Extracted from the Old Books by Richard Iorwerth, and exhibited by him in the Chair of Tir Iarll, and adjudged before it as authoritative; after that, they obtained a Chair in each of the three provinces.
THE TRIADS OF THE BARDS OF CYMRU.
The following are the Triads which were exhibited before the Chair of Tir Iarll by Richard Iorwerth, son of Iorwerth the Grey-haired. 2 From the Book of Thomas Hopkin 3 of Llangrallo--one of the Books of Thomas, son of Evan, 4 of Tre Bryn.
1. There are three Banded 5 Bards. The first is the Primitive Bard, or Poet, whose function and art are to
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poetize, and to preserve the memorial of every thing that is commendable in man or deed--to celebrate in song every thing that is commendable and good, as would be fitting in respect of what is meritorious and deserving--to teach in song every thing that is good in respect of doctrine and usages, and to maintain the memorial and teaching of the art of song, and all the privileges and usages which have been conferred upon the Bards of the Isle of Britain, and to teach them in methodical song, according to the proper art of vocal song of the Bards of the Ancient Cymry; And it is his duty to arrange and systematize matters, according to the privileges and usages of the Ancient Cymry, in every Chair and Eisteddvod, and Gorsedd of vocal song; it is incumbent upon him also to preserve and maintain the Cymric language free from degeneracy and corruption, and to teach it correctly, according to its quality and original and proper arrangement. The second is the Herald-bard, whose office and art are memorial, instruction, and history--to symbolize good and laudable deeds, and to record in book and writing the genealogies and descent of the nation of the Cymry, their privileges and usages, so that they may be known, lest there should happen to the nation of the Cymry that degeneracy and ignobleness which impoverish the descent and privileges of a nation, and hence ensue non privilege and false privilege, and every lack of system, as has been the case with those unlearned nations, among which neither Awen from God, nor Bards, nor Bardism proceeding from that Awen, have been found. It is his duty to learn to read and to write the Cymric language, and to commit it to book and song properly and correctly, and to know the privileges and usages of the Bards of the nation of the Cymry, with their nature and essence. He ought also to impugn all ignobleness, all lack of privilege, all false privilege, and all illegality and disusage, lest the nation of the Cymry, their privileges and laudable usages, their language, innateness, and celebrated antiquity should suffer corruption. The third is the Post-bard, whose art is vocal song according to the inventive
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instruction and skilful art of the later Bards, and to impart instruction in every science, wisdom, arts, and good and laudable usages, and to systematize new sciences according to kind, number, time, place, occasion, and dignity. 1 And this is the distinction between the Primitive Bard and the Post-bard: the Primitive Bard ought to bring with him what has been behind him from old ages, and the Post-bard ought to call to him what he sees before him; whilst the Herald-bard arranges these things according as the advantage, requirement, nature, essence, time, and dignity of them may demand; and to bestow instruction, sciences, wisdom, art, dignity, and honour out of them upon the nation and country of the Cymry, as befits what is good and praiseworthy.
2. There are three supremacies of song: to poetize; to play the harp and stringed instrument; and to teach history.
3. There are three kinds of men of vocal song. The first is the Poet, whose function is to poetize, and to sing methodically, according to the art of song--being of warranted authority, of learned pursuit, of genial imagination, of discreet intention, and of regular purpose, to keep the memorial of privilege, usage, and instruction derived from ancient song, to pronounce judgment upon vocal song, to keep laudable memorial of every man and deed that are adjudged to be commendable, to preserve a record of the genealogies and descent of the nation of the Cymry--their derivation and condition, and to sing poetically upon a subject in such a manner as would be easiest to understand, learn, and remember the song, for the instruction and amusement of those who may learn, recite, and hear it. The second is the Family Bard, or a minstrel who is a poet of warranted authority, as becomes a poet according to the privilege and usage of the Ancient Cymry; and his function is to sing domestically upon a subject and proposition, to sing with a clear imagination, and with affectionate meditation, to regulate and teach good, noble, and moral usages,
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and to sing love without frivolity, praise without flattery, satire without reproach, instruction in an amusing way, and amusement in an instructive way, as may be easiest to learn, understand, and remember the song. Upon him and his song are conferred the system and judgment of the Chair and Eisteddvod of the territory, in which may be his abode; but, in conformity with good usages, and such as are meet to be practised, he must neither sing nor teach in song what is not fitting to be heard or taught. He is a brother in the faith and companion to a Poet, who is a Chaired Bard, authorized by, and under the protection and privilege of his Chair. It is lawful to refer a domestic song to a Chair, and it ought to be judged according to the kind of system which is peculiar to it, for its system is not the same as that which belongs to the extraordinary song of a Chaired Poet, who has to maintain his Chair against his fellow competitors, but is arranged according to its Cymraeg, the goodness of its instruction, the lucidity of its meditation and Cymraeg, and the facility of learning, understanding, and remembering it, and of clothing it in harmony and music. The third is the Minstrel, who is authorized to stroll, to censure, to satirize, to reproach, to mock, to abuse, to supplicate, and to recite lyrics in a dialogue, for the sake of amusing and rejoicing the mind. Neither he nor his song is endowed with a system, judgment, or privilege of Chair, nor is there any usage attached to his office or art, further than that they are subject to the judgment of country and law, and that he should do nothing against them. These three persons of vocal song are called Chair Bard, Family Bard, and Irregular Bard; and to them belong the three branches of vocal song, namely, Bardism, that is, Poetry, Domesticity, and Minstrelsy.
4. There are three occasions for Bards and Bardism: to maintain and preserve just memorial of what were formerly, whether man, or deed, or sciences; to teach good usages, and sciences which promote social inhabitation, whether they be art, or wisdom, or morality; and to amuse, rejoice,
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and occupy the mind, intellect, and affection, and to while away the time not unwisely. For they are what make country and district socially inhabitable, and whereby the arrangement and system of country are conferred upon nation and tribe, in the way found to be most practicable, most diverting, and most permanent.
5. There are three things, which, according to their arrangements, a Bard, who is a Chaired Poet, ought to know. The first is the system of vocal song, its art, and appurtenances. The second is the system of the privileges and usages of men of vocal and instrumental song, and how to arrange and regulate them, for that is the duty of a poet who is a primitive Bard. The third is how to arrange Bardic history and sciences, or the principal features of the wisdom of the Ancient Cymry, and the genealogies and descent of the nation of the Cymry, their kings, princes, and innate nobility, with their laudable deeds, and the excellences of the nation of the Cymry; and to place the whole on the record of song, and in proper arrangement, according to the usages of the Bards of the Ancient Cymry.
6. The three special duties of a Bard according to the privilege and usage of the Ancient Cymry: to preserve and maintain the privileges of the nation of the Cymry; to preserve and maintain the Cymric language free from corruption; and to preserve and maintain good and laudable usages and sciences--and all this by means of a systematic vocal song, under the protection and privilege of Chair and Eisteddvod. That is, it was for the purpose of preserving and maintaining these things that vocal song, Bards, and Bardism were devised and appointed; and on the same were conferred privilege and obligation in Chair and Eisteddvod.
7. There are three things which are forbidden to a Bard, being a Chaired Teacher: an immoral and wicked art or learning; immoral acts and usages; and intercourse with immoral men and society; for these things will spoil the social inhabitation of country and nation. On that account, immorality, its kind or form, are not becoming to
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a Poet, since a Bard is the ballustrade of morality and social inhabitation, according to his office and duty; and it was to confirm the same that he was invested with the protection of country and border country, and distinctive privilege, that he might preserve and maintain social inhabitation and morality, and teach them accurately.
8. There are three things indispensable in a Bard, namely: that he should sing properly; that he should teach properly; and that he should judge properly.
9. There are three things in right of primary obligation, by special protection and privilege, to which a Bard according to the privilege and usage of the Ancient Cymry is entitled: that his land should be free, namely, his five free acres; that his wassail should be gratuitous, wherever he may go, in virtue of his office and art of song--the same being supplied to him by the lord of the territory, which he may visit; and that his word should be paramount, no person's word being superior, as long as his degree and Chair remain to him.
10. There are three disciplinary degrees attached to vocal song and Bardism, namely: the first is a probationary Disciple; the second is a pupil Disciple; the third is a master Disciple. A probationary Disciple ought to know the system of syllables and sentences, according to the Books of the system of metricities, and how to arrange the metres of domestic song, for that belongs to the discipline of vocal song, and to sing in five of those metres poetically according to the opinion of a master of song, who shall say upon his word and conscience that he is competent to be a poet; he ought also to know the laws and usages which relate to his discipleship. A pupil Disciple ought to know, in addition to what a probationary Disciple knows, the system of metres and resumptions, and to be able to sing in the nine primary metres, and to exhibit the same as his own composition, warranted by the word, or under the hand of his Teacher; he ought to know, and to avoid the fifteen common faults; he ought also to know the
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usages necessary in holding a Chair and Eisteddvod, and to be skilled in the genealogies of the nobility, and in history. A master Disciple ought to know the whole that the pupil Disciple ought to know, and therewith to sing like a disciple in all the chaired metres, to know the system of their quality and kinds, to avoid all the faults, to be skilled in history, as taught by the primitive Bards according to the privilege and usage of the Ancient Cymry, to trace the pedigrees of the innate princes and noblemen of the nation of the Cymry, to be acquainted with the history of all their laudable deeds and usages, to know the privileges of the nation of the Cymry, their substance and quality, to be able to record all these things before a Chair, to commit the whole methodically to book, to regulate and arrange a Chair and Eisteddvod, according to the judgment of a Bard, who is a chaired master of song, and to know the articles of the wisdom of the Ancient Cymry, and proper arrangement of the Cymric language, and all its syllables, words, and sentences, and to write them properly and systematically; he ought to know in memory and viva voce all the privileges and usages of the Bards of the Ancient Cymry, and their proper arrangement, and the memorial and knowledge respecting the ancient primitive Bards, their songs, and Books, and all the history which is derived from then. And when, by means of his own singing, he shall exhibit all the chaired metres, according to their kinds founded upon primary quality, to be a masterly science of music, he is entitled to a Chair; and when he shall have obtained three, he will become a Chaired Teacher, and be entitled to the protection and privileges conferred upon Bards according to the privilege and usage of the Ancient Cymry. And before he obtains a Chair, he is deemed as the companion of a chief of song.
11. There are three apportionments of the fees of Bards, in respect of the degrees of their discipleship and quality. The fee of a probationary Disciple for his song, on each of the three special festivals, is twenty-four pence, if he be
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warranted by the word, or under the hand of his Teacher; and courtesy is free to him, though it is not lawful for him to seek more than the customary fee. The fee of a pupil Disciple for his song, if warranted, is forty pence, that is, three shillings and a groat; and he is not, of claim and requirement, entitled to more, though he is entitled to courtesy. The fee of a master Disciple is eighty pence, that is, six shillings and eight pence, warranted, as he must be, by the word or hand of his Teacher, and he has no claim to any thing beyond that, except the reception of courtesy. These fees are received from the lord of the territory, for the song of memorial and instruction which is sung, and for the history which is analyzed, or for the pedigrees of descent which are traced, in pursuance of some lawful cause, such as a claim for land, the privilege of the nation of the Cymry, and nuptial festivity--each Disciple being authorized under the hand, or by the word, of his Teacher, and his Teacher being authorized by the judgment, privilege, and degree of Chair. And if a fee be received for a song or narrative on one of the festivals, a fee shall not be received on any of the others for the same exhibition. A fee is due also to a Bard, according to his degree, from those to whom he may sing, or exhibit a narrative; and these gifts shall constitute the travelling provisions of Bards during their discipleship.
12. There are three provisions for a Bard, according to the privilege of his office and art: five free acres; a penny from every plough in the comot assigned to him by the lord of the territory; and his customary fees in respect of his office and art.
13. For three things ought fees to be paid to a Bard, according to his degree: for the vocal song which he shall sing at the bidding and desire of him who hears it; for the pedigree and information which he shall supply in every claim for land, and in every claim for the nobility and privilege of nation and country; and for any required information which he shall give under his hand, respecting what occurred formerly, and respecting what is desired to be
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learned of the Cymric language, as to the reading, writing, and arranging of it. These things belong to a Bard in virtue of the claim, justice, and privilege of his office and art of song.
14. There are three laws incumbent upon a Bard, who is a Chaired Teacher, relative to his Disciples. The first is, that he take to himself only one of each degree at once. The second, that he suffer them not to take disciples, or to make disciples, for it is not fitting that a disciple should make another disciple. And the third, that the men of vocal song associate not with men of instrumental song, by playing the violin or harp, or that they follow and practise no trade or art whatsoever, except the art of vocal song and its appurtenances.
15. Three things which a Teacher ought to guard against in his Disciples, lest they should become irregular, oppressive to country and family whither they may go, and where they may be, illiterate as to their art, and consequently unsociable. The first is, that they should not commit any immoral deeds, or practise any immoral usages, or frequent any immoral places; that is, that they should not habituate themselves to theft, treachery, waylaying, fighting, adultery, fornication, contentions, quarrels, deceit, oppression, blaspheming, reproaching, scoffing, lampooning, mocking, mimicking, and drunkenness, that they should tell no falsehood of any man or thing, or repeat it after another, that they should compose no immoral or indecent rhymes to displease man and country, to bring corruption into good qualities, and to corrupt commendable usages, that they should not go to taverns, and places where there are illegal plays, and which are the resort of drunkards, perjurers, thieves, traitors, harlots, all kinds of vagrants, tramps, all evildoers, and those who are disaffected to the government, such as those who alloy the king's money, and abuse his writs, that they should not commit or practise any immoral plays, such as cards and dice, that they should not play such plays for money, or any goods, profit, or gain
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whatsoever, that they should not frequent any secret, illegal places, that they should not make use of immoral and treasonable charms, that they should form no intimacy with any evil persons, whether male or female, and that they should show no discourtesy whatsoever to either wife or maid, wherever they may be. But if they, the Disciples, should do these things against the will of their Teachers, and contrary to their advice and system, they shall forfeit their minstrelsy and fees, and all the goods attached to their song, until the expiration of three years, and bear the penalty of a fine and imprisonment, being tried by the judgment of law, and all being officers over them, and divesting them of the amount of goods, which may be attached to their song in their respective circuits. For men of song ought to practise good, sociable, peaceable, and just usages, to use fair, amiable, and pacific speeches, to be kind, obedient, and neighbourly, and to be at the necessity and requirement of king, country, lord, and judge, to direct, support, and guide them in all things that they, and their officers, may do. The second duty of the Teacher towards his Disciples is to teach them the art of vocal song, and all that belongs to it, all the privileges and usages of the Bards according to the privilege and usage of the Ancient Cymry, as to their arrangement, quality, and substance, all the privileges of the nation of the Cymry, and the commendable usages and sciences, which ought to be remembered and known by the Bards of the Cymry, and which it appertains to Bards to know and to teach dogmatically; he ought also to teach them the Cymric tongue, as to the correctness of its arrangement, to write it correctly, to teach the system and order of history, and to trace the descent of nobility, and what belongs to such privileges; he ought also to teach them the order of recording what is known and learned in respect of the system which appertains to that branch of Bardic art, that is, the mode of recording in song, speech, usage, and book; and the Teacher ought to judge what the Disciples do, whether it be vocal song or history, to see that
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such be regular, and to guarantee it upon his word, and under his hand. His third duty is to arrange systematically the strolling minstrelsy of his Disciples, and he ought to confer with them a month at least before every holiday and festival, on which it is customary for Bards to hold their visitation and go on circuit, such as the three principal festivals, the nuptial feast of a gentleman, who is an innate freeholder, the feast of the patron saint, and the feast of Chair and Eisteddvod, which is held at the end of every three years, and in which gifts from the lord of the territory are presented. Before these holidays and festivals the Teacher ought to judge the song of his Disciples, to guarantee, upon his word and under his hand, whatever is right, whether it be vocal song or history, and to show every one where he is to go, lest too many of them should go to the same place, and that no more than one should go to the house of a person whose rental is ten pounds a year, and two to the house of a freeholder, whose property is twenty pounds a year, and in proportion to the house of a person whose rental is higher, unless a different number be invited by the householder, being a proprietary gentleman. It is not becoming that a Bard should visit an ignoble person, lest he be corrupted, and hence trace descent unjustly and differently to what it ought to be. None of these men of vocal song should depart from the house he came to at first, whilst the said holiday, or feast, or wake, lasted, at the invitation of another, without the permission of the master of the house; and if he should do so, he shall forfeit his right of minstrelsy. Should he go from house to house, he must be apprehended as a vagrant, and a lawless tramp, without warranty, without authority, be divested of his right of minstrelsy, and placed in the situation of the poor. If he get drunk at the feast, or commit any other act of discourtesy, he shall forfeit his fee and right of minstrelsy. And if the Teacher guard not in respect of the particulars here shown, he shall lose his privilege and Chair until the end of three years, nor will it be lawful for him to have Disciples after such irregularity.
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16. For three things ought a Bard to be deprived of his degree and privilege of song, and be rendered incapable of recovering them as long as he lives. The first, for divulging a secret which he holds, in respect of his office and privilege of song. The second, for murder and waylaying, and for enlisting as a soldier, thus exposing himself to weapons, so that he cannot visit country and border country at the call and necessity of country and lord, and in pursuance of a treaty between country and border country, according to his office and privilege of song and Bardism, and his protection of federate country in right of a federal treaty between the kings of the Cymry, and the system which appertains to it. The third, for pertinaciously telling a falsehood in his song, so that his word cannot become paramount, and cannot avail between country and border country, or in any investigation between country and territory. Should he do these three things, he cannot, whilst he lives, have privilege, protection, and property in right of song and Bardism.
17. From three places in a Bard is blood to be drawn, when he is degraded, namely: from his forehead; from his breast; and from his groin; that is, from the receptacles of life and the soul, and their vicinities. It is drawn by the king of the territory with the point of the sword before an Eisteddvod of Bards, before the court of country and lord, before the court of judge and law, and before the country and people, in three churches on the Sundays which occur at the periods of the three principal festivals, within the territory where he may be, and, during life, the man so degraded cannot have privilege, or protection, or any property whatsoever in right of song and Bardism.
18. For three things will a Bard lose his privilege, protection, degree, and all the goods which he possesses in right of song, until the end of seven years, namely: for theft; adultery; and pugnacity; for a Bard ought not to be guilty of these things.
19. For three things will a man of song lose his degree
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until the end of three years: for adultery; for drunkenness; and for associating with people of an immoral and bad character.
20. For three things will a Bard, who is a Chaired Teacher, fall to the rank of primary discipleship, and what befits his illiterateness and immorality: first, for a fault in his song, which he cannot, and knows not how to correct; secondly, for immorality in respect of conduct and life unbecoming a Bard, who is a teacher; thirdly, where he cannot keep and maintain his Chair against his fellow competitors.
21. There are three minstrels, who are permitted to stroll in their lawful circuits within the territory, in which they may be, once a year, and three times a year through the whole of Cymru universally. The first is a Bard, who is a chaired chief of song, the fee due for his song, or any other performance of his office and art, being eighty pence, where there has been no previous contract, and where it is not lawful for him to demand more than six score pence in the way of fees or chattels, or their value in any form, under the pain of forfeiting his right of minstrelsy, the goods attached to his song, and whatever he possesses; and the same shall be given up in behalf of the king of the territory, where the immoral party shall have committed the wrong. The second is a pupil Disciple, whose fee is four score pence, if he be probationary; if disciplinary, then forty pence, and if chief of song, four score pence. It is not lawful to contract before hand for a greater remuneration without the warranty of his Teacher; and if he does so, he shall forfeit his right of minstrelsy. The fee of a chief of song Disciple is four score pence; and in respect of pre-contract the same law stands for him as for the other Disciples, for the Disciples ought not to judge their own works, but their Teacher will judge for them, and there can be no contract without judging what is bound by the contract made. For a Chaired Teacher is bound by the judgment of his Chair, protection, and privilege, according to his degree;
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and a Disciple of every degree by the judgment of his Teacher. The third is the Minstrel, who may be a maimed person, such as blind or lame; it will be lawful for him to perform his minstrelsy and to sing standing, until he be requested to do otherwise. The permission of the lord of the territory ought not to be given to other than these to go on circuit, where they have no chaired degrees.
22. A Bard has three claims, and he is not entitled to his fee or degree, where he acts not according to them. The first is, to maintain in a methodical song the memorial of the commendable deeds of princes, lords, wise men, innate proprietors, and every worthy servant of the nation of the Cymry, for their own praise, and in order to shew the present and future generations what is incumbent upon them in respect of usage, act, conduct, and aim in all that is praiseworthy, for the instruction, promotion, and maintenance of these things to the nation of the Cymry, and for the amusement which arises from the knowledge of them. The second is, to uphold the Cymric language, and to teach it, as to its substance, quality, and arrangement, to such as may desire, to teach the proper writing of it, and to teach what in it refers to Bardism, vocal song, and their appurtenances. The third is, to maintain the memorial of genealogies, and nuptial feasts, lest any proprietary and innate family of the nation of the Cymry should happen to suffer degeneracy. The man's descent should be traced from the ninth generation, when it cannot be traced from a proprietary lineage, the derivation of which is known before memory, the same being a princely tribe or a baronial tribe. This is, lest the privilege and protection, which are due to no man whatsoever, except to a proprietary Cymro, or an innate Cymraes, should befal the degenerate, the alien, the foreigner, and the unprivileged villain. The woman's descent should be traced on the father's and mother's side, as to posterity and origin, from innate Cymry, such being a privilege to her, being an innate Cymraes, which cannot be to a foreign woman, or to the daughter of an alien; for the latter does
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not possess the privilege of a proprietary Cymraes, though an alien or a foreign woman does not corrupt the lineage and descent of her husband and children. For these reasons the genealogical descent of the nation of the Cymry ought to be traced, kept in memory, and preserved accurately, in order to distinguish between noble and mean descent, and in respect of native and foreigner, and of alien and baron. On this account, in right of his office, and the art of his song, a Bard is entitled to his fee by privilege and usage, and a penny from every plough; and where money cannot be obtained, he should make a seizure, and submit it to the judgment of twelve men of country. And because of this system, in every nuptial feast it is right and proper that the Bard should be under the privilege of a Chair and Gorsedd; and it appertains to the lord of the territory to make that arrangement, lest the five free acres should lack privilege. It was, in order that these particulars should be conducted rightly and duly, that the system of compiling the lineages of descent was first arranged.
23. There are three things required in him who says he is a Herald-bard. One is, that he should know the genealogies of the princes, kings, and nobles of the Cymry. The second is, the information of the primitive Bards. The third is, a properly authorized and exhibited warranty of his degree and Chair. He who says that he is a Herald-bard without possessing these requisites must be apprehended as a vagrant, and put in prison until the lord of the territory gives him deliverance.
24. There are three things required in him who says that he is a Primitive Bard. One is, the art of song and its relatives, and what belongs to it according to the system of the Bards of the Ancient Cymry. The second is, the information of the Bards of the Isle of Britain, according to the system into which it is reduced. The third are, commendable usages and irreproachable conduct. Whoever possesses these qualifications is entitled to his Chair.
25. There are three things required in him who says
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that he is a Post-bard. One is, the art of song, according to the inventive skill of the later Bards. The second is, to be able to read Cymraeg, and to write it accurately. The third is, to be able to answer questions put to him according to the sayings of wise men.
26. There are three things required in him who says that he is a Bard, in virtue of being a Chaired Teacher. One is, that which is required in a Primitive Bard. The second is, that which is required in a Herald-bard. The third is, that which is required in a Post-bard. If he is possessed of these qualifications, he is entitled to his degree and privilege as a Chaired Teacher.
27. In three places ought a Chair and Eisteddvod of Bards and men of vocal and instrumental song (a Chair in the case of men of instrumental song, and an Eisteddvod in the case of Bards) to be held. One is, an open yard, in the light of the sun, that is, whilst the sun is in the firmament, and in the sight and knowledge of country and nation, according to usage and law; and unless the place has had the usage of three years, it must be submitted to the knowledge and hearing of country and lord by means of a legal notice under the proclamation of a year and a day, the notice being given under such a proclamation for three years. The place will then be institutional, having the privilege of Bards and Chair. The second are, the courts of the lord of the territory and his judges, for they are deemed open places, in respect of the privilege which belongs to them. The third are, the sacred enclosures, or churches, for they are deemed open, and as being in the light of day, and in the knowledge and hearing of country and nation, and lord and law. There can be no warranty or authority, or privilege, or word, in respect of Chair and Eisteddvod, or anything that is done relative to vocal song as to privilege and security, but for what is done in the open places, according to the privilege and usage of country and law.
28. In three places is notice to be given under the proclamation of a year and a day. One is, in every court of
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lord, and judge, and law. The second is, in every llan 1 and church in the territory. The third is, in every fair and market in the territory. Then what is rendered under the protection of the said notice after the proclamation of a year and a day is privileged, and ought to receive no opposition except what may be offered before the end of the three years, according to the privileges and usages of the Ancient Cymry, and the privileges and usages of the Bards of the Isle of Britain. For it was under the protection of such a notice that the Ancient Cymry began all privileges and usages, every law and contract, and every order and system according to the privilege, and under the protection of country and nation, relative to those who practise and have practised the arrangements of the nation of the Cymry. And nothing should ever be done either by country or by lord, by claim or by counter claim, other than according to, and in virtue of, this order of the systems of country and nation.
29. There are three guarantees and authorities of Chair of song and Eisteddvod of Bards, if it be held in one or other, as may be convenient, of the open and privileged places, and at its open time in the light of the sun. One is, the counsel and communion of three men of song who are Chaired Bards according to the privilege and usage of the Bards of the Isle of Britain, for the testimony of their word, wherever they may be, will be a warrant for vocal song, and Bardism, and whatever appertains to the same in respect of privileges and usages. The second is, the protection and privilege of twelve proprietors, being true men of country and territory, under lawful proclamation and notice, which protection is given where there are no three Chaired Bards in Chair, as if where there are only two or one, or only men of song by claim, who have not been chaired previously. The third is, the protection of the lord of the territory, or of three of his judges--nevertheless it is said that the protection of one territorial judge will avail, if given under lawful notice and proclamation; and the protection of the lord of the territory will suffice, if warranted under his hand,
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though he himself may not be present. And unless there be one or other of these three, an institutional and lawful Chair or Eisteddvod, according to the privilege and usage of the Ancient Cymry, cannot be held.
30. There are three open times, on which it is lawful to hold a Chair and Eisteddvod. One is, the three principal periods of the sun, that is, the days, their festivals, and their third days, on which the sun enters the point of the equinox of spring, the point of the long day of summer, the point of the equinox of autumn, and the point of the short day of winter. The second, the three principal festivals, namely, Easter, Whitsunday, and Christmas. The third, the days of court and law, in the places, and at the time of day, where and when those courts are held, and in no other place. But where there may be need and occasion for other times, notice of them must be given under the proclamation of a year and a day, according to usage and law.
31. In three ways is a Bard graduated. The first is, after discipleship, under a Teacher who is a Chaired Bard, until he shall have known the art of song, and what belongs to it in respect of office and duty, and until he shall have known the privileges and usages of the Bards, and the other sciences which appertain to Bard and Bardism, and become capable of answering for himself where he is examined under the privilege and protection of his Teacher. Being possessed of these qualifications, he is entitled to a degree and Chair. The second is, in virtue of sciences, and from being skilled in the art of vocal song, and its appurtenances, and the privileges and usages of Bards and Bardism, and what belongs to them, and from having exhibited methodical and faultless singing of his own composition, and being able to read Cymraeg accurately, and to write and arrange it properly, because it is from those things, and not otherwise, that his sciences can accrue without the teaching of discipleship. It is required of him to exhibit all these things before a Chair and Eisteddvod, and where there can be no objection, he is entitled to a degree and Chair in virtue of his sciences, and
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they are called the degree and Chair of faculty, or, as it is otherwise said, a faculty degree, since it is by the judgment and faculty of Chair and Eisteddvod, and not by means of discipleship and teacher, that he is graduated. The third is, where no customary Chair and Eisteddvod can be obtained, and hence there is an impossibility of receiving the judgment of song and Bardism, through the want of Bards and Chaired men, by submitting to the judgment of country and nation under the notice and proclamation of a year and a day; and where there can be no objection, or just opposition, then a degree ought to be conferred upon the Bard. The said notice ought to be issued under the proclamation of a year and a day until the end of three years, when a degree and Chair should be confirmed to him. And in this crisis, his sciences and art cannot receive other than the judgment of country and nation and its wise men, and they can have no system other than judgment according to reason, nature, and cogency, because other than this cannot be had from the want of Bards, nor can system arise from the lack of system other than in virtue of reason, nature, and cogency, the same being submitted to the firm judgment and verdict of country and nation, under legal notice and proclamation until the end of the three years. It was after this manner that the primary Bards were graduated by the nation of the Cymry, and the system of Bards and Bardism, and of the privileges and usages which befit them, before there was either a Bard, or Teacher, or Chair, or arrangement of any thing whatsoever relative to vocal song and Bards and Bardism. This degree is called the long-established and firm degree and chair of country and nation, under the primary privilege and protection of the country and nation of the Cymry. And this arrangement or system, after notice under the proclamation of a year and a day, is called the firm verdict of country and nation, for it is the firmest of all verdicts and systems. There cannot, in any other way, be a beginning properly of any arrangement and system in respect of country and nation, as to law and contract, and
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privilege and usage; nor can any thing whatsoever be renewed, when it has once perished. Therefore, firm above all that is firm is this verdict and system adjudged to be; and it is lawful for every proprietor, native, and innate man of the nation of the Cymry, to appeal to it; whether his claim be just or unjust, the country and nation will judge it.
32. There are three customary vocations among the Bards of the Isle of Britain. One consists of the Bards according to the privilege of Chair and Gorsedd, which includes all Bards that are graduated in Chair and Eisteddvod, in respect of the systems which are attached to them. The second are the Bards according to the privilege and usage of the Bards of the Isle of Britain, and includes such as are graduated in any way whatsoever, in respect of the system which is attached to those particulars. The third are the Bards according to the privilege and usage of the Ancient Cymry, which include none other than a Primitive Bard, being a Poet, for he existed before the two other degrees of Bards, namely, the Herald-bards, and Post-bards, and before they had a system, or order, or degree, or name; and before the arrival of the Cymry in the Isle of Britain, they had Primitive Bards, being Poets, who possessed privileges, usages, and a system. It was in the Isle of Britain that the two other degrees of Bards were appointed, as well as their system and requirements, and the privileges which appertain to them. Therefore, a Poet only, or a special primitive Bard, ought to be designated a Bard according to the privilege and usage of the Ancient Cymry, though he may be already a Bard according to the privilege of Chair and Gorsedd; and also according to the privilege and usage of the Bards of the Isle of Britain. And although Tydain, the father of Awen, and Rhuawn the Aged, and Madog, son of Alchnoe, and Cadog the Peasant, and Erddyled the Luminous, and Arianrod, daughter of Mynwar, were Bards and Bardesses, according to the privilege and usage of the Ancient Cymry, it is not right to call them according to the privilege and usage of the Bards of the Isle [of Britain],
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because they did not originate in those times. Nevertheless, others say, that Bards according to the privilege and usage of the Bards of the Isle of Britain should be called Bards according to the privilege and usage of the Ancient Cymry, because it was by the Ancient Cymry that they were first instituted in the Isle of Britain, though there may be Bards now who are not so appointed, and yet are Bards according to the privilege and usage of the Ancient Cymry. Of this kind ought to be deemed the wise, ingenious, and skilful Poets, who are found whilst a Chair and Eisteddvod are dormant; for at that time they can exhibit no mark or obligation, except Awen from God, understanding, and the judgment of country and nation, similarly to what was the case with the primary Bards of the nation of the Cymry, before they had any other privilege, usage, or system.
33. The three primary Bards of the Isle of Britain: Plennydd; Alawn; and Gwron; who lived in the time of Prydain, son of Aedd the Great. It was these three persons that first legally arranged and systematized Bards and Bardism, and conferred on them the privileges and usages of Chair and Gorsedd, the protection of country and nation, the connecting protection of federate country, and the protection of lord and territory. And the reason why this was done was, in order to preserve the memorial and record of what was formerly most worthy and commendable in respect of man and deed, law and usage, and of what was good and praiseworthy, and in order to teach wisdom and all good sciences, and to encourage the good and subdue the evil. This was effected by the verdict of country and nation, and under legal proclamation and notice, Prydain, son of Aedd the Great, being supreme of jury and supreme of princes, at the time. Thus did originate the class, called Bards according to the privilege and usage of the Bards of the Isle of Britain.
34. There are three privileged protections to the Bards of the Isle of Britain. One is, the protection of country and nation, that is, his five free acres in right of his art and
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office of song, and every privilege of viaticum. The second is, that there shall be no weapon against him, and that he shall not bear a weapon in the march and onset of war. The third is, that his word shall be a word superior to all, and that the word of nobody shall be superior to him. The second protection is the connecting privilege of a federate country, that is, that he shall be permitted to go into country and border country, opposed by neither weapon nor force, neither word nor contradiction, whether the countries which he visits shall be at peace or war. This is done, that he may be enabled to go, as necessity requires, to introduce peace and justice between the countries which bring war and ambuscade one against the other. The third protection is the protection of his Chair; that is, whoever defers to its protection cannot, except by judgment before it, become unprotected; and should a bond appeal to its protection, he shall go free; and all are allowed to be under its protection, in order to obtain instruction and understanding in sciences. Of him, who is thus circumstanced, nothing can be asked in the service of country and lord, other than what he knows, and what befits him in respect of song and Bardism, for it is in right of a Bardic disciple and vocal song that he stands. And a Bard may adopt what course he pleases to impart instruction, sciences, justice, and peace to country and nation, and to country and border country; and it was for facilitating these things, that what exists, in respect of the systems of Bard and Bardism, was appointed.
35. The three literary Bards, being primitive Bards according to the privilege and usage of the Bards of the Ancient Cymry, who first derived their essence and quality from them, namely: Taliesin, the Chief of Bards; Merddin, son of Morvryn; and Merddin Emrys. That is, they are called the three literary primitive Bards, because they made written books and arrangements of the art of song, and what appertains to it. And it is in virtue of their books, and in virtue of the usage, and memorial of Chair and Eisteddvod, that the Bardism of the Bards of the Isle of Britain is to be
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maintained. Nor is a Chair or degree granted to any one who has no information derived from the said three literary primitive Bards, and skill in the books which they made, being the first of their kind.
36. There are three special duties incumbent upon a Family Bard, wherever he may be: to teach the reading and writing of the Cymric language; to teach domestic politeness, and good manners, in respect of justice and love; and to keep a record of what belongs to the families in which he is tutor.
37. There are three things required in a Bard or Poet, who is a supplicant. First, that he should ask neither goods nor any thing else whatsoever by means of vocal song, without the permission of the owner. Secondly, that he should not ask for any thing above the value of six score pence. Thirdly, that he should not send a supplicatory song, nor any other song whatsoever, with a man of instrumental song, under the pain of losing the goods attached to his song until the end of three years; and every fee and provision, to which he is privileged, shall go to the lord of the territory.
38. The three relics of adjuration of the Bards of the Isle of Britain: the ten commandments; the gospel of John; and the affirmation of a Bard upon his word and conscience.
39. There are three things for which a Bard will lose his Chair until the end of three years. One is, defect of memorial and record in respect of what ought to be remembered. The second is, bearing a weapon in war. The third is, divulging his secret. Others say: his Chair cannot be restored to him during life, if he does these things.
40. The three monarchs of government: Bardism, to which belong learning, and every doctrine of literature, morality, and godliness; judicature, which has to distribute and do judgment and justice where there is occasion, according to the privileges and usages of country and nation, and according to right and law, to those who may oppose them; and the office of a king or lord, on which depends the defence
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of country and nation, and the arrangement of the same, according to the privilege and usage of country and nation, and if there be occasion, according to the verdict of country under the notice and proclamation of forty days. Without these three there can be no firm social abode for country and nation.
41. The robe of a Bard, being a Chaired Teacher, is of three colours, and he may adopt whichever he pleases, provided the robe, of whichever of the colours it is, be entirely unicoloured, for unicolour is the symbol of truth, that being unicoloured at all times, and under all circumstances. One is azure, or sky-blue, signifying peace and tranquillity, which are similar to the sky of summer weather, during clear and resplendent heat, without mist, without a cloud. The second is green, the symbol of learning and the wisdom of sciences, which spring and grow beautifully like the green herbs of the fields, rejoicing the owner of the eyes that be-hold them. The third is white, the symbol of godliness and all purity and innocence, and all right and justice; for these are of the same colour as the sun and light, glitteringly and splendidly white. White ought to be worn in the resort of worship; azure in Chair and Gorsedd; and green, when one becomes a domestic tutor. And each of these colours should be unicoloured, as significative of truth. Nor is it lawful for other than a Chaired Bard to wear them, and it is not right for him to mix them, but should he do so, it must be under the privilege and dignity of a Disciple: because the robe of a Disciple consists of the three colours mixed, and should not admit of any other unicolour whatsoever:--and these are called the Bardic colours.
42. The three primary offices of a Bard: to maintain peace and tranquillity; to maintain and improve good usages; and to maintain the memorial of goodness, sciences, and laudable deeds.
43. There are three primary laws incumbent upon a Bard in respect of what he does himself: to keep his word; to keep his secret; and to keep the peace.
44. There are three laws of avoidance incumbent upon a Bard: to avoid idleness and extreme slothfulness, since he is a man of exertion and experience; to avoid strife and contention, since he is a man of love and peace; and to avoid folly, immorality, and uncourteousness, since he is a man of reason, understanding, and Awen from God.
45. There are three foundations of knowledge, which a Bard ought to consider and discuss: reason; nature; and impulse.
46. There are three instructions required of a Bard: a song according to reason and moral wisdom; oral tradition according to the memorial and usage of Gorsedd and worship; and demeanour, according to polite and good usages and habits.
47. Three things which a Poet, being a Chaired Bard, ought not to bear: arms; rudeness; and dispraise; for it is his function to promote peace and tranquillity, to encourage courtesy, and to praise every thing that is good.
48. Three things commendable in a Bard: warm affection; gentle boldness; and energetic reason.
49. Three things which cannot be dispensed with in a Bard: awen of song; the sciences of the art of song; and courteous and good qualities.
50. The three successful objects of a Bard and Bardism: to polish and civilize a nation; to render a country socially inhabitable; and to improve sciences.
51. Three persons who are exempt from sword and horn: a Bard; a metallurgist; and a female.
52. The three arts which are under the protection and law of the nation of the Cymry: instrumental song; literature, that is, reading and writing Cymraeg; and medicine.
53. The three penalties of a country: a wicked lord; a rich upstart; and an ignorant Bard.
54. Three things monstrous in a Bard: ignorance; incivility; and immorality.
55. Three things which ill become a Bardic vocal song:
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the memorial of what is impious and monstrous; the abuse of law and courtesy; and resistance to amusement.
56. Three things which cannot be contravened: the usage of Chair; the voice and memorial of Chair; and an ancient song according to the privilege of Chair.
57. Three men who cannot, and ought not to be made Bards: the proud; the indolent; and the false.
58. Three things indispensable in a Bard: Awen from God; the instruction of a teacher; and individual exertion.
59. Three things which a songster, being a Chaired Bard, ought not to reveal: the secret of the Bards; injurious truth; and the disgrace of his friend.
60. The three credibilities of a vocal minstrel: the credibility of song; the credibility of alphabet; and the credibility of consideration.
61. The three co-equal secrets of song: awen; learning; and good principles; and without them there can be no perfect song.
62. The three mutual feelings of a Bard: to feel mutually with truth and justice; to feel mutually with his heart and affections; and to feel mutually with his awen and its capabilities.
63. Three things which ought to be understood and known in a vocal song and its appurtenances, and in every other thing whatsoever, namely: points; divisions; and individualities. And when these are not known, there can be no arrangement or just art in respect of any thing; whilst by knowing and understanding them, the nature of the art sought after is understood, and is reduced to order and method, in such a way as it would be an easy and loving matter to learn, remember, and practise the same.
64. Three things indispensable in every art and science: to learn; to remember; and to practise them.
65. Three things, without which there can be no vocal song: knowledge; awen; and impulse.
66. The three impulses of song: affection towards the beautiful and good; the consciousness of duty; and remuneration
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from the contributions and commendation of good and philosophical men.
67. The three excellences of art, namely: the facility of learning it; the amusement of learning it; and the benefit and advantage of learning it.
68. Three things that will make the art of song what it should be: perspicuity of learning and arrangement; the excellency of the art and its arrangement; and the naturalness of the art and its appurtenances.
69. The three privileges of a Bard: that his word and saying should be believed; provisions wherever he goes; and that he should not against his will be made to administer to the necessity, or to fill the office of country.
70. Three things which a Bard ought to examine, and watch over: his passions; his innate judgment; and every novelty.
71. Three things which a Teacher, being a poetic Bard, ought to do: to observe accurately the reason of art; to analyze accurately what is understood; and to show accurately what is learned.
72. The three primary laws which ought to be incumbent upon a Bard: to be fond of teaching; to be liberal of judgment and reason; and to be moral as to conduct.
73. Three things which a Bard ought to endeavour to improve: his poetic genius; his art of song; and the principles of his conduct.
74. Three things will make a learned Poet: to improve learning and sciences; to promote the sociable inhabitation of country and nation; and to make his own name immortal. Others say: and to cause his own name to be ever-lastingly remembered. Others say: and to immortalize his own name.
75. In three things is seen the nature of all arts and sciences, namely: in their principles; in their counterparts; and in their effects.
76. * The three advantages of art and sciences: the gain of what is good in respect of abstinence and living; deliverance
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from what is bad in regard to contingency, mind, and deed; and regular beauty to cheer the mind and sight.
77. The three columns of a Bard's duty: to teach properly; to sing properly; and to judge properly.
78. The three effects of just awen: generosity; gentleness; and joy.
79. The three friends of just awen: understanding; reflection; and patience.
80. Three things that will augment awen: to exercise it properly; to exercise it frequently; and to exercise it successfully.
81. Three things which a songster ought not to believe: the satire of an itinerant minstrel, where a poet poetizes; an unpoetic song by a commended and authorized poet; and the things which, in the estimation of wise men, cannot be, as when the ignorant say that the hair which is cut ought not to be placed where the birds can get it, and such vain superstitions that never came from the head of a wise and intelligent person. Of the same character is it, to believe that neither Arthur nor Owain Glyndwr are dead, for such cannot be true.
82. For three things shall a poet lose his authority: for teaching wrongly where he ought to teach correctly; for pertinaciously uttering a falsehood in his song; and for satyrizing where he ought not.
83. Three things which a minstrel ought not to conceal: innocuous truth; judgment upon poetry; and the praise due to good men.
84. * Three things that will make a minstrel to be be-loved: to teach willingly; to sing lovingly; and to bear a good name.
85. The three beautiful qualities in a minstrel: economy; concord; and integrity.
86. Three things that are amiable in a minstrel: to be poetically amusing; to be void of pride; and to be given to praise.
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87. Three things that will corrupt a minstrel's awen excessive drunkenness; excessive incontinence; and surliness.
88. Three things that will improve 1 a minstrel's awen an ancient song; Bardism; and good and amusing traditions.
89. The three principal necessaries of a Bard: systematic sciences; amiable morality; and the privilege of Gorsedd.
90. Three beautiful qualities in a Bard: obedience learning; and affectionate disposition.
91. The three columns of art: reason; nature; and cogency; and it is from understanding these things properly that ensues the permanence of sciences.
92. The three amiable traits which a Bard ought to possess: to direct the unskilful; to put an end to contention; and to regulate festal plays. 2
93. All plays ought to tend to three things: to heal the body; to amuse the mind; and to be innocent.
94. The three silent reserves of a Bard: in respect of injurious truth; in respect of unnecessary judgment; and in respect of every thing uncertain.
95. Three things respectable for a minstrel: good family; good friends; and good conduct.
96. There are three conditions incumbent upon a poet: to maintain the language of the Cymry; to keep a record of genealogies and nuptial festivities; and to preserve an instructive memorial of the privileges and sciences of the nation of the Cymry.
97. The three ameliorations of song and Bardism: instruction; exertion; and rewards.
98. The three rewards of vocal song and all good sciences: tribute and gain; praise and honour; and contentment of mind and conscience arising from the benefit and good which they eventually cause.
99. The three benefactors of the world: a Bard; a metallurgist; and an agriculturist; they are so called because
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every living being will benefit by them and their sciences, whilst no living thing will be the worse. And they are deemed the chief settlers of the country.
100. The three faculty Bards of the Isle of Britain. A family Bard, on whom depends domestic instruction, according to vocal song, and the system of domestic sciences and usages; and he is to commit to song the memorial and record of the same. The second is a reciter, whose function is to recite in Chair and Gorsedd, by means of song and speech: and to issue cry and proclamation, as notice to country and nation, in the territory where he resides. The third is a man of instrumental song, on whom depends the art of playing the harp and violin; and instrumental song is under the protection of the Bards of the Isle of Britain, without any other privileges and usages. Therefore they are called the three faculty ones of Bards and Bardism.
101. The three primary recitations of the Bards of the Cymry: vocal song; parable; and custom.
1 02. There are three functions incumbent upon a Bard, according to the necessity and requirement of country and nation. One is, to maintain religious worship. The second is, to conduct an embassy between country and border country. The third is, to introduce peace and concord where there is contention.
103. There are three primary laws incumbent upon a Bard in respect of his obligation as to the necessity and requirement of country and nation. One is, to search for what is true. The second is, the secret imposed upon him in respect of his office and privilege of song. The third is, to conduct himself morally according to peace and justice.
104. The three distinguished privileges of a Bard. One, gratuitous provision, wherever he goes, in right of his office of song. The second is, that he bear not, and there should not be borne in his presence, a naked weapon of offence. The third is, that his word should be paramount over all.
105. The three provisions of a Bard; his five free acres; his offerings; and his contribution bag.
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106. The three protections required of the Bards of the nation of the Cymry: to protect learning, or the art of knowledge; to protect peace and tranquillity; and to protect truth and justice. For a Bard exists on account of these things, and he is no Bard who does not act in their behalf.
107. The three cares of the Bards of the Cymry: to cultivate good sciences; to cultivate peace and tranquillity; and to illustrate truth and justice.
108. From three things was Bardism obtained: Awen from God; the intellect of man; and the tendency of nature.
109. Three things which a Bard ought to do: to listen carefully to every thing; to look fully at every thing; and to hold his peace soundly unless there be sound reason for his speech.
110. Three things which a Bard ought to practise in his song and in his conduct: to increase sciences; to soften manners and customs; and to console the mind.
111. There are three energetic duties incumbent upon a Bard: to accumulate learning and sciences; to instruct the ignorant; and to make peace where there are contention and variance.
112. The three free pursuits which are lawful for a Bard and all who may desire them: hunting; tillage; and dairy-work; for it is by means of these things that all persons obtain their maintenance, and they ought not to be prohibited.
113. The three licentiates of court: a Bard; a judge; and a worshipper.
114. The three supports of government: Bardism; judicature; and labour.
115. Three men who will constitute a social abode wherever they are: a Bard; a smith; and a harpist.
116. From three things ensues the firmness of the sciences of Bardism: the first is, Awen from God moving consideration and intelligence; the second, memory and
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knowledge from the age of ages; the third the song of Tydain, son of Tudnaw, that is, Tydain, the father of Awen.
117. The three special learnings which the nation [of the Cymry] obtained. The first was, that of the Gwyddoniaid from the age of ages. The second was, that of the Bards, after the time of Prydain, the son of Aedd the Great. The third is, the faith in Christ. Out of these three arise the sciences of the nation of the Cymry.
118. The three ministers of the sciences of the Bards of the Cymry: song; symbol; and letter; of which song is adjudged to be the best, because there is no occasion for any other art for its preservation than memory and natural sense, that is, art from God.
119. The three memorials of the Bards of the Cymry: an ancient song; institute; and letter.
120. Of three things ought the Bards of the Cymry to maintain the memorial and record: the first of the Cymric language; the second, of the genealogies and descent of the Cymry; the third, of the privileges and usages of the Bards and nation of the Cymry.
121. Three things which cannot be contravened: an ancient song of the primitive Bards; the memorial of the Chair of song; and the verdict of country and nation. That is, from these three are maintained the memorial and authority of the privileges, usages, and sciences of the Bards and nation of the Cymry.
122. The three columns of claim of the Bards of the Cymry: the song of the primitive Bards; the memorial and usages of Chair; and the verdict of three hundred men.
123. There are three places in which it is proper to hold a Chair of song: an uncovered elevation; a church; and the court of law.
124. The three times of Chair and Eisteddvod: the four points of the sun, that is, the two periods of the equinox, one in the spring, and the other in the autumn; * the holidays of worship; and the days of court and law.
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125. There are three places of common sanctuary, in which no weapon may be used against any person whatsoever: the Chair of Bards; the courts of country and judge; and the assembly of worship.
126. Three persons who are free from bond: a Bard; a scholar; and an artizan.
127. The three dignified privileges of a Bard: maintenance wherever he goes; that there should be no naked weapon where he is; and that his word should be paramount over all.
128. The three innate privileges of a Bard: that his meaning be vocal wherever he may be; that he should keep silence where and when he pleases, for he is a man of secrecy and mystery; and that he should not, unless willingly, enter upon the service and office of his country, except in what relates to his office and art of song and Bardic sciences.
129. The three avoidances of a Bard: to avoid bearing arms, for there ought to be no weapon against him either in country or border country; to avoid rudeness and immorality, for he is a man subject to the law of morality and correct conduct; and to avoid indolence, for he is a man of exertion.
130. The three privileged ones of country and nation: a Bard; a scholar; and a metallurgist; that is, their land shall be free to them, and they are entitled to the privilege which ought to arise therefrom, that is, social rights.
131. There are three kinds of Bards. The first is the Primitive Bard, whose instruction consists of song and oral tradition. The second is the Herald-bard, whose instruction consists of symbol, and the import of pictures. The third is the Post-bard, whose instruction consists in reading and writing Cymraeg, memorial and knowledge being thereby maintained.
132. Three things which a Bard ought to do: to learn minutely what he sees and hears; to keep closely what he learns; and to exhibit accurately what he knows.
133. The three teachers of man. The first is, instruction
derived from circumstance, that is, from seeing and hearing. The second is, natural understanding giving heed. The third is, the grace of God, that is, Awen. And from these three comes the import of Bardism.
134. The three prominent features of Bardism: memorial; instruction; and peace.
135. Three things which a Bard ought to confirm, and to make supreme over every thing that is supreme: truth; peace; and the import of sciences.
136. Three kinds of things ought to be praised and remembered: every thing that is pure and good as to quality and custom; every thing that is beautiful and amiable in form and nature; and every clever device from which arises a greater amount of advantage than of disadvantage.
137. There have been three kinds of Triads from the beginning by the Bards of the Cymry, namely: the Triads of privilege and usage; the Triads of worship; and the Triads of song.
138. The three fundamentalities of government: a just judge; a merciful lord; and a wise and learned Bard.
And thus end the seven score 1 Triads of the Bards of the Cymry, which were extracted from the ancient Books of authority by Richard, son of Iorwerth the Grey-haired.
95:2 See Vol. i. p. 73, note.
95:3 Thomas Hopkin was the son of Hopkin Thomas, who wrote the Greal and other works, about the year 1350. John Hopkins, the versifier of the Psalms, was descended from this family.
95:4 p. 95 Thomas ab Evan, or Bevan, was a good poet and critic, who flourished between 1660 and 1700.
Hymns and incessant songs of the band.--Cynddelw.
99:1 p. 98 These three Bards are mentioned by Edmund Prys:--
Primitive Bard, Herald-bard of honourable degree,
And Post-bard; the selection is not unhandsome.
127:1 p. 126 "Llan" seems to be synonymous with the Latin fanum, and the Greek τεμενος. Its original meaning was simply an inclosure, but in later times the term was applied exclusively, in its simple form, to an area enclosed for public worship, or a church.
147:* In MS. it is 77, and the following Triads are numbered accordingly down to 84 inclusive.
149:* p. 148 In MS. it is 86, and the following Triads are numbered accordingly to the end.
151:1 p. 150 Al. "augment."
151:2 Others say: "and to regulate games and festivities."
157:* The other points, which are the summer and winter solstices, have not been explained.
159:1 p. 160 It is evident from this statement that there are two Triads missing, which accounts, moreover, for the numerical irregularity which we have noticed.