K20, but it is usually {footnote p. 108} Aêshm elsewhere; the Av. aêshma of Vend. IX, 37, X, 23, 27, &c. The Asmodeus of the Book of Tobit appears to be the Av. Aêshmô daêvô, 'demon of wrath.']

{p. 108}

says that seven powers are given to Aeshm[1], that he may utterly destroy the creatures therewith; with those seven powers he will destroy seven[2] of the Kayân heroes in his own time, but one will remain. 16. There where Mîtôkht ('falsehood') arrives, Arask ('malice') becomes welcome, [and there where Arask is welcome][3] Aeshm lays a foundation[4], and there where Aeshm has a foundation[5] many creatures perish, and he causes much non-Iranianism[6]. 17. Aeshm mostly contrives all evil for the creatures of Aûharmazd, and the evil deeds of those Kayân heroes have been more complete through Aeshm, as it says, that Aeshm, the impetuous assailant, causes them most[7].

18. The demon Vîzarêsh[8] is he who struggles with the souls of men which have departed, those

[1. TD has 'there were seven powers of Aêshm.'

2. TD has 'six,' which looks like an unlucky attempt to amend a correct text. Tradition tells us that only five Kayâns reigned (see Chap. XXXIV, 7), and the Shâhnâmah also mentions Sîyâwush (Pahl. Kaî-Sîyâvakhsh), who did not reign; but eight Kayâns, besides Lôharâsp and Vistâsp, who were of collateral descent (see Chap. XXXI, 28), are mentioned in the Avesta, whence the author of the Bundahis would obtain much of his information (see Fravardîn Yt. 132, Zamyâd Yt. 71, 74).

3. The phrase in brackets occurs only in TD.

4. Reading bunak as in TD; K20 has 'sends down a root.'

5. So in TD; K20 has 'where Aeshm keeps on.'

6. That is, 'many foreign customs.'

7. The word vêsh, 'most,' is only in TD.

8. So in TD; K20 has Vigêsh. He is the Av. Vîzaresha of Vend. XIX, 94, who is said to convey the souls of the departed to, the Kinvad bridge.]

{p. 109}

days and nights[1] when they remain in the world; he carries them on, terror-stricken, and sits at the gate of hell. 19. The demon Uda[2] is he who, when a man sits in a private place, or when he eats at meals, strikes his knee spiritually on his back[3], so that he bawls out [and looks out, that chattering he may eat, chattering] he may evacuate (rîed), and chattering he may make water (mêzêd), so that he may not attain [unto the] best existence[4] .

[ 20. The demon Akâtâsh[5] is the fiend of perversion (nikîrâyîh), who makes the creatures averse (nikîrâî) from proper things; as it says, that whoever has given anything to that person (tanû) whose opinion (dâd) is this, that it is not necessary to have a high-priest (dastôbar), then the demon Aeshm is propitiated by him. 21. Whoever has given anything to that person whose opinion is this, and who says, that it is not necessary to have a snake-killer (mâr-van), then Aharman, with the foregoing demons, is propitiated by him; this is said of him who, when he sees a noxious creature, does not kill it. 22. A snake-killer (mâro-gnô)[6] is a stick on the end of which a leathern thong is

[1. TD has 'those three nights,' referring to the period that the soul is said to remain hovering about the body after death (see Hâdôkht Nask, ed. Haug, II, 1-18, III, 1-17).

2. So in K20; TD has Aûdak (see Pahl. Vend. XVIII, 70).

3. TD has merely strikes a slipper (padîn-pôsh) spiritually,' that is, invisibly, for the purpose of startling the man.

4. The short phrases in brackets are taken from TD to supply words torn off from K20, which passes on to Chap. XXIX at this point, but TD supplies a continuation of Chap. XXVIII, which is added here, and enclosed in brackets.

5. The Av. Akatasha of Vend. X, 23 Sp., XIX, 43 W.

6. See Pahlavi Vend. XVIII, 5, 6.]

{p. 110}

provided; and it is declared that every one of the good religion must possess one, that they may strike and kill noxious creatures and sinners more meritoriously with it.

23. Zarmân[1] is the demon who makes decrepit (dûspad), whom they call old age (pirîh). 24. Kîshmak[2] is he who makes disastrous (vazandak), and also causes the whirlwind[3] which passes over for disturbance. 25. The demon Varenô[4] is he who causes illicit intercourse, as it says thus: 'Varenô the defiling (âlâî).' 26. The demon Bûshâsp[5] is she who causes slothfulness; Sêg is the fiend (drûg) who causes annihilation; and the demon Nîyâz is he who causes distress.

27. The demon Âz[6] ('greediness') is he who swallows everything, and when, through destitution, nothing has come he eats himself; he is that fiendishness which, although the whole wealth of the world be given up to it, does not fill up and is not satisfied; as it says, that the eye of the covetous is a noose (gamand), and in it the world is nought. 28. Pûs[7] is the demon who makes a hoard, and

[1. A personification of the Av. zaurva of Vend. XIX, 43 W., Yas. IX, 18 Sp., Gôs Yt. 10, Râm Yt. 16.

2. The reading of this name is uncertain.

3. The small whirlwinds, which usually precede a change of wind in India, are commonly known by the name of shaîTân, which indicates that such whirling columns of dust are popularly attributed to demoniacal agency.

4. A personification of Av. varena, 'desire,' in an evil sense.

5. Av. Bûshyãsta of Vend. XI, 28, 29, 36, 37, XVIII, 38, &c. The names of the three demons in this sentence are Persian words for 'sloth,' 'trouble,' and 'want.'

6 Av. Âzi of Vend. XVIII, 45, 50, Yas. XVII, 46, LXVII, 22, Âstâd Yt. 1.

7. Compare Pers. payûs, 'covetous,' and piyûs, avarice.' Pûs is evidently the demon of misers, and Âz that of the selfish.]

{p. 111}

does not consume it, and does not give to any one; as it says, that the power of the demon Âz is owing to that person who, not content with his own wife, snatches away even those of others.

29. The demon Nas[1] is he who causes the pollution and contamination (nisrûstih), which they call nasâi ('dead matter'). 30. The demon Frîftâr ('deceiver') is he who seduces mankind. 31. The demon Spazg[2] ('slander') is he who brings and conveys discourse (milayâ), and it is nothing in appearance such as he says; and he shows that mankind fights and apologizes (avakhshînêd), individual with individual. 32. The demon Arâst[3] ('untrue') is he who speaks falsehood. 33. The demon Aîghâsh[4] is the malignant-eyed fiend who smites mankind with his eye. 24. The demon Bût[5] is he whom they worship among the Hindûs, and his growth is lodged in idols, as one worships the horse as an idol[6]. 35 Astô-vîdâd is the evil flyer (vâê-i saritar) who seizes the life; as it says that, when

[1. Av. Nasu of Vend, V, 85-106, VI, 65, 72, 74, 79, VII, 2-27, 70, VIII, 46, 48, 132-228, IX, 49-1 7, &c.

2. Av. spazga of Ardabahist Yt. 8, 11, 15.

3. Always written like anâst.

4. Av. aghashi of Vend. XX, 14, 20, 24, which appears to be 'the evil eye;' but see 36.

5. Av. Bûiti of Vend. XIX, 4, 6, 140, who must be identified with Pers. but, 'an idol,' Sans. bhûta, 'a goblin,' and not with Buddha.

6. Reading afas vakhsh pavan bûtîhâ mâhmânö, kîgûn bût asp parastêdö, which evidently admits of many variations, but the meaning is rather obscure.

7. Here written Astî-vîdâd (see Chap. III, 21). Vend. V, 25, 31 says, 'Astô-vîdhôtu binds him (the dying, man); Vayô (the flying demon) conveys him bound;' from which it would appear that Astî-vîdâd and 'the evil flyer' were originally considered as distinct demons.]

{p. 112}

his hand strokes a man it is lethargy, when he casts it on the sick one it is fever, when he looks in his eyes he drives away the life, and they call it death. 36. The demon of the malignant eye (sûr-kashmîh) is he who will spoil anything which men see, when they do not say 'in the name of God' (yazdân).

37. With every one of them are many demons and fiends co-operating, to specify whom a second time would be tedious; demons, too, who are furies (khashmakân), are in great multitude it is said. 38. They are demons of ruin, pain, and growing old (zvârân), producers of vexation and bile, revivers of grief (nîvagîh), the progeny of gloom, and bringers of stench, decay, and vileness, who are many, very numerous, and very notorious; and a portion of all of them is mingled in the bodies of men, and their characteristics are glaring in mankind.

39. The demon Apâôsh[1] and the demon Aspengargâk[2] are those who remain in contest with the rain. 40. Of the evil spirit[3] are the law of vileness, the religion of sorcery, the weapons of fiendishness, and the perversion (khâmîh) of God's works; and

[1. Av. Apaosha of Tîstar Yt. 21, 22, 27, 28, Âstâd Yt. 2, 6; see also Chap. VII, 8, 10, 12.

2. Here written Aspengarôgâ, but see Chaps. VII, 12, XVII, 1. He is the Av. Spengaghra of Vend. XIX, 135, and, being a demon, is not to be confounded with the demon-worshipper, Spingauruska, of Gôs Yt. 3 1, Ashi Yt. 51.

3. The 'evil spirit,' Ganrâk-maînôk, seems to be here treated as a demon distinct from Aharman, which is inconsistent with what is stated in 1-6, and is contrary to general opinion. This inconsistency would indicate the possibility of this continuation of Chap. XXVIII in TD, or a portion of it, having been added by an editor in later times (although it is difficult to discover any difference of style in the language), if we did not find a similar confusion of the two names in Chap. XXX, 29, 30.]

{p. 113}

his wish is this, that is: 'Do not ask about me, and do not understand me! for if ye ask about and understand me, ye will not come after me[1].' 41. This, too, it says, that the evil spirit remains at the distance of a cry, even at the cry of a three-year-old cock (kûlêng), even at the cry of an ass, even at the cry of a righteous man when one strikes him involuntarily and he utters a cry[2]. 42. The demon Kûndak[3] is he who is, the steed (bârak) of wizards.

43. Various new demons arise from the various new sins the creatures may commit, and are produced for such purposes; who make even those planets rush on which are in the celestial sphere, and they stand very numerously in the conflict. 44. Their ringleaders (kamârîkân) are those seven planets, the head and tail of Gôkîhar, and Mûspar[4]

[1. Compare Mkh. XL, 24-28: 'The one wish that Hôrmezd, the lord, desires from men is this, that "ye shall understand me (Hôrmezd), since every one who shall understand me comes after me, and strives for my satisfaction." And the one wish that Aharman desires from men is this, that "ye shall not understand me (Aharman), since whoever shall understand me wicked, his actions proceed not after me, and, moreover, no advantage and friendship come to me from that man."'

2. The sentence is rather obscure, but it seems to imply that such cries keep the evil spirit at a distance; it is, however, just possible that it means that the cry of the evil spirit can be heard as far as such cries.

3. Av. Kunda of Vend. XI, 28, 36, XIX, 138.

4. TD has Gôk-kihar and Mûs-parîk here, but see Chap. V, 1, where these beings are included among the seven planetary leaders, and not counted in addition to them. This is another inconsistency which leads to the suspicion that this continuation of the chapter may have been written by a later hand. According to this later view, the sun and moon must be included among those malevolent orbs, the planets.]

{p. 114}

provided with a tail, which are ten. 45. And by them these ten worldly creations, that is, the sky, water, earth, vegetation, animals, metals, wind, light, fire, and mankind, are corrupted with all this vileness; and from them calamity, captivity, disease, death, and other evils and corruptions ever come to water, vegetation, and the other creations which exist in the world, owing to the fiendishness of those ten. 46. They whom I have enumerated are furnished with the assistance and crafty (afzar-hômand) nature of Aharman.

47. Regarding the cold, dry, stony, and dark interior of mysterious (târîk dên afrâg-pêdâk) hell it says, that the darkness is fit to grasp with the hand[1], and the stench is fit to cut with a knife; and if they inflict the punishment of a thousand men within a single span, they (the men) think in this way, that they are alone; and the loneliness is worse than its punishment[2]. 48. And its connection (band) is with the seven planets, be it through much cold like Saturn[3] (Kêvân), be it through much heat like Aharman; and their food is brimstone (gandak), and of succulents the lizard (vazagh), and other evil and wretchedness (patyân).]

[1. Compare Mkh. VII, 31: 'and always their darkness is suchlike as though it be possible to grasp with the hand.'

2. Compare Ardâ-Vîrâf-nâmak (LIV, 5-8): 'As close as the ear to the eye, and as many as the hairs on the mane of a horse, so close and many in number, the souls of the wicked stand, but they see not, and hear no sound, one from the other; every one thinks thus, "I am alone.".

3. Or, 'with more cold than Saturn.']

{p. 115}


1. On [the spiritual chieftainship[2] of the regions of the earth] it says in revelation, that every one of those six chieftainships[3] has one spiritual chief; as the chief of Arzah is AshâshagahadHvandkãn[4], the chief of Savah is Hoazarôdathhri-hanâ Parêstyarô[5], the chief of Fradadafsh is Spîtôîd-i Aûspôsînân[6], [the chief of Vîdadafsh is Aîrîz-râsp Aûspôsînân[7],] the chief of Vôrûbarst is Huvâsp[7], the chief of Vôrûgarst is Kakhravâk[9]. 2. Zaratûst is

[1. For this chapter, which is numbered XXX by previous translators, we have to depend only on K20 and TD (see the note on the heading of Chap. XXVIII); and the words enclosed in brackets are supplied from TD, being either illegible or omitted in K20.

2. Perhaps 'patriarchate' or 'episcopate' would be a better translation of radîh, and 'patriarch' or 'bishop' of rad, in this chapter, as the chief high-priest (dastûr-i dastûrân) and his office are evidently meant by these words.

3. Of the six other regions, distinct from this one of Khvanîras, see Chap. XI, 2-4.

4. TD has Ashashâghd-ê aîgh Nêvandãn; both MSS. giving these names in a barbarous Pâzand form which cannot be relied on. Perhaps this Dastûr is the Av. Ashâvanghu Bivandangha of Fravardîn Yt. 110.

5. TD has Hôazarôkakhhr-hanâ Parêstyrô, all in Pâzand in both MSS., except Huz. hanâ, which stands for Pâz. ê, here used for the idhâfat i. Perhaps this Dastûr is the Av. Garô-danghu Pairistîra of Fravardîn Yt. 110.

6. So in TD; K20 has Pâz. Spaitanid-i Huspâsnyân. This Dastûr is, no doubt, the Av. (gen.) Spitôis Uspãsnaos of Fravardîn Yt. 121.

7. Omitted in K20, but, no doubt, this Dastûr is the Av. Erezrâspa Uspãsnu of Fravardîn Yt. 121.

8. Av. Hvaspa of Fravardîn Yt. 122.

9. So in both MSS. As in the case of each of the preceding two pair of regions, two consecutive names of Dastûrs have been taken from the Fravardîn Yast, it may be supposed that the names {footnote p. 116} taken for this third pair of regions will also be consecutive, and this Dastûr must, therefore, be identified with the Av. Kathwaraspa of Fravardîn Yt. 122.]

{p. 116}

spiritual chief of the region of Khvanîras, and also of all the regions; he is chief of the world of the righteous, and it is said that the whole religion was received by them from Zaratûst[1].

3. In the region of Khvanîras are many places, from which, in this evil time of violent struggling with the adversary, a passage (vidarg) is constructed by the power of the spiritual world (mainôkîh), and one calls them the beaten tracks[2] of Khvanîras.

4. Counterparts of those other regions[3] are such places as Kangdez, the land of Saukavastân, the plain of the Arabs (Tâzîkân), the plain of Pêsyânsaî, the river Nâîvtâk[4], Aîrân-vêg, the enclosure (var) formed by Yim, and Kasmîr in India[5]. 5. And one immortal chief acts in the government of each

[1. TD has 'Zaratûst is chief of this region of Khvanîras, and also of the whole world of the righteous; all chieftainship, also, is from Zaratûst, so that the whole religion,' &c.

2. Justi has 'zones, climates;' but transcribing Pâz. habâvanhâ back into Pahlavi we have a word which may be read khabânöhâ, pl. of khabân, 'a trampling-place' (comp. Pers. khabîdan). TD has khvabîsnö-gâs, which has the same meaning.

3. Meaning, probably, that they resemble the six smaller regions in being isolated and difficult of access; in other words, either mythical, or independent of Iranian rule.

4. So in TD, which also omits the second, third, and fourth of these isolated territories. In K20 we might read rad va khûdâk, 'chief and lord,' as an epithet of Aîrân-vêg. This river must be the Nâhvtâk of Chap. XXI, 6.

5. Reading Kasmîr-i andar Hindû, but TD has Kasmîr-i andarûnö; perhaps the last word was originally anîrânak, in which case we should read 'the not-Iranian Kasmîr.']

{p. 117}

of them; as it says, that Pêshyôtanû[1] son of Vistâsp, whom they call Kîtrô-maînô[2], is in the country of Kangdez[3]; Aghrêrad[4] son of Pashang is in the land of Saukavastân[5], and they call him Gôpatshah[6]; Parsadgâ[7] Hvembya is in the plain of

[1. The Av. Peshôtanu of Vistâsp Yt. 4, where he is described as free from disease and death. TD has Pêshyôk-tanû. See also Chaps. XXXI, 29, XXXII, 5.

2 .TD has Kitrô-mâônô, and it may be doubted whether the latter portion of the name be derived from Av. mainyu, 'spirit,' or maunghô, 'moon.' The Dâdistân-i-Dînîk (Reply 89) calls him 'Patshâyôtanû who is called from the Kitrôk-mâhanô (or mîyânô),' the Katru-mîyân river of Chap. XX, 7, 31.

3. See 10. TD has Kangdez-i bâmîk, 'Kangdez the splendid.'

4. The Av. Aghraêratha Narava of Gôs Yt. 18, 22, Fravardîn Yt. 131, Ashi Yt. 38, Zamyâd Yt. 77; he is Aghrîrath, brother of Afrâsiyâb, in the Shâhnâmah; see also Chap. XXXI, 15.

5. TD has Pahl. Sakîkstân here, but Sôkapastân in 13 (the letters îk and p being often much alike in Pahlavi writing). K20 has Pâz. Sâvkavatân, Saukâvasta, and Sâvkavastãn.

6. TD has Gôpat-malkâ, 'king of Gôpat;' and Dâd. (Reply 89) states that 'the reign of Gôpatshah is over the country of Gôpatô, coterminous with Aîrân-vêg, on the bank of the water of the Dâîtîk; and he keeps watch over the ox Hadhayãs, on whom occurred the various emigrations of men of old.' Mkh. (LXII, 31-36) says, 'Gôpatshâh remains in Aîrân-vêg, within the region of Khvanîras; from foot to mid-body he is a bull, and from mid-body to top he is a man; at all times he stays on the sea-shore, and always performs the worship of God, and always pours holy-water into the sea; through the pouring of that holy-water innumerable noxious creatures in the sea will die; for if he should not mostly perform that ceremonial, and should not pour that holy-water into the sea, and those innumerable noxious creatures should not perish, then always when rain falls the noxious creatures would fall like rain.' In Chap. XXXI, 20, he is said to be a son of Aghrêrad.

7. So in K20; and Av. Parshadgau occurs in Fravardîn Yt. 96, 127; but TD has Fradakhstar Khûmbîkân, and Dâd. (Reply 89) mentions 'Fradhakhstô son of Khûmbîkân' as one of the seven {footnote p. 118} immortal lords of Khvanîras, which name corresponds with the Av. Fradhâkhsti Khunbya of Fravardîn Yt. 138.]

{p. 118}

Pêsyânsaî[1], and he is Hvembya for this reason, because they brought him up in a hvemb ('jar') for fear of Khashm ('Wrath'); [Asâm-i[2] Yamâhust is in the place which they call the River Nâîvtâk]; the tree opposed to harm[3] is in Aîrân-vêg; Urvatadnar[4] son of Zaratûst is in the enclosure formed by Yim. 6. Regarding them it says, they are those who are immortal, as are Narsih[5] Son of Vîvanghâû, Tûs[6] son of Nôdar[7], Gîw[8] son of Gûdarz, Ibairaz[9] the causer of strife, and Ashavazd son of Pourudhâkhst[10]; and they will all[11] come forth, to the

[1. TD has always Pahl. Pêsânsih. No doubt the Pisîn valley is meant (see 11).

2. Or it may be read Aêshm-i. This phrase occurs only in TD, but Dâd. (Reply 89) mentions 'the Avesta Yakhmâyîsad, son of the same Fryânô,' as one of the seven immortal lords of Khvanîras.

3. See Chap. XXVII, 2.

4. See Chap. XXXII, 5.

5. Or Narsâe in TD; K20 has Paz. Narêî, but see Chap. XXXI, 3, 5.

6. Av. Tusa of Âbân Yt. 53, 58, and an Iranian warrior in the Shâhnâmah.

7. Av. Naotara, whose descendants are mentioned in Âbân Yt. 76, 98, Fravardîn Yt. 102, Râm Yt. 35.

8. Av. Gaêvani of Fravardîn Yt. 115 is something like this name of one of the Iranian warriors in the Shâhnâmah.

9. TD has Pâz. Bairazd. Perhaps it is not a name but a Pâzand corruption of Pahl. aêvarz, 'warrior, trooper' (traditionally); in which case we should have to read 'the warrior who was a causer of strife.'

10. So in TD; K20 has 'Ashavand son of Porudakhst' and Dâd. (Reply 89) mentions 'Ashavazang son of Pôrûdakhstôîh' as one of the seven immortal lords of Khvanîras. He is the Av. 'Ashavazdangh the Pourudhâkhstiyan' of Âbân Yt. 72, Fravardîn Yt. 112.

11. So in TD, but K20 has 'always.']

{p. 119}

assistance of Sôshyans, on the production of the renovation of the universe.

7. Regarding Sâm[1] it says, that he became immortal, but owing to his disregard of the Mazdayasnian religion, a Tûrk whom they call Nihâg[2] wounded him with an arrow, when he was asleep there, in the plain of Pêsyânsaî; and it had brought upon him the unnatural lethargy (bûshasp) which overcame him in the midst of the heat[3]. 8. And the glory (far) of heaven stands over him[4] for the purpose that, when Az-i Dahâk[5] becomes unfettered (arazak), he may arise and slay him; and a myriad guardian spirits of the righteous are as a protection to him. 9. Of Dahâk, whom they call Bêvarâsp, this, too, it says, that Frêdûn when he captured Dahâk was not able to kill him, and afterwards confined him in Mount Dimâvand[6]; when he becomes unfettered, Sâm arises, and smites and slays him.

10. As to Kangdez, it is in the direction of the east, at many leagues from the bed (var)[7] of the

[1. This is not Sâm the grandfather of Rustam, but the Av. Sâma, who appears to have been an ancestor of Keresâspa (see Yas. IX, 30), called Sam, grandfather of Garsâsp, in a passage interpolated in some copies of the Shâhnâmah (compare Chap. XXXI, 26, 27). Here, however, it appears from the Bahman Yast (III, 59, 60) that Keresâspa himself is meant, he being, called Sâma Keresâspa in Fravardîn Yt. 61, 136.

2. It can also be read Nihâv or Nîyâg in K20, and Nihâv or Nihân in TD.

3. TD has 'as he lay in the midst of the heat.'

4. TD has 'and the snow (vafar) has settled (nishast) over him.'

5. See Chaps. XXXI, 6, XXXIV, 5.

6. See Chap. XII, 31.

7. TD has agvar, 'above,' instead of min var, 'from the bed.']

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wide-formed ocean towards that side. 11. The plain of Pêsyânsaî is in Kâvulistân, as it says, that the most remarkable upland (bâlist) in Kâvulistân is where Pêsyânsaî is; there it is hotter, on the more lofty elevations there is no heat[1]. 12. Aîrân-vêg is in the direction of Âtarô-pâtakân[2]. 13. The land of Saukavastân is on the way from Tûrkistân to Kînistân, in the direction of the north. 14. [The enclosure][3] formed by Yim is in the middle of Pârs, in Sruvâ[4]; thus, they say, that what Yim formed (Yim-kard) is below Mount Yimakân[5]. 15. Kasmîr is in Hindûstân.


1. On the nature: of the resurrection and future existence it says in revelation, that, whereas Mâshya and Mâshyôî, who grew up from the earth[7], first fed upon water, then plants, then milk, and then meat, men also, when their time of death has come, first desist from eating meat, then milk, then from

[1. Or, 'the hottest there, through the very lofty elevation, is not heat.'

2. Pers. Âdarbîgân.

3. The word var is omitted in K20.

4. TD has Pahl. Srûbâk.

5. Or it may be read Damakân, but TD has Kamakân. It can hardly be Dâmaghân, as that is a town and district in Khurâsân; Justi also suggests the district of Gamagân in Pârs, and thinks Sruvâ means 'cypress wood,' there being a Salvastân between Shîrâz and Fasâ.

6. This chapter is found in all MSS., and has been numbered XXXI by former translators.

7. See Chaps. XV, 2-16, XXXIV, 3.]

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bread, till when[1] they shall die they always feed upon water. 2. So, likewise, in the millennium of Hûshêdar-mâh[2], the strength of appetite (âz) will thus diminish, when men will remain three days and nights in superabundance (sîrîh) through one taste of consecrated food. 3. Then they will desist from meat food, and eat vegetables and milk; afterwards, they abstain from milk food and abstain from vegetable food, and are feeding on water; and for ten years before Sôshyans[3] comes they remain without food, and do not die.

4. After Sôshyans comes they prepare the raising of the dead, as it says, that Zaratûst asked of Aûharmazd thus: 'Whence does a body form again, which the wind has carried and the water conveyed (vazîd)[4]? and how does the resurrection occur?' 5. Aûharmazd answered thus: 'When through me the sky arose from the substance of the ruby[5], without columns, on the spiritual support of far-compassed light; when through me the earth arose, which[6] bore the material life, and there is no

[1. Reading amat, 'when,' instead of mûn,' which' (see the note on Chap. 1, 7).

2. Written Khûrshêdar-mâh, or Khûrshêd-mâh, in the Bundahis; see Chap. XXXII, 8, and Bahman Yt. III, 52, 53.

3. See Chaps. XI, 6, X XXII, 8, Bahman Yt. III, 62.

4. Compare (Vend. V, 26) 'the water carries him up, the water carries him down, the water casts him away.'

5. Compare Mkh. IX, 7.

4. All MSS. have min, 'out of,' but translators generally suppose it should be mûn, 'which,' as the meaning of brought out of 'material life' is by no means clear. Perhaps the two phrases might be construed together, thus: 'there is no other maintainer of the worldly creation, brought from the material life, than it.' Windischmann refers to Fravardîn Yt. 9.]

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maintainer of the worldly creation but it; when by me the sun and moon and stars are conducted in the firmament (andarvaî) of luminous bodies; when by me corn was created so that, scattered about in the earth, it grew again and returned with increase; when by me colour[1] of various kinds was created in plants; when by me fire was created in plants and other things[2] without combustion; when by me a son was created and fashioned[3] in the womb of a mother, and the structure (pîsak) severally of the skin, nails, blood, feet, eyes, ears, and other things was produced; when by me legs were created for the water, so that it flows away, and the cloud was created which carries the water of the world and rains there where it has a purpose; when by me the air was created which conveys in one's eyesight, through the strength of the wind, the lowermost upwards according to its will, and one is not able to grasp it with the hand out-stretched; each one of them, when created by me, was herein more difficult than causing the resurrection, for[4] it is an assistance to me in the resurrection that they exist, but when they were formed it was not forming the future out of the past[5]. 6. Observe that when that which was not was then produced, why is it not possible to

[1. Former translators all read rag, 'vein, pore;' but it probably stands for rang, 'colour, dye,' as in Chap. XXVII, 5, 18.

2. See Chap. XVII, 1, 2.

3. Pâz. srahtîd is evidently a misreading of Pahl. srîsd, 'formed, shaped.' Windischmann compares Fravardîn Yt. 11, 22, 28.

4. Here kîm is the Pâzand of Huz. mamanam, 'for to me;' being a different word from the interrogative kîm, 'why?' of the next .

5. Literally, 'what becomes out of what was.']

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produce again that which was? for at that time one will demand the bone from the spirit of earth, the blood from the water, the hair from the plants, and the life from fire, since they were delivered to them in the original creation.'

7. First, the bones of Gâyômard are roused up then those of Mâshya and Mâshyôî, then those of the rest of mankind; in the fifty-seven years of Sôshyans[1] they prepare all the dead, and all men stand up; whoever is righteous and whoever is wicked, every human creature, they rouse up from the spot where its life departs. 8. Afterwards, when all material living beings assume again their bodies and forms, then they assign (barâ yehabûnd) them a single class[2]. 9. Of the light accompanying (levatman) the sun, one half will be for Gâyômard, and one half will give enlightenment among the rest of men, so that the soul and body will know that this is my father, and this is my mother, and this is my brother, and this is my wife, and these are some other of my nearest relations.

10. Then is the assembly of the, Sadvâstarân[3] where all mankind will stand at this time; in that assembly every one sees his own good deeds and his own evil deeds; and then, in that assembly, a wicked man becomes as conspicuous as a white sheep among those which are black. 11. In that

[1. K20 omits 'Sôshyans.'

2. The phrase is obscure, and K20 omits the numeral 'one' (the idhâfat of unity); but the meaning is probably that all former distinctions of class, or caste, are abolished.

3. Windischmann suggests that it may be 'the assembly of Isadvâstar,' the eldest son of Zaratûst (see Chap. XXXII, 5); perhaps supposed to be presided over by him as the first supreme high-priest after Zaratûst's death.]

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assembly whatever righteous man was friend of a wicked one in the world, and the wicked man complains of him who is righteous, thus: 'Why did he not make me acquainted, when in the world, with the good deeds which he practised himself?' if he who is righteous did not inform him, then it is necessary for him to suffer shame accordingly in that assembly[1].

12. Afterwards they set the righteous man apart from the wicked; and then the righteous is for heaven (garôdmân), and they cast the wicked back to hell. 13. Three days and nights they inflict punishment bodily in hell, and then he beholds bodily those three days' happiness in heaven[2]. 14. As it says that, on the day when the righteous man is parted from the wicked, the tears of every one, thereupon, run down unto his legs. 15. When, after they set apart a father from his consort (hambâz), a brother from his brother, and a friend from

[1. In the Ardâ-Vîrâf-namak (Chap. LXVIII) it is related that Ardâ-Vîrâf saw the souls of a husband and wife, that of the husband destined for heaven, and that of the wife for hell; but the wife clung to her husband and asked why they should be separated, and he told her it was on account of her neglect of religious duties; whereupon she reproached him for not teaching and chastising her. 'And, afterwards, the man went to heaven and the woman to hell. And owing to the repentance of that woman she was in no other affliction in hell but darkness and stench. And that man sat in the midst of the righteous of heaven in shame, from not converting and not teaching the woman, who might have become virtuous in his keeping.'

2. As an aggravation of his punishment in hell. It has generally been supposed that this last phrase refers to the reward of the righteous man, but this cannot be the case unless akhar be taken in the sense of 'other,' which is unlikely; besides, beholding the happiness of others would be no reward to an Oriental mind.]

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his friend, they suffer, every one for his own deeds, and weep, the righteous for the wicked, and the wicked about himself; for there may be a father who is righteous and a son wicked, and there may be one brother who is righteous and one wicked. 16. Those for whose peculiar deeds it is appointed, such as Dahâk and Frâsîyâv of Tûr, and others of this sort, as those deserving death (marg-argânân), undergo a punishment no other men undergo; they call it 'the punishment of the three nights[1].'

17. Among his producers of the renovation of the universe, those righteous men of whom it is written[2] that they are living, fifteen men and fifteen damsels, will come to the assistance of Sôshyans. 18. As Gôkîhar[3] falls in the celestial sphere from a moonbeam on to the earth, the distress of the earth becomes such-like as that of a sheep when a wolf falls upon it. 19. Afterwards, the fire and halo[4] melt the metal of Shatvaîrô, in the hills and mountains, and it remains on this earth like a river.

[1. According to the Pahlavi Vend. VII, 136 (p. 96, Sp.) it appears that a person who has committed a marg-argân or mortal sin, without performing patît or renunciation of sin thereafter, remains in hell till the future existence, when he is brought out, beheaded three times for each mortal sin unrepented of, and then cast back into hell to undergo the punishment tishrãm khshafnãm ('of the three nights') before he becomes righteous; some say, however, that this punishment is not inflicted for a single mortal sin. This period of three nights' punishment is quite a different matter from the three nights' hovering of the soul about the body after death.

2. See Chap. XXIX, 5, 6. As the text stands in the MSS. it is uncertain whether the fifteen men and fifteen damsels are a portion of these righteous immortals, or an addition to them.

3. Probably a meteor (see Chap. V, 1).

4. Reading khîrman; M6 has 'the fire and angel Aîrman (Av. Airyaman) melt the metal in the hills,' &c.]

{p. 126} 20. Then all men will pass into that melted metal and will become pure; when one is righteous, then it seems to him just as though he walks continually in warm milk; but when wicked, then it seems to him in such manner as though, in the world, he walks continually in melted metal.

21. Afterwards, with the greatest affection, all men come together, father and son and brother and friend ask one another thus: 'Where has it[1] been these many years, and what was the judgment upon thy soul? hast thou been righteous or wicked?' 22. The first soul the body sees, it enquires of it with those words (gûft). 23. All men become of one voice and administer loud praise to Aûharmazd and the archangels.

24. Aûharmazd completes his work at that time, and the creatures become so that it is not necessary to make any effort about them; and among those by whom the dead are prepared, it is not necessary that any effort be made. 25. Sôshyans, with his assistants, performs a Yazisn ceremony in preparing the dead, and they slaughter the ox Hadhayôs[2] in that Yazisn; from the fat of that ox and the white Hôm[3] they prepare Hûsh, and give it to all men, and all men become immortal for ever and everlasting. 26. This, too, it says, that whoever has been the size of a man, they restore him then with an age of forty years; they who have been little when not dead, they restore then with an age of fifteen years; and they give every one his wife, and

[1. K20 has 'have I;' probably hômanîh, 'hast thou,' was the original reading.

2. See Chap. XIX, 13.

3. See Chap. XXVII, 4.]

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show him his children with the wife; so they act as now in the world, but there is no begetting of children.

27. Afterwards, Sôshyans and his assistants, by order of the creator Aûharmazd, give every man the reward and recompense suitable to his deeds; this is even the righteous existence (aît) where it is said that they convey him to paradise (vahist), and the heaven (garôdmân) of Aûharmazd takes up the body (kerp) as itself requires; with that assistance he continually advances for ever and everlasting. 28. This, too, it says, that whoever has performed no worship (yast), and has ordered no Gêtî-kharîd[1], and has bestowed no clothes as a righteous gift, is naked there; and he performs the worship (yast) of Aûharmazd, and the heavenly angels[2] provide him the use of his clothing.

[1. The Sad-dar Bundahis says that by Gêtî-kharîd 'heaven is purchased in the world, and one's own place brought to hand in heaven.' The Rivâyat of Dastûr Barzû (as quoted in MS. 29 of Bombay University Parsi Collection) gives the following details in Persian: 'To celebrate Gêtî-kharîd it is necessary that two hêrbads (priests) perform the Nâbar, and with each khshnûman which they pray it is fit and necessary that both hêrbads have had the Nâbar; and the first day they recite the Nônâbar yast, and consecrate the Nônâbar drôn and the Nônâbar âfrîngân which they recite in each Gâh; in the Hâvan Gâh it is necessary to recite fravarânê (as in Yas. III, 24 W. to end), ahurahê mazdau raêvatô (as in Aûharmazd Yt. 0, to) frasastayaêka, then Yas. III, 25 W., XVII. 1-55 Sp., ashem vohû thrice, âfrînâmi khshathryãn (as in Âfrîngân I, 14, to end). The second day the Srôsh yast and Srôsh drôn and âfrîngân are to be recited; and the third day it is necessary to recite the Sîrôzah yast, the Sîrôzah drôn and âfrîngân dahmân; and it is needful to recite the second and third âfrîngâns in each Gâh, and each day to consecrate the barsom and drôn afresh with seven twigs, so that it may not be ineffective.'

2. Pâz. gehân is probably a misreading of Pahl. yazdân, as {footnote p. 128} neither 'the spirit of the world,' nor 'the spirit of the Gâhs' is a likely phrase. It is possible, however, that maînôk gehân is a misreading of min aîvyahân, 'from the girdle,' and we should translate as follows: 'and out of its girdle (that is, the kûstî of the barsom used in the ceremony) he produces the effect of his clothing.']

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29. Afterwards, Aûharmazd seizes on[1] the evil spirit, Vohûman on Akôman[2], Ashavahist on Andar[3], Shatvaîrô on Sâvar, Spendarmad on Tarômat who is Nâûnghas[4], Horvadad and Amerôdad on Tâîrêv and Zâîrîk[5], true-speaking on what is evil-speaking, Srôsh[6] on Aeshm[7] 30. Then two fiends remain at large, Aharman[8] and Âz[9]; Aûharmazd comes to the world, himself the Zôta and Srôsh the Râspî[10], and holds the Kûstî in his hand;

[1. Instead of vakhdûnd, 'seize on,' we should probably read vânend, 'smite,' as in the parallel passages mentioned below.

2. Compare Zamyâd Yt. 96. Each archangel (see Chap. I, 25, 26) here seizes the arch-fiend (see Chaps. I, 27, XXVIII, 7-12) who is his special opponent.

3. Here written Pâz. Inder. Compare Pahlavi Yas. XLVII, 1: 'When among the creation, in the future existence, righteousness smites the fiend, Ashavahist smites Indar.'

4. Written Nâkahêd in Chap. I, 27, and Nâîkîyas in Chap. XXVIII, 20, where he is described as a distinct demon from Tarômat in XXVIII, 14.

5. Here written Târêv and Zârîk.

6. Av. Sraosha, a personification of attentive hearing and obedience, who is said to watch over the world and defend it from the demons, especially at night; see Vend. XVIII, 48, 51, 70, &c., Yas. LVI, Srôsh Yt. Hâdôkht, &c.

7. See Chap. XXVIII, 15-17.

8. Comparing 29 with 30 it is not very clear whether the author of the Bundahis considered Aharman and the evil spirit as the same or different demons; compare also Chap. XXVIII, 1-6 with 40, 41.

9. See Chap. XXVIII, 27.

10. The Zôta is the chief officiating priest in all ceremonies, and the Râspî is the assistant priest.]

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defeated by the Kûstî[1] formula the resources of the evil spirit and Âz act most impotently, and by the passage through which he rushed into the sky[2] he runs back to gloom and darkness. 31. Gôkîhar[3] burns the serpent (mâr)[4] in the melted metal, and the stench and pollution which were in hell are burned in that metal, and it (hell) becomes quite pure. 32. He (Aûharmazd) sets the vault[5] into which the evil spirit fled, in that metal; he brings the land of hell back for the enlargement of the world[6]; the renovation arises in the universe by his will, and the world is immortal for ever and everlasting.

33. This, too, it says, that this earth becomes an iceless[7], slopeless plain[8]; even the mountain[9],

[1. The words zak ghâni, for ân gehâni, are probably a misreading of aîvyahân, 'the kûstî or sacred thread-girdle,' which is tied round the waist in a peculiar manner, during the recital of a particular formula, in which Aûharmazd is blessed and Aharman and the demons are cursed.

2. See Chap. III, 10-12.

3. See 18 and Chap. V, 1.

4. Probably referring to Âz, which means both 'greediness' and 'serpent.' It is, however, possible to read 'Gôkîhar the serpent burns in' &c., and there can be no doubt that Gôkîhar is represented as a malevolent being.

5. Or, perhaps, 'hiding-place.' Comparing K20 and M6 together the word seems to be alôm, which may be compared with Heb. ### 'a vault,' or Chald. ### 'a porch;' it may, however, be vâlôm, which may be traced to {Hebrew} ### 'to conceal.' In the old MSS. it is certainly not shôlman, 'hell,' which is an emendation due to the modern copy in Paris.

6. Or, 'to the prosperity of the world.'

7. Former translators read anhîkhar, 'undefiled,' but this does not suit the Pahlavi orthography so well as anhasâr, 'iceless' (compare Pers. hasar, khâsar, or khasâr, 'ice'); cold and ice, being produced by the evil spirit, will disappear with him.

8. Pâz. âmâvan is a misreading of Pahl. hâmûn, so the reading is ansîp (compare Pers. sîb) hâmûn. Mountains, being the work of the evil spirit, disappear with him.

9. Kakâd-i-Dâîtîk, see Chap. XII, 17.]

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whose summit is the support of the Kînvar bridge, they keep down, and it will not exist.


0. On the race and genealogy of the Kayâns.

1. Hôshyang[2] was son of Fravâk, son of Sîyâkmak[3], son of Mâshya [4], son of Gâyômard. [ 2. Takhmôrup[5] was son of Vîvanghâû[6], son of Yanghad[7], son of Hôshyang. 3. Yim,][8] Takhmôrup, Spîtûr[9], and Narsih[10], whom they also call 'the Rashnû of Kînö[11],'

[1. For this chapter, which is numbered XXXII by previous translators, we have to depend only on K20, TD, and K20b (a fragment evidently derived from the same original as K20 and M6, but through some independent line of descent).

2. So in K20, but usually Hôshâng (see Chaps. XV, 28, XXXIV, 3, 4).

3. See Chap. XV, 25,30.

4. See Chaps. XV, 2-24, 30, XXXIV, 3.

5. Av. Takhmô-urupa of Râm Yt. 11, Zamyâd Yt. 28, Âfrîn Zarat. 2; written Tâtkhmôrup in TD, which is the only MS. in which the passage enclosed in brackets is found, the omission of which by K20 was suspected by Windischmann (Zoroastriche Studien, p. 199). This king is the Tahmûras of the Shâhnâmah. See also Chaps. XVII, 4, XXXIV, 4.

6. Av. Vîvanghau of Yas. IX, 11, 20, XXXII, 8, Vend. II, 8, 28, 94, Fravardîn Yt. 130, Zamyâd Yt. 35.

7. As this Pâzand name or title begins with a medial y, its initial vowel is probably omitted (see p. 141, note 8).

8. Av. Yima or Yima khshaêta of Vend. II, &c., the Jamshêd of the Shâhnâmah (see Chaps. XVII. 5, XXXIV, 4).

9. Av. Spityura of Zamyâd Yt. 46.

10. Here written Nârsî in K20, and K20b, and Nôsîh in TD; but see 5 and Chap. XXIX, 6. Windischmann suggests that he may be the Av. Aoshnara pouru-gîra of Fravardîn Yt. 131, Âf. Zarat. 2.

11. An epithet equivalent to 'the Minos of China;' Rashnû being the angel of justice, who is said to weigh the meritorious deeds of {footnote p. 131} the departed soul against its sins. Neither word is, however, quite certain, as rashnûk may stand for rasnîk, 'spear,' and has also been translated by 'light' and 'hero;' Kînö, moreover, was probably not China, but Samarkand (see Chaps. XII, 13, 22, XV, 29).]

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were all brothers 4. From Yim and Yimak[1], who was his sister, was born a pair, man and woman, and they became husband and wife together; Mîrak the Âspiyân[2] and Zîyânak Zardâhim were their names, and the lineage went on. 5. Spîtûr was he who, with Dahâk, cut up Yim[3]; 3; Narsih[4] lived then[5] also, whom they call Nêsr-gyâvân[6]; they say that such destiny (gadman) is allotted to him[7], that he shall pass every day in troubles, and shall make all food purified and pure.

6. Dahâk[8] was son of Khrûtâsp, son of Zâînîgâv,

[1. See Chap. XXIII, 1.

2. Av. Âthwyâna of Âbân. Yt. 33, Gôs Yt. 13, Fravardîn Yt. 131, Zamyâd Yt. 36, &c., where it is the family name of Thraêtaona, who is said to be a son of Âthwya in Yas. IX, 23, 24. In the text this name seems to be used rather as a title than a patronymic, and in 7 it appears to be a family surname.

3. As stated in Zamyâd Yt. 46.

4. Here written Nârsak in K20 and K20b, and Nôsîh in TD.

5. TD has 'together,' instead of 'then.'

6. So in K20, but K20b has Narst-gyâvân, and TD has Nôsîh-vîyâvânîk (or nîyâzânîk). Perhaps we may assume the epithet to have been nîgîr-vîyâvânîk (or nîyâzânîk), 'one with a bewildering (or longing) glance.'

7. Justi supposes this clause of the sentence refers to Yim and the disease which attacked his hand. If this be the case it may be translated as follows: 'they say aîghash is produced on his hand (yadman), so that,' &c.; aîghash being a disease, or evil, mentioned in Vend. XX, 14, 20, 24; compare Chap. XXVIII, 33.

8. Or Az-i Dahâk, the Av. Azi Dahâka, 'destructive serpent,' of Yas. IX, 25, Vend. I, 69, Âbân Yt. 29, 34, Bahrâm Yt. 40, Zamyâd Yt. 46-50. A name applied to a foreign dynasty (probably Semitic) personified as a single king, which conquered the dominions of Yim (see Chap. XXXIV, 5).]

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son of Virafsang, son of Tâz, son of Fravâk, son of Sîyâkmak[1]; by his mother Dahâk was of Udaî[2], son of Bayak, son of Tambayak, son of Owokhm[3], son of Pairi-urvaêsm[4], son of Gadhwithw[5], son of Drûgâskân[6], son of the evil spirit.

7. Frêdûn the Âspiyân[7] was son of Pûr-tôrâ[8] the Âspiyân, son of Sôk-tôrâ[9] the Âspiyân, son of Bôrtôrâ the Âspiyân, son of Sîyâk-tôrâ the Âspiyân, son of Spêd-tôrâ the Âspiyân, son of Gefar-tôrâ the Âspiyân, son of Ramak-tôrâ the Âspiyân, son of

[1. For the last three names, see Chap. XV, 25, 28.

2. Pahl. Aûd in TD; compare 'the demon Uda' of Chap. XXVIII, 19. The following two names look like 'fear' and 'gloom-fear,' both appropriate names for demons.

3. TD has Pâz. Owôikh; compare Av. aoiwra, 'a species of nightmare,' observing that r and ô are often written alike in Pahlavi.

4. TD and K20b have Paz. Pairi-urva-urvaêsm, and K20 has Pai-urvaêsm.

5. TD has Pâz. Gawithw.

6. So in TD, but K20 has Pâz. Druz-i ayaskâ, and K20b has Drug-i ayaskâ. It corresponds to Av. drugaska in Vend. XIX, 139, Vistâsp Yt. 26. This genealogy appears to trace Dahâk's maternal descent through a series of demons.

7. Av. Thraêtaona, son of Âthwya, but generally called 'the Âthwyânian,' who slew the destructive serpent (azi dahâka), see Yas. IX, 24, 25, Vend. I, 69, Âbân Yt. 33, 61, Gôs Yt. 13, Fravardîn Yt. 131, Bahrâm Yt. 40, Râm Yt. 23, Ashi Yt. 33, Zamyâd Yt. 36, 92, Âf. Zarat. 2. In the Shâhnâmah he is called Ferîdûn son of Abtîn.

8. This name is omitted in K20, but occurs in the other two MSS.; it is a Huzvâris hybrid equivalent to Pâz. Pûr-gau and Av. Pouru-gau which is. a title of an Âthwyânian in Âf. Zarat. 4, Vistâsp Yt. 2. This genealogy consists almost entirely of such hybrid names, which have a very artificial appearance, though suitable enough for a race of herdsmen, meaning, as they severally do, 'one with abundant oxen, with useful oxen, with the brown ox, with the black ox, with the white ox, with the fat ox, and with a herd of oxen.'

9. So in TD, but the other two MSS. have Sîyâk-tôrâ, which is probably wrong, as the same name occurs again in this genealogy.]

{p. 133}

Vanfraghesn[1] the Âspiyân, son of Yim, son of Vîvanghâû; as these, apart from the Âspiyân Pûr-tôrâ, were ten generations, they every one lived a hundred years, which becomes one thousand years; those thousand years were the evil reign of Dahâk. 8. By the Âspiyân Pûr-tôrâ was begotten Frêdûn, who exacted vengeance for Yim; together with him[2], also were the sons Barmâyûn and Katâyan, but Frêdûn was fuller of glory than they.

9. By Frêdûn three sons were begotten, Salm and Tûg and Aîrîk[3]; and by Aîrîk one son and one pair[4] were begotten; the names of the couple of sons were Vanîdâr and Anastokh[5], and the name of the daughter was Gûzak[6]. 10. Salm andg slew them all, Aîrîk and his happy sons, but Frêdûn kept the daughter in concealment, and from that daughter a daughter was born[7]; they became aware of it, and the mother was slain by them. 11. Frêdûn provided for the daughter[8], also in concealment, for

[1. In TD this name can be read Vanfrôkisn or Vanfrôkgân.

2. TD has 'as well as him.' K20b omits most of this sentence by mistake.

3. These sons, as Windischmann observes, are not mentioned in the extant Avesta, but their Avesta names, Sairima, Tûirya or Tûra, and Airya or Airyu, may be gathered from the names of the countries over which they are supposed to have ruled (see Fravardîn Yt. 143).

4. TD has 'two sons and one daughter.'

5. TD has Anîdâr and Anastabö.

6. Or Gûgak, in TD; the other MSS. have Pâz. Ganga here, but Guzak in 14; it is identical with the name of Hôshyang's sister and wife in Chap. XV, 28. in the Pâzand Gâmâsp-nâmah the name of Frêdûn's daughter is written Vîrak.

7. Reading min zak dûkht dûkht-i zâd, as in K20b and TD; some uncertainty arises here from the words dûkht, 'daughter,' and dvâd, 'pair,' being written alike in Pahlavi.

8. TD has bartman, 'daughter,' indicating that the word in K20 must be read dûkht, and not dvâd, 'pair.']

{p. 134}

ten generations, when Mânûs-i Khûrshêd-vînîk was born from his mother, [so called because, as he was born, some of][1] the light of the sun (khûrshêd) fell upon his nose (vînîk). 12. From Mânûs-i Khûrshêd-vînîk and his sister[2] was Mânûs-khûrnar, and from Mânûs-khûrnar [and his sister] was Mânûskîhar born[3], by whom Salm and Tûg were slain in revenge for Aîrîk[4]. 13. By Mânûskîhar were Fris, Nôdar[5], and Dûrâsrôb[6] begotten.

14. Just as Mânûskîhar was of Mânûs-khûrnar, of Mânûs-khûrnâk[7], who was Mâm-sozak[8], of Aîrak, of Thritak, of Bîtak, of Frazûsak, of Zûsak[9], of Fragûzak, of Gûzak, of Aîrîk, of Frêdûn, so Frâsîyâv[10] was

[1. The phrase in brackets occurs only in TD; and the whole passage from 'vînîk' to 'sun' is omitted in K20, evidently by mistake.

2. TD has 'from Manûs and his sister,' and K20b 'has from Mânûs-hûkîhar and Mânûs-khûrshêd.'

3. The words in brackets occur only in TD, and K20b has 'from Mânûs-khûrnar also was Mânûs-khûrnâk, from Mânûs-khûrnâk was Mânûskîhar born,' but this introduction of an extra generation is not confirmed by the list of names in 14. The term khûrnâk (or khûrnak) seems to be merely a transcript of the Avesta word of which khûrshêd-vînîk, 'sun-nose,' is a translation. The other term khûrnar can also be read khûrvar, but K20 has Pâz. hvarnar. Mânûskîhar is the Av. Manuskithra of Fravardîn Yt. 131, where he is styled the Airyavan, or descendant of Airyu (Aîrîk).

4 TD has 'and vengeance exacted for Aîrîk.'

5. See Chap. XXIX, 6.

6. Pâz. Durâsro, but the Pahlavi form, given in the text, occurs in 31 and Chap. XXXII, 1 in TD, which MS. omits this by mistake.

7. The same as Mânûs-i khûrshêd-vînîk, as noted above.

8. This Pâzand epithet seems to mean 'mother-burning,' and may have some connection with the legend mentioned in 11. TD has mûn am Gûgak, 'whose mother was Gûgak.'

9. K20b omits the five names from Aîrak to Zûsak.

10. Av. Frangrasyan, the Tûryan, of Yas. XI, 21, Âbân Yt. 41, {footnote p. 135} Gôs Yt. 18, 22, Ashi Yt. 38, 42, Zamyâd Yt. 56-63, 62, 93; called Afrâsiyâb in the Shâhnâmah.]

{p. 135}

of Pashang, of Zaêsm[1], of Tûrak, of Spaênyasp, of Dûrôshasp, of Tûg, of Frêdûn. 15. He (Frâsîyâv) as well as Karsêvaz[2], whom they call Kadân[3], and Aghrêrad[4] were all three brothers.

[ 16[5]. Pashang and Vîsak were both brothers. 17. By Vîsak were Pîrân[6], Hûmân, Sân[7], and other brothers begotten. 18. By Frâsîyâv were Frasp-i Kûr, Sân, Shêdak[8], and other sons begotten; and Vispân-fryâ[9], from whom Kaî-Khûsrôb was born, was daughter of Frâsîyâv, and was of the same mother with Frasp-i Kûr. 19. From Frasp-i Kûr were Sûrak, Asûrîk, and other children; and by them were Khvâst-airikht, Yazdan-aîrikht, Yazdân-sarâd, Frêh-khûrd, Lâ-vahâk[10], and others begotten, a recital of whom would be tedious.

20. By Aghrêrad was Gôpatshah[11] begotten. 21. When Frâsîyâv made Mânûskîhar, with the Iranians, captive in the mountain-range (gar) of

[1. Zâdsam in the Shâhnâmah.

2. Garsîvaz in the Shâhnâmah.

3. TD has Pahl. Kîdân.

4. See Chap. XXIX, 5.

5. The remainder of this chapter is found only in TD.

6. Pîrân Vîsah is Afrâsiyâb's chief general in the Shâhnâmah and Hûmân and Pîlsam are his brothers.

7. This name is very ambiguous in Pahlavi, as it can be read many other ways.

8. Shêdah in the Shâhnâmah.

9. She is called Farangîs in the Shâhnâmah.

10. The reading of several of these names is more or less uncertain, but the object of the author is evidently to apply opprobrious epithets to all the male descendants of Afrâsiyâb.

11. TD has Gôpat-malkâ here, as also in Chap. XXIX, 5, where it is said to be a title of Aghrêrad (always written Agrêrad in TD).]

{p. 136}

Padashkh-vâr[1], and scattered ruin and want among them, Aghrêrad begged a favour of God (yazdân), and he obtained the benefit that the army and champions of the Iranians were saved by him from that distress. 22. Frâsîyâv slew Aghrêrad for that fault; and Aghrêrad, as his recompense, begat such a son as Gôpatshah.

23. Aûzôbô the Tûhmâspian[2], Kanak-i Barzist, Arawisanasp, and Vaêtand-i Râghinôid were the three sons and the daughter of Agâimasvâk[3], the son of Nôdar, son of Mânûskîhar, who begat Aûzôbô. 24. Kavâd[4] was a child in a waist-cloth (kuspûd) they abandoned him on a river, and he froze upon the door-sills (kavâdakân); Aûzôbô perceived and took him, brought him up, and settled the name of the trembling child.

25. By Kavâd was Kaî-Apîvêh begotten; by Kaî-Apîvêh were Kaî-Arsh, Kaî-Vyârsh, Kaî-Pisân, and Kaî-Kâûs begotten; by Kaî-Kâûs was Sîyâvakhsh begotten; by Sîyâvakhsh was Kaî-Khûsrôb[5]

[1. The mountains south of the Caspian (see Chap. XII. 17).

2. Av. Uzava Tûmâspana of Fravardîn Yt. 131, called Zav, or Zâb, son of Tahmâsp, in the Shâhnâmah.

3. None of these names, which TD gives in Pâzand, are to be found in the portion of the Avesta yet extant.

4. Av. Kavi Kavâta of Fravardîn Yt. 13 2, Zamyâd Yt. 7 1, called Kaî-Qubâd in the Shâhnâmah. There appears to be an attempt, in the text, to derive his name from the 'door-sill'. on which he is said to have been found.

5. The Avesta names of these seven other Kayâns are, respectively, Kavi Aipi-vanghu, Kavi Arshan, Kavi Byârshân, Kavi Pisanangh, Kavi Usadhan, Kavi Syâvarshân, and Kavi Husravangh (see Fravardîn Yt. 132, Zamyâd Yt. 71, 74); omitting the third, they are called, respectively, Armîn, Aris, Pasîn, Kaî-Kâvûs, Siyâvush, and Kaî-Khusrô in the Shâhnâmah. TD, omitting the first letter, has Sânö for Pisân; it also writes Kaî-Kâyûks and Kei-Khûsrôvî.]

{p. 137}

begotten. 26. Keresâsp[1] and Aûrvakhsh[2] were both brothers. 27. Athrat[3] was son of Sâhm, son of Tûrak, son of Spaênyasp, son of Dûrôshasp[4], son of Tûg, son of Frêdûn. 28. Lôharâsp[5] was son of Aûzâv[6], son of Mânûs, son of Kaî-Pîsîn[7], son of Kaî-Apîvêh, son of Kaî-Kavâd. 29. By Kaî-Lôharâsp were Vistâsp, Zarîr[8], and other brothers begotten; by Vistâsp were Spend-dâd[9] and Pêshyô-tanû[10] begotten; and by Spend-dâd were Vohûman[11], Âtarô-tarsah, Mitrô-tarsah, and others begotten.

30. Artakhshatar descendant of Pâpak--of whom his mother was daughter--was son of Sâsân[12], son of

[1. Av. Keresâspa of Yas. IX, 31, 36, 39, Vend. I, 36, Âbân Yt. 37, Fravardîn Yt. 61, 136, Râm Yt. 27, Zamyâd Yt. 38-44, Âf. Zarat. 3; he is called Garsâsp in the Shâhnâmah.

2. Av. Urvâkhshaya of Yas. IX, 31, Râm Yt. 28, Âf. Zarat. 3. These brothers were sons of Thrita or Athrat, mentioned in the next .

3. Av. Thrita of the Sâma race (see Yas. IX, 30, Vend. XX, 11) and father of Keresâspa, whose genealogy is given in a passage interpolated in some copies of the Shâhnâmah as follows: Garsâsp, Atrat, Sam, Tûrag, Sîdasb, Tûr, Jamshêd.

4. Written Dûrôshap in TD, both here and in 14.

5. Av. Aurvad-aspa of Âbân Yt. 105, Vistâsp Yt. 34, 46, called Luhrâsp in the Shâhnâmah.

6. Reading doubtful.

7. Written Ka-Pîsîn here, but he is the same person as Kaî-Pisân of 25; the latter part of the name is written both Pisanangh and Pisina in the Avesta.

8. Probably Zargar (being Av. Zairivairi of Âbân Yt. 112, 117, Fravardîn Yt. 101), but called Zarîr in the Shâhnâmah.

9. Av. Spentô-dâta of Fravardîn Yt. 103. Vistâsp Yt. 25, called Isfendiyâr in the Shâhnâmah.

10. See Chaps. XXIX, 5, XXXII, 5.

11. Called Bahman in the Shâhnâmah, and Ardashîr the Kayânian in Bahman Yt. II, 17; the successor of his grandfather Vistâsp (see Chap. XXXIV, 8).

12. The text is rather obscure, but the Kârnâmak of Ardashîr-i Pâpakân states clearly that Ardashîr was son of Sâsân by the {footnote p. 138} daughter of Pâpak, a tributary ruler of Pârs under Ardavân, the last of the Askâniyân monarchs.]

{p. 138}

Vêh-âfrîd and[1] Zarîr, son of Sâsân, son of Artakhshatar who was the said Vohûman son of Spend-dâd.

31. The mother of Kaî-Apîvêh was Farhank[2], daughter of him who is exalted on the heavenly path[3], Urvad-gâi-frâst[4], son of Râk, son of Dûrâsrôb, son of Mânûskîhar. 32. This, too, it says, that the glory[5] of Frêdûn settled on the root of a reed (kanyâ) in the wide-formed ocean; and Nôktargâ[6], through sorcery, formed a cow for tillage, and begat children there; three years he carried the reeds there, and gave them to the cow, until the glory went on to the cow; he brought the cow, milked her milk, and gave it to his three sons; as their walking was on hoofs, the glory did not go to the sons, but to Farhank. 33. Nôktargâ wished to injure[7] Farhank, but Farhank went with the glory away from

[1. So in the Pahlavi text, which therefore makes Vêh-âfrîd a woman's name (like Pers. Beh-âfrîn); but this is doubtful, as the MSS. often confound va, 'and,' and i, 'son of.'

2. In the Shâhnâmah Farhang is mother of Kaî-Kâvûs. The Pahlavi name can also be read Farânak, the name of the mother of Ferîdûn in the Shâhnâmah.

3. Pâz. vîdharg-âfrârstaka, which looks more like an epithet than a name.

4 Or, perhaps, 'Urvad-gâ son of Frâst.'

5. The divine glory which was supposed to accompany all legitimate sovereigns of Iran, from the time of Hôshyang even to that of the Sasanian dynasty; it is the Av. hvarenangh of the Zamyâd Yast, and is said to have fled to the ocean for refuge during the reign of foreign dynasties and wicked kings (see Âbân Yt. 42, Zamyâd Yt. 51, 56, 59, 62).

6. The last syllable is so written, in Pâzand, in 33.

7. Reading hangîdanö, to injure,' instead of khungdanö, which may mean 'to embrace;' the difference between the two words being merely the letter î.]

{p. 139}

the fierce (tîb) father, and made a vow (patyastâk) thus: 'I will give my first son to Aûshbâm[1].' 34. Then Aûshbâm saved her from the father; and the first son, Kaî-Apîvêh, she bore and gave to Aûshbâm, was a hero associating with Aûshbâm, and travelled in Aûshbâm's company.

35. The mother of Aûzôbô was the daughter of Nâmûn the wizard, when Nâmak[2] was with Frâsîyâv.

36. And, moreover, together with those begotten by Sâm[3] were six children in pairs, male and female; the name of one was Damnak, of one Khûsrôv, and of one Mârgandak, and the name of each man and woman together was one. 37. And the name of one besides them was Dastân[4]; he was considered more eminent than they, and Sagânsîh[5] and the southern quarter were given to him; and Avar-shatrô[6] and the governorship were given by him to Avarnak. 38. of Avar-shatrô this is said, that it is the district of Avarnak, and they offered blessings to Srôsh and Ardavahist in succession; on this account is their possession of horses and possession of arms; and on account of firm religion, purity, and manifest joy, good estimation and extensive fame are greatly

[1. This name means 'the dawn;' perhaps it may be identified with Av. Usinemangh or Usenemangh of Fravardîn Yt. 113, 1401 whose wife Freni may possibly be the Farhank (or Frânak) of the text.

2. So in TD, but it is probably only a variant of Nâmûn.

3. The grandfather of Rustam (see 41). In the Avesta he is usually called Sâma Keresâspa with the title Nairimanau; while in the Shâhnâmah Sâm is son of Narîmân.

4. Another name for Zâl, the father of Rustam, in the Shâhnâmah.

5. The same as Sagastân.

6. Or, perhaps, 'the upper district.']

{p. 140}

among them. 39. To Damnak the governorship of Asûristân was given; sovereignty and arranging the law of sovereignty, wilfulness and the stubborn defects they would bring, were among them. 40. To Sparnak[1] the governorship of Spâhân[2] was given; to Khûsrôv the governorship of Râi[3] was given; to Mârgandak the kingdom, forest settlements, and mountain settlements of Padashkhvârgar were given; where they travel nomadically, and there are the forming of sheep-folds, prolificness, easy procreation, and continual triumph over enemies. 41. From Dastân proceeded Rûdastâm[4] and Hûzavârak[5].]


1. On the kindred of Pôrûshasp[7], son of Paîtirâsp[8], son of Aurvadasp[9], son of Hâêkadâsp [10], son of

[1. He would seem not to have been a son of Sâm, as he is not mentioned before. The reading of all these names is uncertain.

2. The Pahlavi form of Ispahân.

3. Av. Ragha of Yas. XIX, 51, Vend. I, 60, whose ruins are near the modern Teherân.

4. The usual Pahlavi form of Rustam.

5. Or Aûzvârak; Rustam's brother is called Zavârah in the Shâhnâmah.

6. This chapter, which is numbered XXXIII, by previous translators, is found in all MSS., but in TD it forms a continuation of the preceding chapter, beginning with the name Pôrûshasp.

7. Av. Pourushaspa of Yas. IX, 42, 43, Vend. XIX, 15, 22, 143, Âbân Yt. 18, &c.

8. K20 has Pâz. Spitarsp, and M6 has Pâz. Piruasp (see note on Chap. XXXIII, 1). The reading in the text is doubtful.

9. Omitted in K20 and TD.

10. Av. Haêkadaspa of Yas. XLI, 15, LII, 3.]

{p. 141}

Kakhshnûs[1], son of Pâîtîrasp, son of Hardarsn[2], son of Hardâr[3], son of Spîtâmân[4], son of Vîdast[5], son of Ayazem, son of Ragan[6], son of Dûrâsrôb[7], son of Mânûskîhar[8]. 2. As Paîtirâsp had two sons, one Pôrûshasp and one Ârâsti[9], by Pôrûshasp was Zaratûst begotten for a sanctuary of good religion[10], and by Ârâsti was Mêdyôk-mâh[11] begotten. 3. Zaratûst, when he brought the religion, first celebrated

[1. Windischmann suggests Av. Kâkhshnôis (gen.) of Fravardîn Yt. 114.

2. K20 has Pâz. Harsn and TD has Harakîdârsnö.

3. TD has Harâîdâr, or Arâîdâr.

4. Or Spîtâm (as the last syllable is the patronymical suffix), Av. Spitâma, the usual patronymic of Zaratûst.

5. May be read Vâdist in TD.

6. Possibly the same person as Râk in Chap. XXXI, 31; but see XXXIII, 3.

7. So in TD, but Pâz. Durâsrun in K20, M6.

8. This genealogy is somewhat differently given in the Vagarkard-i Dînîk (pp. 28, 29),as published in Bombay by Dastur Peshotanji Behramji Sanjânâ in 1848; and is extended back, through the generations mentioned in Chap. XXXI, 1, 2,7,14, to Gâyômard, as follows: 'Pôrûshâspô son of Paîtîrâsp, and Arâspô son of Paîtîrâsp, Urvandasp, Haêkadasp, Kikhshnus, Paêtirasp, Hardrsn, Haridâr, Spîtâmânö, Vaêdist, Nayâzem, Ragisn, Dûrâsrôb, Mânûskîhar sovereign of Iran, Mânus-khûrnar, Mânus-khûrnâk, Nêryôsang, Varzîd-dîn, Vîzak, Airyak, Aithritak, Ibitak, Frazîsak, Zisak, Frasizak, Izak, Aîrîk, Frêdûn lord of Khvanîras, Pûr-tôrâ the Âspîkân, Nêvak-tôrâ the Âspîkân, Sôg-tôrâ the Âspîkân, Gêfar-tôrâ the Âspîkân, Vanô-i-fravisn the Âspîkân, Yim lord of the seven regions, Vîvanghâû, Ayanghad, Ananghad, Takhmôrup, Hôshâng the Pêsd, lord of the seven regions, Fravâk, Sîyâmak, Mashyô whose wife was Mashyãk, Gâyôkmard the first man, and father of all mankind in the material world.'

9. Av. Âkrâstaya of Fravardîn Yt. 95; TD has Ârâstih.

10. The Pâzand words dargâ hidainis appear to be merely a misreading of Pahl. dargâs-i hûdînôîh.

11. Av. Maidhyô-maungha of Yas. L, 19, Fravardîn Yt. 95, 106. He is said to have been Zaratûst's first disciple.]

{p. 142}

worship[1] and expounded in Aîrân-vêg, and Mêdyôkmâh received the religion from him. 4. The Môbads[2] of Pârs are all traced back to this race of Mânûskîhar.

5. Again, I say, by Zaratûst[3] were begotten three sons and three daughters[4]; one son was Isadvâstar[5], one Aûrvatad-nar[6], and one Khûrshêd-kîhar[7]; as Isadvâstar was chief of the priests he became the Môbad of Môbads, and passed away in the hundredth year of the religion; Aûrvatad-nar was an agriculturist, and the chief of the enclosure formed by Yim[8], which is below the earth; Khûrshêd-kîhar was a warrior, commander of the army of Pêshyôtanû, son of Vistâsp, and dwells in Kangdez[8]; and of the three daughters the name of one was Frên, of one Srît, and of one Pôrukîst[9]. 6. Aûrvatad-nar and Khûrshêd-kîhar were from a serving (kakar) wife[10], the rest were from a privileged (pâdakhshah) wife.

[1. Reading frâg yast; but it may be frâg gast, 'wandered forth.'

2. The class of priests whose special duty is to perform all religious rites and ceremonies.

3. This paragraph is quoted, with a few alterations, in the Vagarkard-i Dînîk, pp. 21-23.

4. K20 omits the 'three daughters' here, by mistake.

5. Av. Isad-vâstra of Yas. XXIII, 4, XXVI, 17, Fravardîn Yt. 98.

6. Av. Urvatad-nara of Vend. II, 143, Fravardîn Yt. 98. K20 and A16 have Aûrvartad-nar, and TD has Aûrvâtad-nar.

7. Av. Hvare-kithra of Fravardîn Yt. 98; TD has Khûr-kîhar.

8. See Chap. XXIX, 5. Windischmann and Justi consider the clause about Pêshyôtanû as inserted by mistake, and it is omitted in the Vagarkard-i Dînîk (p. 21); it is found, however, in all MSS. of the Bundahis.

9. These daughters are the Av. Freni, Thriti, and Pouru-kista of Fravardîn Yt. 139; the last is also mentioned in Yas. LII, 3.

10. The following is a summary of the Persian descriptions of the five kinds of marriage, as given in the Rivâyats:--

A pâdshâh ('ruling, or privileged') wife is when a man marries, {footnote p. 143} with the parents' consent, an unbetrothed maiden out of a family, and she and her children remain his in both worlds.

A yûkan or ayûk ('only child') wife is an only child, married with the parents' consent, and her first child belongs to them; after its birth she becomes a pâdshâh wife. She is entitled to one-third of her parents' property for giving up the child.

A satar ('adopted') wife is when a man over fifteen years of age dies childless and unmarried, and his relatives provide a maiden with a dowry, and marry her to another man; when half her children belong to, the dead min, and half to the living, and she herself is the dead man's wife in the other world.

A kakar or kâkar ('serving') wife is a widow who marries again; if she had no children by her first husband she is acting as a satar wife, and half her children by her second husband belong to her first one; and she herself, in any case, belongs to her first husband in the other world.

A khûd-sarâî or khûd-sarâî ('self-disposing') wife is one who marries without her parents' consent; she inherits no property from her parents until her eldest son has given her as a pâdshâh wife to his father.]

{p. 143}

7[1]. By Isadvâstar was begotten a son whose name was Ururviga[2], and they call him Arang-i Bîrâdân[3] ('fore-arm of brothers') for this reason, that, as they

[1. Instead of this sentence the Vagarkard-i Dînîk (pp. 21, 22) has the following, which appears to rest upon a misinterpretation of the text:--

'And Zaratûst the righteous had three wives; all three were in the lifetime of Zaratûst, and all three wives were living throughout the lifetime of Zaratûst; the name of one was Hvôv, of the second Urvig, of the third Arnig-baredâ. And from Urvig, who was a privileged wife, four children were born; one was the son Isadvâstar, and the three daughters, namely, Frên, Srîtak, and Pôrukist; these four were from Urvig. And from the wife Arnig-baredâ two sons were born, one Aûrvart-nar, and the second Khûrshêd-kîhar; and Arnig-baredâ was a serving wife, and the name of the former husband of Arnig-baredâ was Mitrô-ayâr. And from Hvôv, who was a privileged wife, were three sons, namely, Hûshêdar, Hûshêdar-mâh, and Sôshâns, as it says,' &c. (as in 8).

2. TD has Pahl. Aûrvarvîgak or Khûrûrûpak.

3. So in TD.]

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were from a serving wife, she then delivered them over to Isadvâstar through adoption. 8. This, too, one knows, that three sons of Zaratûst, namely, Hûshêdar, Hûshêdar-mâh[1], and Sôshyans[2], were from Hvôv[3]; as it says, that Zaratûst went near unto Hvôv three times, and each time the seed went to the ground; the angel Nêryôsang[4] received the brilliance and strength of that seed, delivered it with care to the angel Anâhîd[5], and in time will blend it with a mother. 9. Nine thousand, nine hundred, and ninety-nine, and nine myriads[6] of the guardian spirits of the righteous are intrusted with its protection, so that the demons may not injure it[7].

10. The name of the mother of Zaratûst was Dughdâ[8], and the name of the father of the mother, of Zaratûst was Frahimravâ[9].

[1. Av. Ukhshyad-ereta and Ukhshyad-nemangh of Fravardîn Yt. 128.

2. Av. Saoshyãs of Vend. XIX, 18, Fravardîn Yt. 129, &c. See Chaps. XI, 6, XXIX, 6, XXX, 3, 4, 7, 17, 25, 27.

3. Av. Hvôvi of Fravardîn Yt. 139, Dîn Yt. 15; the Pahlavi form of the name, as given once in TD, is Hûvâôbö.

4. See Chap. XV, 1.

5. Av. anâhita of Âbân Yt. 1, &c.; a female personification of 'unsullied' water, known generally by the epithet ardvî sûra (the Arêdvîvsûr of Chap. XIII), and whose name is also applied to the planet Venus (see Chap. V, 1).

6. So in M6; other MSS. have '9,999 myriads,' but see Fravardîn Yt. 62.

7. This last phrase, about the demons, is omitted in TD and the Vagarkard-i Dînîk.

8. The Avesta word for 'daughter.'

9. TD has Pâz. Fereâhimruvânâ.]

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0. The family of the Môbads ('priests').

1. Bahak[2] was son of Hubakht, son of Âtarô-bondak, son of Mâhdad, son of Mêdyôk-mâh, son of Frâh-vakhsh-vindâd[3], son of Mêdyôk-mâh, son of Kâd[4], son of Mêdyôk-mâh, son of Ârâstih, son of Paîtirâsp[6]. 2. As Bahak was Môbad of Môbads (high-priest) unto Shâhpûhar[6], son of Aûharmazd, sod was the great preceptor (farmâdâr) unto Dârâî[7].

3. Âtarô-pâd[8] was son of Mâraspend, son of Dâdardâ, son of Dâdîrâd, son of Hûdînô, son of Âtarôdâd, son of Mânûskîhar, son of Vohûman-kîhar, son of Fryânô[9], son of Bâhak[10], son of Frêdûn, son of

[1. This chapter is found only in TD, where it forms a continuation of the preceding, and affords a means (see 10, 11) for determining the age of the recension of the text contained in that MS. As nearly all the names are written, in Pahlavi letters, the pronunciation of many of them is merely a matter of guess.

2. Here written Bôhak, but it is Bahak or Bâk in 2; compare Bâhak in 3, and Av. Baungha of Fravardîn Yt. 124.

3. Compare Av. Frashâvakhsha of Fravardîn Yt. 109.

4. Compare Av. Kâta of Fravardîn Yt. 124.

5. See Chap. XXXII, 2, for the last three generations; TD has Pîrtarâsp here, like the variant of M6 in Chap. XXXII, 1.

6. The Sasanian king Shâpûr II, who reigned A.D. 309-379.

7. According to the chronology of the Bundahis (Chap. XXXIV, 8, 9), Dârâî lived only some four centuries before Shâpûr II, for which period only seven generations of priests are here provided. This period, moreover, is certainly about three centuries less than the truth.

8. This priest was prime minister of Shâpûr II.

9. Compare Av. Fryâna of Yas. XLV, 12.

10. This name is repeated in TD, probably by mistake (compare Bahak in 1, 2).]

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Frashâîtar[1], son of Pôrûshasp, son of Vînâsp, son of Nivar, son of Vakhsh, son of Vahidhrôs, son of Frast, son of Gâk[2], son of Vakhsh, son of Fryân, son of Ragan, son of Dûrâsrôb, son of Mânûskîhar[3].

4. Mitrô-varâz was son of Nîgâs-afzûd-dâk, son of Shîrtashôsp, son of Parstva, son of Urvad-gâ, son of Tâham, son of Zarîr, son of Dûrâsrôb, son of Mânûs[4]. 5. Dûrnâmîk was son of Zâgh, son of Masvâk, son of Nôdar[5], son of Mânûskîhar.

6. Mitrô-akâvîd is son of Mardân-vêh[6], son of Afrôbag-vindâd, son of Vindâd-i-pêdâk, son of Vâê-bûkht[7], son of Bahak, son of Vâê-bûkht. 7. The mother from whom I was born is Hûmâî, daughter of Freh-mâh, who also was the righteous daughters[8]

[1. This is probably a semi-Huzvâris form of Frashôstar.

2. Perhaps this name should be read along with the next one, so as to give the single Pâzand name Skinas or Skivas.

3. See Chap. XXXII, 1, for the last three generations. According to this genealogy Âtarôpâd-i Mâraspendân was the twenty-third in descent from Mânûskîhar, whereas his contemporary, Bahak ( 1), was twenty-second in descent from the same.

4. No doubt Mânûskîhar is meant; if not, we must read Mânûs-dûrnâmîk in connection with 5.

5. Here written Nîdar, but see Chaps. XXIX, 6, XXXI, 13.

6. Here written Mard-vêh, but see 8.

7. Here written Aê-vûkht, but see 8; it may be Vîs-bûkht, or Vês-bûkht.

8. The text is amîdar mûnas li agas zerkhûnd Hûmôî dûkht-i Freh-mâh-ik aharôb vûkht (dûkht?). We might perhaps read 'Freh-mâh son of Kahârôb-bûkht,' but it seems more probable that 7, 8 should be connected, and that the meaning intended is that Hûmâî was. daughter of Freh-mâh (of a certain family) and of Pûyisn-shâd (of another family); she was also the mother of the editor of that recension of the Bundahis which is contained in TD; but who was his father? The singularly unnecessary repetition of the genealogy of the two brothers, Mitrô-akâvîd and Pûyisn-shâd, in 6, 8, leads to the suspicion that if the latter {footnote p. 147} were his mother's father, the former was probably his own father or grandfather. Unfortunately the text makes no clear statement on the subject, and 10 affords further material for guessing otherwise at his name and connections.]

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of Mâh-ayâr son of Mâh-bôndak, son of Mâh-bûkht. 8. Pûyisn-shâd is son of Mardân-vêh, son of Afrôbag-vindâd, son of Vindâd-i-pêdâk, son of Vâê-bûkht, son of Bahak, son of Vâê-bûkht.

9. All the other Môbads who have been renowned in the empire (khûdâyîh) were from the same family it is said, and were of this race of Mânûskîhar[1]. 10. Those Môbads, likewise, who now exist are all from the same family they assert, and I, too, they boast, whom they call[2] 'the administration of perfect rectitude' (Dâdakîh-i Ashôvahistô)[3]. 11. Yûdân-Yim son of Vâhrâm-shâd, son of Zaratûst, Âtarô-pâd son of Mâraspend, son of Zâd-sparham[4],

[1. Compare Chap. XXXII, 4.

2. Reading va lîk laband-i karîtûnd.

3. This looks more like a complimentary title than a name, and if the editor of the TD recension of the Bundahis were the son or grandson of Mitrô-akâvîd ( 6) we have no means of ascertaining his name; but if he were not descended from Mitrô-akâvîd it is possible that 10, 11 should be read together, and that he was the son of Yûdân-Yim. Now we know, from the heading and colophon of the ninety-two questions and answers on religious subjects which are usually called the Dâdistân-i Dînîk, and from the colophons of other writings which usually accompany that work, that those answers were composed and certain epistles were written by Mânûskîhar, son of Yûdân-Yim, who was high-priest of Pârs and Kirmân in A.Y. 250 (A.D. 881), and apparently a more important personage than his (probably younger) brother Zâd-sparham, who is mentioned in 11 as one of the priests contemporary with the editor of the TD recension. If this editor, therefore, were a son of Yûdân-Yim (which is a possible interpretation of the text) he was most probably this same Mânûskîhar, author of the Dâdistân-i Dînîk (see the Introduction. 4).

4. The last name is very probably superfluous, Zâd-sparham {footnote p. 148} having been written twice most likely by mistake. This Âtarô-pâd son of Mâraspend was probably the one mentioned in the following extract from the old Persian Rivâyat MS., No. 8 of the collection in the Indian Office Library at London (fol. 142 a):--

'The book Dînkard which the dastûrs of the religion and the ancients have compiled, likewise the blessed Âdarbâd son of Mahrasfend, son of Asavahist of the people of the good religion, in the year three hundred of Yazdagard Shahryâr, collected some of the more essential mysteries of the religion as instruction, and of these he formed this book.' That is, he was the last editor of the Dînkard, which seems to have remained unrevised since his time, as the present copies have descended from the MS. preserved by his family and first copied in A.Y. 369.]

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d-sparham son of Yûdân-Yim[1], Âtarô-pâd son of Hâmîd[2], Ashôvahist son of Freh-Srôsh, and the other Môbads have sprung from the same family.

12. This, too, it says, that 'in one winter I will locate (gâkînam) the religion of the Mazdayasnians, which came out into the other six regions.']

[1. Zâd-sparham was brother of the author of the Dâdistân-i Dînîk; he was high-priest at Sîrkân in the south, and evidently had access to the Bundahis, of part of which he wrote a paraphrase (see Appendix). His name is usually written Zâd-sparam.

2 In the history of the Dînkard, given at the end of its third book (see Introd. to Farhang-i Oîm-khadûk, p. xxxiv), we are told as follows:--

'After that, the well-meaning Âtarô-pâd son of Hêmîd, who was the leader of the people of the good religion, compiled, with the assistance of God, through inquiry, investigation, and much trouble, a new means of producing remembrance of the Mazdayasnian religion.' He did this, we are further told, by collecting all the decaying literature and perishing traditions into a work 'like the great original Dînkard, of a thousand chapters' (mânâk-i zak rabâ bûn Dînô-kartô 1000-darakö). We thus learn from external sources that the group of contemporary priests, mentioned in the text, was actively employed (about A.D. 900) in an attempted revival of the religious literature of the Mazdayasnians, to which we owe either the revision or compilation of such works as the Dînkard, Dâdistân-i Dînîk, and Bundahis.]

{p. 149}


0. On the reckoning of the years[2].

1. Time was for twelve thousand years; and it says in revelation, that three thousand years was the duration of the spiritual state, where the creatures were unthinking, unmoving, and intangible[3]; and three thousand years[4] was the duration of Gâyômard, with the ox, in the world. 2. As this was six thousand years series of millennium reigns[5] of Cancer, Leo, and Virgo had elapsed, because it was six thousand years when the millennium reign came to Libra, the adversary rushed in, and Gâyômard lived thirty years in tribulation[6]. After the thirty years[7] Mâshya and Mashyôî grew up; it was fifty years while they were not wife and husband[8], and they were ninety-three years together as wife and husband till the time when Hôshyang[9] came.

4. Hôshyang was forty years[10], Takhmôrup[11] thirty years, Yim till his glory[12] departed six hundred and

[1. This chapter is found in all the MSS.

2. TD adds 'of the Arabs (Tâzîkân).'

3. See Chap. I, 8.

4. See Chaps. I, 22, III, 1.

5. This system of a millennium reign for each constellation of the zodiac can hardly have any connection with the precession of the equinoxes, as the equinoxes travel backwards through the zodiac, whereas these millennium reigns travel forwards.

6. See Chap. III, 21-23.

7. That is, forty years after the thirty (see Chap. XV, 2).

8. See Chap. XV, 19, 20.

9. See Chaps. XV, 28. XXXI, 1.

10. K20 omits, by mistake, from 'together' in 3 to this point.

11. See Chap. XXXI, 2.

12. So in K20, but M6 has nismô, 'soul, reason,' as in Chap. XXIII, 1; the word 'glory' would refer to the supposed divine glory of the Iranian monarchs (see Chap. XXXI. 32).]

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sixteen years and six months, and after that he was a hundred years in concealment. 5. Then the millennium[1] reign came to Scorpio, and Dahâk[2] ruled a thousand years. 6. After the millennium reign came to Sagittarius, Frêdûn[3] reigned five hundred years; in the same five hundred years of Frêdûn were the twelve years of Aîrîk; Mânûskîhar[4] was a hundred and twenty years, and in the same reign of Mânûskîhar, when he was in the mountain fastness (dûshkhvâr-gar)[5], were the twelve years of Frâsîyâv; Zôb[6] the Tûhmâspian was five years.

7. Kaî-Kabâd[7] was fifteen years; Kaî-Kâûs, till he went to the sky, seventy-five years, and seventy-five years after that, altogether a hundred and fifty years; Kai-Khûsrôv sixty years; Kaî-Lôrâsp[8] a hundred and twenty years; Kaî-Vistâsp, till the coming of the religion, thirty years[9], altogether a hundred and twenty years.

8. Vohûman[10] son of Spend-dâd a hundred and

[1. The seventh millennium, ruled by Libra, is computed by Windischmann as follows: 30 + 40 + 50 + 93 + 40 + 30 + 616 + 100 = 1000. The eighth millennium, ruled by Scorpio, is the thousand years of Dahâk.

2. See Chap. XXXI, 6.

3. See Chap. XXXI, 7-11.

4. See Chap. XXXI, 12-14.

5. See Chap. XXXI, 21.

6. Written Aûzôbô in Chap. XXXI, 23, 24.

7. Usually written Kai-Kavâd in Pahlavi (see Chap. XXXI, 24,25).

8. Also written Kaî-Lôharâsp (see Chap. XXXI, 28, 29).

9. This is the end of the ninth millennium, ruled by Sagittarius, which is computed by Windischmann as follows, 500 + 120 + 5 + 15+ 150 +60+ 120+ 30 = 1000.

10. See Chap. XXXI, 29, 30, where he is said to have been also called Artakhshatar, which seems to identify him with Artaxerxes Longimanus and his successors down to Artaxerxes Mnemon; so that Hûmâî may perhaps be identified with Parysatis, and Dârâî Kihar-âzâdân with Artaxerxes Ochus, as Dârâî Dârâyân must be {footnote p. 151} Darius Codomannus, while the reign of Kai-Vistâsp seems intended to cover the period from Cyrus to Xerxes.]

{p. 151}

twelve years; Hûmâî, who was daughter of Vohûman, thirty years; Dârâî son of Kîhar-i-âzâd[1], that is, of the daughter of Vohûman, twelve years; Dârâî son of Dârâî fourteen years; Alexander the Rûman[2] fourteen years.

9. The Askânians bore the title in an uninterrupted (a-arûbâk) sovereignty two hundred and eighty-four years[3], Ardashîr son of Pâpak and the number of the Sâsânians four hundred and sixty years[4], and then it went to the Arabs.

[1. A surname of Hûmâî.

2. Sikandar-i Arûmâk, that is, Alexander the Roman (of the eastern or Greek empire), as Pahlavi writers assume.

3 This period is nearly two centuries too short.

4. The actual period of Sasanian rule was 425 years (A. D. 226-651). According to the figures given in the text, the tenth millennium, ruled by Capricornus, must have terminated in the fourth year of the last king, Yazdakard. This agrees substantially with the Bahman Yast, which makes the millennium of Zaratûst expire some time after the reign of Khûsrô Nôshirvân; probably in the time of Khûsrô Parvîz, or some forty years earlier than the fourth year of Yazdakard. According to the text we must now be near the end of the first quarter of the twelfth and last millennium.]

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Next: Appendix To The Bundahis