1. The three primary Bards of the Isle of Britain: Plennydd; Alawn; and Gwron. Before them there were no Bards according to the privilege and usage of Gorsedd, but the Gwyddoniaid were at the head of instruction.
The three primary presiding Bards of the Isle of Britain: Plennydd; Alawn; 1 and Gwron; and before them there were no Bards, but the Gwyddoniaid were the poets and teachers of country and nation. The first of the Gwyddoniaid was Tydain, the father of Awen, and it was he who first invented Cymric vocal song.
The three primary Bards of privilege and usage of the Isle of Britain: Plennydd; Alawn; and Gwron; who lived in the time of Prydain, son of Aedd the Great.
2. For three reasons are the Bards called Bards according to the privilege and usage of the Bards of the Isle of Britain, namely: first, because Bards and Bardism originated in the Isle of Britain; secondly, because genuine Bardism has not been found in any country besides the Isle of Britain; thirdly, because genuine Bardism cannot be maintained except in virtue of the usages, instruction, and voice of Gorsedd of the Bards of the Isle of Britain. Therefore, of whatever country a Bard may be, he is called a Bard according to the privilege and usage of the Bards of the Isle of Britain.
3. Bardism was obtained originally from three things: Awen from God; instruction by man; 2 and the tendency of nature.
4. Three ways in which the genuine Bardism of the Bards of the Isle of Britain is maintained: the memorial of Gorsedd; the usage of Gorsedd; and the song of Gorsedd.
p. 42 p. 43
Others say: the usage; voice; and song of Gorsedd.
5. The three memorials of the Bards of the Isle of Britain: the memorial of the voice of Gorsedd; the memorial of song; and the memorial of usage. 1
Others say: the memorial of the voice of Gorsedd; the memorial of efficient song; and the memorial of Coelbren.
6. Three things that cannot be contravened: the usage and voice of Gorsedd; an ancient song of Gorsedd; and the verdict of country and lord. That is to say, by means of these three are the memorial, authority, privileges, and usages of the Bards of the Isle of Britain, maintained.
Three things that cannot be contravened: 2 the usage of Gorsedd; the voice of Gorsedd; and an ancient song bearing the privilege of Gorsedd.
7. There are three primitive Bards of original disposition. 3 A Bard of privilege, or poet, being a Primitive Bard Positive, according to the privilege, usage, and voice of Gorsedd; and his function is to rule, and to preserve the memorial and record of Bardism, according to the three memorials, and to compose eulogy, instruction, and memorial--his origination being from the Gwyddoniaid. The second is an Ovate, according to awen, exertion, and circumstance; and his function is to poetize according to imagination, circumstance, and art, and to defer to the judgment of Gorsedd, until it becomes efficient. The third is the Druid, according to reason, nature, and Gorsedd; and his function is to teach, according to the necessity of country and nation; and every priest or worshipper is adjudged to come under the privilege of a Druid, when he attends the Gorsedd of the Bards of the Isle of Britain.
8. The three branches of learning of the Bards of the Isle of Britain. Bardism, or poetry; in respect of which it is incumbent to poetize, and to maintain the memorial of song, voice, and usage of Gorsedd, and to maintain and improve the art of poetry. The second is Druidism; and it is incumbent upon a Druid to teach according to reason,
p. 44 p. 45
nature, and Gorsedd, as order, morality, and the mysteries of godliness require. The third is Ovatism; and it is incumbent upon an Ovate to endeavour after learning and knowledge, as he can, by means of hearing, seeing, and devising. That is, a poet ought to maintain all learning and knowledge which may be privileged by an efficient Gorsedd; an Ovate ought to improve and amplify learning and knowledge, and to submit them to the judgment of Gorsedd, until it becomes efficient; and a Druid ought to teach, according to the original usage and privilege of an efficient Gorsedd, and according to any new discovery, in respect of reason, nature, and cogency.
The three branches of learning of the Bards of the Isle of Britain. Poetry by a primitive Bard; and it is incumbent upon a Poet to poetize, and to maintain the memorial of song, voice, and usage, and to make arrangements according to privilege, for he is gorseddog and chaired, Ovatism; and it is incumbent upon an Ovate to endeavour and seek after learning, as far as he can, by means of the hearing and voice of the world, of sight and contingency, and of attempt, awen, and imagination. Druidism; and it is incumbent upon a Druid to teach and instruct, in respect of what is original and made efficient by Gorsedd, and in respect of new discovery, according to reason, nature, and cogency.
9. The three distinguishing privileges of the Bards of the Isle of Britain: maintenance wherever they go; that no naked weapon be borne against them; 1 and that their word should be a word above all men.
10. There are three duties, according to the requirement and occasion of country and nation, incumbent upon a Bard. The first is to celebrate worship on all the quarter days 2 of the moon, so as to impart instruction in godliness and wisdom, and proper demeanour, and all due and good qualities. The second is to carry on ambassadorial negotiation between country and country, and between country and nation and
p. 46 p. 47
border country and border alien nation, in respect of commerce and conference, between a nation and border aliens. The third is to maintain peace and concord between native and native, and between native and border alien, in right of his office of Bard, though he may not be sought or called by country and nation.
The three offices incumbent upon a Bard, according to the need and occasion of country and nation, namely: to celebrate worship; to be an ambassador between country and border country, and between nation and border aliens; and to promote peace and concord where there is contention, whether between native and native, or between nation and border aliens.
There are three common offices incumbent upon a Bard, which are required by the necessity of country and nation, namely: worship; embassy; and pacification.
11. There are three primary laws of duty incumbent upon a Bard, in respect of his duty according to the necessity and occasion of country and nation: to examine truth; to keep a secret; and to conduct himself morally in reference to peace and justice.
12. There are three cogent necessities laid upon a Bard, according to the necessity and occasion of truth and justice: to tell what he knows, where nothing else can be found which is right and just; to raise the cry of re-assertion, 1 where oppression and lawlessness take place; and to exercise judgment over devastation and spoliation.
13. Three offices, in virtue of original usage, belong to a Bard: to compile the memorial and record of every thing that is commendable; to maintain the song of voice and Gorsedd so that they should become the memorial and instruction of Bardism and poetical art, their usages and privileges; and to agitate the progression and extension of knowledge, by exhibiting the Chairs of song ritually and habitually with the cry of restoration. 2
p. 48 p. 49
14. The three demonstrations of the Bards of the Isle of Britain: the demonstration of Bards, where a thing was not known; the demonstration of the convention of Gorsedd and Chair, where it was not seen; and the demonstration of the knowledge of truth and justice, where it was not understood. The three demonstrations ensue under the proclamation and notice of a year and a day, and from thence unto the period of efficiency they take place by means of the cry of restoration.
15. There are three loud cries of the Bards of the Isle of Britain: the cry of restoration, which resuscitates and agitates every thing that is not known; the cry of re-arrangement, 1 in respect of what is done contrary to usage, from the necessity of time and occasion, such as holding a Chair and Gorsedd irregularly as to place and time, for instance, at the unseasonable points of the sun and moon, or where it is not in the face of the sun and the eye of light--that being done from obligation and necessity--but what is done in virtue of the cry of re-arrangement cannot be efficient, until it becomes customary by means of a Gorsedd according to privilege and usage; and the cry of re-assertion, against what may be done by devastation and wrong, and by lawless oppression, and against what may be done, in respect of song, without privilege, usage, art, knowledge, and truth. The cry of restoration, and the cry of re-arrangement, are to be made under the proclamation and notice of a year and a day, and thence until they become efficient; and the cry of re-arrangement is to be made under the proclamation and notice of necessity and cogency, until the occasion for it, according to the need of country and nation, disappears, and what is done under it cannot be efficient, unless it formally receives the judgment of Gorsedd, consequent upon the cry of restoration, and the cry of re-assertion, covocally and simultaneously issued. For without that, the privilege of Gorsedd ought not to be given to what is obliged to be done contrary to usage and law; nor is it fitting that it should have any privilege whatever,
p. 50 p. 51
except its day of necessity, until, in the way mentioned, it obtains claim and avouchment, lest poetry, and Bardism, and the privileges and usages of the Bards of the Isle of Britain, should suffer corruption.
16. Three things that are submitted to judgment, under the proclamation and notice of the cry of re-assertion: devastation and pillage; non privilege and non usage on the part of country and lord, owing to the want of understanding or exertion; and non poetry, or that which may be other than what is required according to the privileges and usages of the Bards of the Isle of Britain, after it has become habitual and customary to Bard and Gorsedd.
17. For three reasons ought the Bards to hold a Chair and Gorsedd, and a voice and recitation, conspicuously and manifestly, in the sight and hearing of country and lord, and in the face of the sun and the eye of light. First, that there may be a privilege, not to be gainsaid, for all to resort to the place and spot. Secondly, that all things cognizable by the eye, ear, and intellect, may be seen and heard, and that there may be no lack of law, usage, and truth, among kindred, and on the face of country, which cannot be again known. Thirdly, that proper instruction may be obtained for all the nation, and for all who resort to Chair and Gorsedd, since proper, natural, and pointed instruction ought to be uniformly imparted to true and loyal men of country and nation, for there can be no country and law without instruction in respect of truth and justice--hence proceeds fraternity.
18. There are three things indispensably attached to the rite of Chair and Gorsedd, namely: that they should be conspicuous and manifest, in the sight and hearing of country and lord, as to place and spot; in the face of the sun and eye of light, that is, while the sun remains in the firmament, in respect of the time of day; and on the points of the sun and moon, in respect of the time of year; in order that whatever is done, recited, and taught, may be familiar to all the men of country and nation, and border
p. 52 p. 53
country and aliens, and that the places, times, and men, and the importance and privilege of all, be fully known; and without these things there can be no Chair and Gorsedd according to usage, law, and just privilege.
19. Three things in respect of the usages of Bards and Bardism, which ought to be open to all. First, the place and spot where is the convention of Chair and Gorsedd, which is to be opened in virtue of the proclamation and notice of a year and a day, if the place be not already open. The second are the times, namely, the customary ones as to the part of day and time of year, which are none other than the points of the sun and moon. The third is the instruction, which ought to be open to all, in respect of the mode of reciting and demonstrating it, so that there should be no concealment or secrecy of learning and true and just knowledge. Therefore, these things are called the three open ones: being open place and spot; open day and time; and open instruction and recitation; and no judgment can be pronounced by wise men, and country, and nation, upon what is otherwise.
20. There are three places and times, adjudged to have the privilege of open and customary places and seasons, at which it is lawful to hold a Chair and Gorsedd of song, namely: the places and seasons at which there is the resort of worship; the resort of judicature; and the resort of verdict of country in a conventional Gorsedd; for they are known to all. Therefore they are adjudged to be open, as if in the sight and hearing of country and lord, and in the face of the sun and eye of light, though they may be under cover and roof; for these things are to be according to reason, nature, and necessity, and consequently according to the privilege and usage of the Bards of the Isle of Britain.
21. The three maintenances of a Bard: his five free acres; his oblation; and his tribute.
22. The three tributes of a Bard: messes of food and liquor; vestments; and money. Others say: the three domestic tributes, &c.
p. 54 p. 55
23. The three common oblations of a Bard: one is milk contribution, which is offered on Alban Hevin; the second is meal contribution, on Alban Elved; the third is honey contribution, which is offered on Alban Arthan; and portions of each of the three on Alban Eilir, that is, when new songs are privileged. And the poor, aliens, and strangers are to have their portions from the three oblations at those times, since they have no due maintenance from land and chattels.
24. There are three places of open Gorsedd: an exposed elevation 1 before memory, or in virtue of the proclamation and notice of a year and a day; a church; and a court of judge and law.
25. There are three seasons of an open Gorsedd: the points of the sun and moon; Sunday and festival; and the day of court and law.
26. There are three meetings of federal country: the meeting of Bards in Gorsedd; the meeting of worship; and the meeting of court and law.
27. There are three common proclamations: the resort of worship; the field of a lord; and the Gorsedd of Bards; and in them are to be issued every notice, every loud cry, every denial, every word and contradiction unto the end of a year and a day.
28. The three columns of claim of the Bards of the Isle of Britain: an ancient son;; the old memorial and voice of Gorsedd; and verdict of country. 2
29. There are three horns of proclamation belonging to the Bard: the verdict of country, composed of three hundred men; the cry of murder; and the signal of peace and concord; and they take place under the notice of a year and a day, when they receive the privilege of Bards, country, and king.
30. There are three horns of proclamation belonging to the king, and he has the right of issuing them in the Gorsedd of the Bards: war; the court of country and law; and the feast of country and nation; but this is not lawful
p. 56 p. 57
for other than king and lord; and they are to take place in the hurry of forty days.
31. There are three common horns, which ought to be used in every convention of federate country: the horn of murder and waylaying; the horn of oppression of border country and stranger; and the horn of devastation and pillage. And in virtue of these is the horn of deliverance; for they will have the privilege of the verdict of country and nation.
32. The three protections of the Bards of the Isle of Britain: to protect learning, that is, the art of knowledge; to protect peace and tranquillity; and to protect truth and justice. That is to say, they ought to be protected even unto death, when there is occasion, for it is on their account that a Bard exists, and he is no Bard who does nothing in their behalf, and there is nothing which is not a duty, arising from these things.
33. The three cares of the Bards of the Isle of Britain, namely: to support science; to elucidate truth; and to cherish peace and tranquillity.
34. The three non usages and non qualifications of the Bards of the Isle of Britain: encroachment upon sciences; contradiction of truth; and the impugning of peace and tranquillity; for by perpetrating these things one becomes deprived of privilege and exposed to warfare.
35. The three necessary functions of a Bard: to teach and explain all things in the face of the sun and the eye of light; to praise all that is excellent and good; and to substitute peace for devastation and pillage.
36. There are three branches of Bardism: Poetry; Ovatism; and Druidism; and these three branches are adjudged to be of equal privilege and of equal weight, for one cannot have supremacy over the other; though they are distinct in object, they are not distinct in privilege.
37. There are three Bards of equal importance, who are the three proprietary primitive Bards, namely: an innate licensed Bard, or a Poet, according to privilege and usage;
p. 58 p. 59
an Ovate-bard, according to poetical learning; and a Druid-bard, according to the sense of godliness and morality. They are said to be of equal importance, because one cannot be better than another, or one superior to another, in respect of office and movement; but they are co-equal, and of like dignity, in respect of duty, aim, and object, which are instruction, truth, and peace.
38. The three branches of the office of a Bard: duty; aim; and object; and they are for the sake of instruction, truth, and peace.
39. Three times have Bardism and the Bards of the Isle of Britain been submitted to the verdict of country and nation, (the verdict of country being the asseveration of three hundred men, who enquire into the hearing, knowledge, and judgment of country and nation until the expiration of a year and a day.) First, in the time of Prydain, the son of Aedd the Great, when the Bards conformed to privilege and usage, judiciously and in order, according to the verdict of country and nation, which privilege and usage are the same as what are now called the privilege and usage of the Bards of the Isle of Britain. No objection or protest has ever after been made against those privileges and usages, but previously there was neither privilege nor usage, except from a sense of courtesy, and according as any one was pleased to judge in regard to Bards and Gwyddoniaid. (Al. and it was judged at will in regard to Bards and Gwyddoniaid.) The second occasion was in the time of Maxen the Sovereign, 1 lest the primitive Bardism should become lost and forgotten, when it was recovered in its integrity, and according to the original privileges and usages; it was submitted to the judgment and verdict of country and nation, when the ancient privileges and usages, the ancient import and instruction, and the ancient sciences and memorials
p. 60 p. 61
were confirmed, lest they should fail, become lost, or forgot-ten;--nor was there an objection or protest made against them. The third occasion on which they were submitted so, was in the time of Ithel, king of Gwent; 1 when Bardism was found perfect, without decay, without blemish, without injury, without deterioration, in respect of the meaning, sciences, instruction, memorial, and voice of Gorsedd, and in respect of privileges and usages; wherefore, it was adjudged, decreed, and privileged accordingly without contradiction or objection.
40. * Three times were Bardism and the Bards submitted to the verdict of country, but could not receive the verdict of nation. The first was in the time of Cadwalader the Blessed, 2 when protest and objection were offered on the part of the nation, because the sciences, memorials, privileges, and usages were altered and falsified. The second occasion was in the time of Bleddyn, son of Cynvyn, 3 when the verdict of nation was not sought, neither was it given. The third occasion on which they were so submitted was at the Gorsedd of Caermarthen, 4 when the Bards of Glamorgan, Gwent, Ergyng, Euas, and Ystrad Yw, entered an objection and a protest against the said Gorsedd, under the claim of the Bards of the Isle of Britain, and under the privilege of the ancient sciences, memorials, and instruction, and the ancient art of song, and the ancient privileges and usages, because of the falsification and infraction to which they were there subjected; and opposed them.
41. Three times were Bards and Bardism arranged, without being submitted to the verdict of country and nation. The first, in the time of the emperor Arthur. 5 The
second, in the time of Gruffudd, 1 son of Cynan, king of Gwynedd. And the third occasion on which they were so arranged, was in the time of king Edward the Second, 2 in the Castle of Caernarvon. There is no privilege of Gorsedd, however, to what was arranged on those occasions, but merely the courtesy of country, according to reason and necessity, to which Bards and Bardism are entitled, as long as they do not infringe, falsify, and contravene the ancient sciences of song and Bardism. And now the Bards and Bardism of the Isle of Britain, the ancient privileges and usages, the ancient memorials and sciences, the ancient import and instruction, the ancient art of song, and the ancient sense of Bardism, are preserved in the memory and by the voice of the Gorsedd of the Chair of Glamorgan, Gwent, Euas, Ystrad Yw, and Ergyng, and are subject to the judgment and authority of that Chair, under the formal and ritual proclamation and notice of a year and a day unto the period of efficiency, without contradiction or objection; and therefore are under the privilege and protection of the verdict of country and nation--which proclamation and notice were issued by the lord William Herbert, earl of Rhaglan and Pembroke, and prince of Glamorgan, in every court and church, and by the horn of country, and the cry of restoration formally throughout all his territory, unto the period of efficiency, as it has been said.
42. There are three arts which the son of a villain ought not to learn without the permission of his lord, namely: scholarship; Bardism; and metallurgy; for if the lord should bear until the tonsure is given to the scholar, or until the Bard takes up his song, or until the smith enters his smithy, they will he free, and cannot afterwards be enslaved.
43. There are three persons free from the bond: a Bard; a scholar; and a smith. Others say: the three free persons from the bond, namely: a Bard; a scholar; and a metallurgist. For no person can be bond, who knows one of the three privileged arts, namely: scholarship;
p. 64 p. 65
[paragraph continues] Bardism; and metallurgy. Those three arts are privileged, and cannot be followed by any one but a gentleman; and whoever knows them is entitled to the privilege of nobility, social rights, and the maintenance of an innate Cymro; for those arts are adjudged to be noble, and privileged arts of country and nation.
44. There are three common places of protection, in which no weapon can be raised against any person whatsoever, namely: the Gorsedd of Bards; the court of country and lord; and the precincts of worship.
45. There are three principal claims and avouchments of the nation of the Cymry, which ought to be supported in the Gorsedd of the Bards of the Isle of Britain. The first, a king who is a free-born Cymro. The second, the fruition of five free acres for every innate and free-born Cymro. The third, the right of progress for every innate Cymro as far as he likes in respect of country and border country in the island of Britain, without let and without hindrance, as long as his hand is not about to strike, and as long as he has no claim or is not sued, in respect of oath and law. These privileges are due to the nation of the Cymry, because theirs in right of original condition, possession, and community, is the island of Britain.
46. The three principal objects of the Bards of the Isle of Britain, in virtue of original usage: system of knowledge and learning; to manifest justice; and to maintain peace.
47. By three methods is the genuine Bardism of the Bards of the Isle of Britain maintained: by the usage of Gorsedd; the voice of Gorsedd; and the song of Gorsedd.
48. The three memorials of the Bards of the Isle of Britain: the memorial of usage; the memorial of song; and the memorial of the voice of Gorsedd. Others say: the memorial of usage; the memorial of song; and the memorial of Coelbren.
49. There are three presiding primitive Bards: Primitive Bard Positive, who is also called Bard of Privilege, Licentiate of Privilege, and Licensed Bard; Druid; and Ovate.
p. 66 p. 67
There are three kinds of primitive Bards: Bard of privilege in virtue of original appointment; Druid, according to reason, nature, and cogency; and Ovate, according to exertion, imagination, and contingency.
50. From three things has Bardism been obtained: Awen from God; the intellect of man 1 and the disposition of nature.
51. The three privileges of the Bards of the Isle of Britain: maintenance wherever they go; that their word should be paramount; and that no naked weapon be borne where they may be.
52. The three branches of learning of the Bards of the Isle of Britain: Bardism, on which depends the maintenance of the usage, voice, and song of Gorsedd, as well as the regulation of matters; Druidism, it being incumbent upon a Druid to teach and instruct according to reason, nature, and cogency; and Ovatism, which has to do with the sciences 2 of country, imagination, and contingency.
53. Three things which a Bard ought to do: to listen; to look; and keep secret. Al. to listen; to expect; and to be silent.
54. Three persons who cannot be made Bards: the idle; the proud; and the liar.
55. Three things which a Bard ought to establish: knowledge; truth; and peace.
56. Three things which a Bard ought to do, namely: to improve and extend sciences; to soften morals and habits; and to solace the mind.
57. In three ways is a Bard graduated, namely: first, a Bard of privilege is graduated after discipleship, or after the notice of a year and a day; a Druid is graduated by the decree of Gorsedd, according to a majority of votes; and an Ovate is graduated after a presiding Bard shall have affirmed upon his word and conscience that the candidate may be made a Bard.
58. The three ministers of knowledge of the Bards of
p. 68 p. 69
the Isle of Britain, namely: song; symbol; and letter; of which song is considered the best, because there will be need only of the person who commits it to memory, without manual labour or art, and because a song can be conveyed by means of the tongue and memory from man to man, and from country to country, and from age to age, without any thing to support it other than memory and understanding. This cannot be the case with symbol and letter; therefore, the best means of maintaining and preserving sciences is song, according to the privilege and usage of Gorsedd.
59. The three ministers of knowledge: song; chronicle; and letter. The best is song, inasmuch as it is the easiest to learn and remember, and the most difficult to alter and corrupt, being arranged and ordered according to the art of song and the metres of poetry. Wherefore, awen and the art of song and poetry are indispensable to a Bard.
60. The three ministers of instruction: song; symbol; and letter. Al. song by a poet; symbol by a herald-bard; and letter by a post-bard. 1
61. There are three kinds of Triads under privilege and usage by the Bards of the Isle of Britain, namely: Triads of privilege and usage; Triads of Bardism; and Triads of song.
62. The three authorities of statute and law: their being published under the proclamation and notice of a year and a day in every court and church in the territory; their being submitted to the verdict of country and nation, that is, the oath of three hundred true men of country and territory, each of them being an efficient man and head of kindred; and their being submitted to the judgment of court
p. 70 p. 71
and judge, as the court may be from immemorial usage, in three Gorsedds, in each of the three provinces of Cymru, judgment being formed according to the memory, usage, and confirmation of Gorsedd and court.
63. The three authorities of vocal song, when it shall have been sanctioned by an efficient Gorsedd: correctness of language and versification, for what is otherwise cannot be admitted according to the privilege of a poet; correctness of meaning and object, for what is otherwise ought not to receive judgment from the word of a poet's conscience; and privilege received from the judgment of an efficient Gorsedd; and they ought not to be contradicted, because of the word and privileges of the Bards of the Isle of Britain.
64. There are three warrants in virtue of which any one may be admitted a Bard: the word of a presiding Bard of poetic lineage, who shall say upon his word and conscience that the one who desires to be a Bard 1 can be made a Bard; the word of twelve true and loyal men of country and nation 2 judicially and legally pronounced under the privilege of innate Cymry; and the word of the sovereign of country or judge of court, who shall say that the one who seeks to be a Bard may receive a faculty, because he is a loyal man of country in respect of descent and privilege, and that his lord gives him that freedom.
65. The three stocks of competition: 3 a Bard; a judge; and a king.
66. The three mutual bonds of a country: Bardism; judicature; and kingship. Al. The three characteristics of government, &c.
67. The three national duties of a Bard: to praise the good; to impart instruction and advice; and to preserve the memorial and record of what is worthy.
68. The three credibilities of the Bards of the Isle of Britain: the memorial and voice of Gorsedd; symbol and picture; and letter and writing.
69. Three things which a Bard ought to recite in Gorsedd under the privilege of the nation of the Cymry who
p. 72 p. 73
may require it of him, that is to say: to recite the points of the Cymric language; the privileges and usages of the Bards of the Isle of Britain; and the privileges and usages of the nation of the Cymry, and their sovereignty.
70. The three rudiments of the Bards of the Isle of Britain: word; letter; and symbol. Al. word; symbol; and letter.
71. Three men who are entitled to the endowment of country: a Bard; a judge; and a warrior.
72. The three primary descriptive mediums of the Bards of the Isle of Britain: song; allegory; and usage.
73. The three stocks of law: conscience; truth; and cogency. Al. and occasion.
The three materials of every rite and law: truth; knowledge; 1 and conscience.
74. The three relics of oath 2 and asseveration of the Bards of the Isle of Britain: the ten commandments; the gospel of John; and averment in the face of the sun and light. Others say: the ten commandments; the gospel of John; and a Bard declaring upon his word and conscience. According to others: a Bard; a judge; and a juror declaring upon his word and conscience.
75. The three especial instructions which the nation of the Cymry obtained: the first was that of the Gwyddoniaid before the time of Prydain, son of Aedd the Great, from the age of ages; the second was Bardism, as taught by the Bards, after they were instituted; the third, the faith in Christ, which was the best of the three. That is to say, first, the Gwyddoniaid were the principal philosophers and teachers of the nation of the Cymry, and when privilege and usage were conferred upon them in the time of Prydain, son of Aedd the Great, they were called Bards, 3 and what they knew was designated Bardism. There is no memorial or knowledge of the Gwyddoniaid, except the name of Tydain, the father of Awen, who first of all men composed a Cymric song; and it was from his song that the best comprehension of Bardism and poetry was obtained,
p. 74 p. 75
and hence were instituted Bards of privilege and usage, by means of the counsel and instruction of the three primary ones, Plennydd, Alawn, and Gwron.
76. From three things was Bardism obtained: from memory and knowledge from the age of ages; from the song of Tydain, son of Tudno, 1 that is, Tydain, the father of Awen; and from Awen from God by means of reason, sense, and understanding.
77. A Bard will be three things, namely: a chief and a bridge, being resembled to a bridge, because he conveys over the morass of ignorance; security where there is insecurity, because there will be no weapon against him or against his fellow traveller; and a privilege for the unprivileged, that is, his protection. Accordingly it is said: he who would be chief, let him be a bridge; he who would be a bridge, let him be a Bard; from being a Bard, let him be a chief; from being a chief, let him be a bridge. 2
78. There are three common announcements, and whether it be notice, assertion, cry, or denial that is issued, it ought to be according to one of the three, under the notice of a year and a day, namely: the field of a lord; the resort of worship; and the Gorsedd of Bards. 3
There are three common announcements: the resort of worship; the field of a lord; and the Gorsedd of Bards. Otherwise: three places in which proclamation and notice are to be issued until the expiration of a year and a day, &c., and in them are to be uttered every cry of restoration, of re-assertion, and of re-arrangement.
p. 76 p. 77
79. The three firm Gorsedds of the Isle of Britain: the Gorsedd of country and lord; the Gorsedd of Bards; and the Gorsedd of federate support. Others say: the three principal Gorsedds of the Isle of Britain, &c.
80. The three principal Gorsedds of the Isle of Britain: the Gorsedd of Meriw hill; the Gorsedd of Beiscawen; and the Gorsedd of Bryn Gwyddon. Al. the hill of Evwr; Beiscawen; and Bryn Gwyddon.
81. Three times was Bardism submitted to the verdict of country and nation, namely: first, when it was originally arranged and privileged in the time of Prydain, son of Aedd the Great; secondly, in the time of Bran, son of Llyr; thirdly, in the time of Gruffudd, son of Cynan, and it was so secured that no one should be initiated in any song or learning whatsoever, but under the privilege and protection of the Bards of the Isle of Britain.
82, The three characteristics of a community: a Bard teaching; an artist defending; and a labourer providing food; and they are entitled to the privilege of innate loyalists of the country and nation of the Cymry, of whatever country and nation they may be.
83. Three things which cannot be contravened: an ancient song; an ancient memorial; and an ancient art of poetry. 1
84. Three men who socially constitute a court: 2 a Bard; a smith; and a harpist. Al. a Bard; a metallurgist; and a harpist. Or: a Bard; a man of instrumental song; and a metallurgist.
Three men who establish a social habitation wherever they may be: a Bard; a smith; and a harpist. 3
85. Three principal things required of a Bard: to preserve memorial and knowledge; to preserve peace and courtesy; and to preserve instruction and morality.
86. The three maintenances of a Bard: his five free acres; his circuit of minstrelsy; and his fee for what he does, in virtue of his art, to another.
87. The three licentiates of court: a Bard; a judge; and a worshipper.
88. The three supports of government: Bardism; judicature; and labour.
89. There are three common departures: the resort of Bards to Gorsedd and worship; the resort to a convention of country and lord, which is regulated by jury and law; and the resort to aration; both male and female being privileged to resort to them.
90. There are three peculiar departures, a female being privileged to join in them: hunting; warfare; and a convention of federation.
91. In respect of three things ought a Bard to regulate matters, and to be a man of Chair: nuptial festivities, which he ought to chronicle and register; the royal games, that is, the twenty-four games of the nation of the Cymry, which he ought to see are conducted in peace and morality, and which he must arbitrate justly; and the genealogy of the nation and territory where his Chair and endowment may be, in respect of which he ought to keep a memorial and system, lest innate privilege should suffer oblivion, and blemish, and consequently loss; if he attends not to these things, he shall lose the remuneration of his song for three years.
92. Three men who ought not, and cannot be made Bards: the idle; the proud; and the liar.
93. There are three guarantees which will enable any one who wishes to be made a Bard: the word of a Bard of poetic lineage, who shall affirm upon his conscience; the word of a chief, that is, a lord, or a judge; and the word of twelve true and loyal men of country. A priest is adjudged to have the same privilege as a Bard of poetic lineage, since he is a Druid in virtue of office and duty.
94. The three first points, which a Bard ought to teach and consider: to believe every thing; to disbelieve every thing; and to believe it matters not what. Others say: the three first points of Bardism; or, a Bard's three first points of instruction, &c.
p. 80 p. 81
95. The three relics of belief and asseveration of the Bards of the Isle of Britain: the ten commandments; the gospel of John; and the face of the sun and eye of light. 1 And when one makes an asseveration, he is to fold his two hands, placing the fingers of the one between those of the other, and pressing them on the breast, towards the relics mentioned.
96. There are three authorities of vocal song: just language and versification, since none other can be believed according to the privilege of a poet; just import and recitation, since none other can be believed according to reason and nature in respect of the duty and privilege of a poet; and the privilege of Gorsedd, that is, the judgment and favour of three Chairs of song, which are held according to the privileges of the Bards of the Isle of Britain, being called by the Bards the privilege of an efficient Gorsedd.
97. In three ways is the Bardism of the Bards of the Isle of Britain properly maintained, namely: by means of the voice of Gorsedd; an efficient Gorsedd; and usage according to the memory of country and Gorsedd. Others say: the voice of Gorsedd; the song of Gorsedd; and the usage of Gorsedd. Others say: the memorial of song; the memorial of voice; and the memorial of Coelbren, that is, letter.
98. The three sorts of the primitive Bards of the Isle of Britain: a Bard of privilege, or poet, to rule, and to record; a Druid, to teach; and an Ovate, to improve learning and knowledge.
99. There are three endeavours, which are obligatory upon a Bard: one is, to accumulate and teach sciences; the second is, to instruct; and the third is, to pacify, by introducing concord and tranquillity where there is contention and quarrelling, and putting an end to strife; for it is not according to usage, or becoming, that a Bard should do contrary to these things.
100. There are three pursuits which are lawful to a Bard, and to every other native of country and nation, that
p. 82 p. 83
is to say: hunting; tillage; and pastoral cares; for it is by means of those things that all persons obtain food, and they ought not to be denied or prohibited, nor should such as may desire them be restrained. 1 Others say: tillage; pastoral cares; and medicine; for these are pursuits of improvement, consequent upon peace and morality, and are called the three common pursuits.
101. Three things which a Bard is not privileged to engage in, since they are not proper for him. Metallurgy, with which art he has nothing to do, except to improve it, according to his reason, learning, knowledge, and doctrine, for he is a man of literature. War, since there ought to be no naked weapon in his hand against others, for he is a man of peace and tranquillity. The third is commerce, for he is a man of primary law and justice, and he ought to attend to his office of instructing country and nation. And because of these things it is deemed that a Bard ought not to have any trade other than his office and art, in respect of song and Bardism, lest what ought to belong to Bard and Bardism should suffer loss and deterioration, and lest a Bard, by following a trade, may not be able to practise meditation in respect of the things which are suitable to Bard and Bardism, and to literature and genial sciences; nevertheless, the three common pursuits are proper for him.
102. The three common feasts, which are conducted and arranged by the Bards of the Isle of Britain, namely: the first are the feasts of the four albans; the second are the feasts of worship at the quarters of the moon; the third are the feasts of country and nation, because of a triumph and deliverance; which are to be held under the proclamation and notice of forty days.
There are three contributory feasts under the protection of the Bards of the Isle of Britain, at which all have their portion of the three tributes, namely, honey, meal, and milk, that is to say: the feasts of co-aration under the proclamation of forty days; the feasts of alban; and the feasts
of worship. It is privileged for Bards to preside over them, and to receive presents at them out of the three contributory gifts, which are corn, milk, and honey; 1 and they are called the Bards' gifts of co-aration, because they refer to the plough.
103. There are three other feasts, which by courtesy a Bard regulates, namely: the feast of the head of kindred; the feast of marriage; and the feast of the fire back, which takes place where five fire back stones are raised as a station of social abode. In them the gifts of the comot and nation are presented, as far as the ninth generation; and the Bards receive a portion of the contributory gifts of those feasts, being taken from tilth, fold, and wood covert, according as it may be easiest to obtain and to give them. They are given by courtesy to a Bard, for it is only the right of courtesy that a Bard is entitled to at these three feasts.
104. There are three proclamations. One is a proclamation under the notice of a year and a day, and it is under that proclamation that every substantial cry should be issued, such as the cry of restoration, the cry of re-assertion, and the cry of re-arrangement, which are to be published in every Gorsedd of country and lord, in every Gorsedd of Bards, and in every resort of worship. The second is the proclamation of forty days, according to which every common feast of country and nation, and every Gorsedd of oppression are held--a Gorsedd of oppression being the name given to that which requires to be held in consequence of oppression by a border country or stranger, or of depredation and pillage in a country, whereby there is a peremptory occasion for country and lord, or Bards, or others, in the cause of country and nation, to assemble in Gorsedd, and to blow the horn of country preparatory to war, defence, and deliverance. This proclamation is to be made in every resort of worship, and in every court of comot, and by sound of horn in every town, which contains five inhabited houses. The third is the ready proclamation, such as the recitation of juridical peace in the Gorsedd of country and
p. 86 p. 87
lord, in the Gorsedd of Bards, in the Gorsedd of convention, in every court of judge and law, and in every resort of worship. And when juridical peace is proclaimed, it is not lawful for any one to bear a naked weapon of offence, whilst it is lawful for all, in respect of country and nation, alien and stranger, to be present, as long as they shall remain under the protection of the juridical peace, without a weapon, without assault; whereas he who conducts himself otherwise is not allowed 1 to enjoy juridical peace, but is adjudged to be a man deprived of privilege and exposed to warfare. Twelve true and loyal men of country and nation have the privilege of meeting together, without a weapon, without assault, in right of juridical peace, which must be proclaimed, before they perform what is necessary; and when the juridical peace is proclaimed, they must go to court, in respect of what is necessary, and there awake the horn of country under the proclamation of forty days, and submit to the verdict of country and nation, which verdict is privileged to awake the horn of country. And they must proceed to deal with their wants and requirements under the proclamation and notice of a year and a day, either in the Gorsedd of country and lord, or in the Gorsedd of convention, or in the Gorsedd of Bards. The court of twelve true and loyal men, constituted as already mentioned, is called the court of agitation, and the agitation of country, since they can have nothing to do with the necessity and occasion otherwise than by means of the agitation of the court and Gorsedd of which there is need.
105. Three things which it is lawful for a Bard to exact in his circuit of minstrelsy, being the three principal provisions, namely: corn; milk; and honey; nor is it lawful for a Bard to exact provisions, except the three contributory provisions, for nothing else may be given which is a provision under the protection of God and His peace. And from the three contributory provisions are all contributory gifts in the feasts of the four albans, and in the feasts of
p. 88 p. 89
worship, and in every other feast, which may be under the protection of God and His peace.
106. There are three feasts which are deemed under the protection of God and His peace, namely: the feasts of the four albans; the feasts of deliverance of country and nation, which take place under the proclamation of forty days, when gifts are presented from the three contributory aids by all men of the nation; and a portion of those gifts is for Bards, the poor, and stranger, who are under the protection of God and the Bards of the Isle of Britain.
107. There are three other feasts which are by courtesy under the protection of God and the Bards of the Isle of Britain, namely: the feast of the head of kindred; the feast of co-aration; and the feast of the fire back; at which gifts are contributed from the three principal provisions. Others say: from tilth; fold; and wood covert; with a portion to the Bard, the poor, and the stranger, who may be under the protection of God and His peace, that is, under the protection of the Bards of the Isle of Britain pursuant to the proclamation of forty days. Others say: the three oblations: one from tilth; another from fold; and another from wood covert:--or, of honey, or the juice of the fruit of trees.
108. The three privileged specialities of country: Bardism; judicature; and metallurgy; since they cannot be maintained except by privilege, and all are not required to know them. Others say: scholarship; judicature; and trade. Others say: scholarship; trade; and commerce.
109. The three branches of Bardism: Ovatism; poetry; and worship.
110. The three branches of artizanship: metallurgy; carpentry; and medicine.
111. The three branches of scholarship: Bardism; judicature; and chancellorship.
112. The three landless ones who are privileged: a Bard; a smith; and a carpenter; for they have the privilege of free maintenance, though they may not be possessed
p. 90 p. 91
of the privilege of innate nobility, and consequently endowed with land.
113. There are three privileged proprietors of land: a Cymro of innate nobility, that is, he who is a Cymro in the ninth descent, and every one who is such is entitled to his five free acres; a Bard, or judge, who makes firm peace between country and border country, that is, where they are not subjected to juridical verdict, and are at variance; and a foreign army that may win a battle and victory in behalf of the nation of the Cymry, 1 over their enemies, for they are entitled to land and the privilege of innate Cymry.
114. Three free allotments which are due in common to every innate Cymro: five free acres of landed property; the benefit and privilege attached to the function of science; and corporal freedom. These should not be denied to any native who is a genuine Cymro. Others say: free land; knowledge; and liberty. Others say: the work of God the Father; knowledge; and liberty; for no one should be denied his share of these three things.
115. There are three shares which are not free for all, that is, none but the possessor is allowed to participate in them. One, the things, which are of God's creation, such as strength of body and intellect, a wife, and children. The second is, what man makes of his own reason, understanding, art, and bodily faculties, such as a house, furniture, dresses, and implements, and every thing that is produced by his own ability, devise, and material--he being privileged to have the whole of what he makes and obtains by means of his own skill, art, and science. Thirdly, no one is entitled to the incommunicable privilege which another receives from a person, or from country and nation, or from men of office and system, as duly deserving it, such as the privilege of a king, or a judge, or a Bard, or any other office whatsoever according to the requirement of man, or of country and nation.
116. The three proper subjects of praise, and of the memorial of song and Bardism: every quality and usage
that are pure and good; every form and appearance that are beautiful and lovely; and every contrivance and art for the benefit of the public and life, which are not productive of disadvantage and uselessness of equal weight with its utility.
11 7. The three depredations of the world: a lord without justice; a judge without mercy; and a Bard without learning.
118. The three stabilities of the social state: a just lord; a merciful judge; and a learned and moral Bard.
119. The three sanctuaries of country and nation: the Chair of Bards; the courts of country and judge; and a plough at work. 1
120. The three essences of vocal song, and where they are not found, it cannot be in accordance with the instruction of the Bards of the Isle of Britain: the doctrine of goodness; the memorial of what is commendable in man and circumstance; and harmless amusement; and it was with the view of confirming these that the system of Bards and Bardism was ordained.
121. The three firm laws of the Bards of the Isle of Britain and the nation of the Cymry: judgment according to the privilege and usage of Gorsedd, by means of the verdict of presidents, and which is formed by a majority of votes; judgment according to the verdict and usage of country and nation under proclamation and notice, submitted to the silence and voice of country and nation by a majority of votes; and impulsive judgment according to reason and nature brought about by necessity and obligation, where neither of the other two can be obtained.
122. There are three graduated Bards: the Primitive Bard; the Druid-bard; and the Ovate-bard. Others say: There are three kinds of Primitive Bards: a Poet, or licensed Bard, on whom it is incumbent to poetize, and to maintain the memorial and supremacy of Gorsedd, and to maintain, that is, to rule in Gorsedd, and his word is to be paramount in Chair and Gorsedd; an Ovate, on whom
p. 94 p. 95
it is incumbent to genialize and to improve learning and sciences; and a Druid, on whom it is incumbent to maintain instruction and a meeting of worship--and where there is no regular Druid having a Chair degree, the Poet is privileged to maintain instruction and worship, for it belongs to him in virtue of original requirement and offices, and obligation of art to maintain the instruction of worship.
123. There are three firm Gorsedds of song: a Gorsedd according to the primitive practice and usage of the nation of the Cymry from the age of ages, before memory and knowledge, its times being the points of the sun and moon; an institutional Gorsedd within memory, its times being the three principal and special festivals, namely, Easter, Whitsunday, and Christmas; and an incidental Gorsedd, its times being unknown, such as the marriage day of a king, the day of coronation, and the day of the horn of peace. 1
41:1 p. 40 Al. "Alan."
41:2 Al. "the sense and understanding of man."
43:1 Al. "Coelbren."
43:2 Al. "are not."
43:3 Al, "of original discovery and order."
45:1 p. 44 Al. "in their presence."
45:2 "Ban ac adfan;" division and subdivision, i.e. the new and full moon, and the first and third quarters.
47:1 "Adneu," compounded of ad and neu. It is usually translated a pledge, or a deposit.
47:2 "Adwedd," compounded of ad and gwedd, a return to a former state or appearance.
49:1 p. 48 "Adfann," from ad, and man, a place, or ban, a point or division, whether of time or place; the reversal, or re-arrangement, of the usual seasons and localities, for holding a Gorsedd.
55:1 p. 54
In the convention of fame, on the area of the assembling Bards.
Ll. P. Moch.
55:2 Al. "the verdict of three hundred men."
59:1 p. 58 Maxen Wledig, the Welsh title of Clemens Maximus, who commanded the Roman forces in Britain, and revolted against the emperor Gratian in A.D. 383. According to an ancient document printed in the Greal, he was the son of Llwydrod, the son of Trahaiarn, who was the brother of Elen Luyddawg, the mother of Constantine the Great. According to the Welsh accounts, he married Elen, the daughter of Eudav, or Octavius, a powerful nobleman, who is called in the Bruts, earl of Ergyng and Euas, districts now comprised in Monmouthshire and Herefordshire. Maxen having defeated Gratian, and thus p. 59 obtained possession of Britain, Gaul, and Spain, exercised imperial power until 385, when he was defeated and put to death by Theodosius.
61:* p. 60 The number entered in MS. is 41, and the succeeding ones are arranged accordingly. The reason is, that 40 was inserted by mistake before the third part of No. 39.
61:1 Ithel succeeded his brother Meurig, as king of Glamorgan and Gwent, in the year 843. He was slain A.D. 848. "Iudhail rex Guent a viris Broceniauc occiaus est."--Annales Cambria, p. 13.
61:2 Cadwalader the Blessed succeeded his father Cadwallawn ab Cadvan, about A.D. 634, and was the last of the Welsh princes, who assumed the title of chief sovereign of the Britons.
61:3 p. 61 Bleddyn, son of Cynvyn, was sole prince of Gwynedd and Powys from about 1068 until 1072, when he was slain in battle by Rhys, son of Owain, son of Edwyn.
61:4 This Gorsedd was held under the patronage of Gruffudd, son of Nicholas, who had obtained a commission from Edward IV. for that purpose.
61:5 The celebrated king Arthur, in the 6th century.
63:1 p. 62 Gruffudd, son of Cynan, reigned over North Wales from 1075 until his death in 1137. His biography, a very interesting document, written in Welsh soon after his decease, is printed in the second volume of the Myvyrian Archaiology.
63:2 Edward the Second reigned from 1307 to 1327.
67:1 p. 66 Al. "the sense."
67:2 Al, "the voice."
69:1 p. 68 "A preceptive Bard, a teaching Bard."--Dr. O. Pughe's Dict.
Be silent, ye teaching Bards.--Bustl Beirdd.
Yn bosfardd, ba fardd a fo.
’R hyd bysedd rhaid ei bosio;
A thrwy bwys uthr o bosiad
Graddau gynt o’u gwraidd a gad. p. 69
A didactic Bard, whatever Bard would be,
On the fingers it is necessary to question him;
And through the weight of a solemn interrogation
Degrees from their source were given of yore.
71:1 p. 70 Al. "to attach himself to song."
71:2 Al. "territory."
The competition of song, among witty friends,
Splendid talent, without hatred, without strife.
73:1 p. 72 Al. "learning."
73:2 Al. "belief."
73:3 Al. "the name Bards was bestowed upon them."
75:1 p. 74 Al. "Tydain, son of Tydnaw." Tud-nawf, qu. Noah?
75:2 There is evidently an allusion to this Bardic dogma in one of the Mabinogion:--"Bendigeid Vran came to land, and the fleet with him by the bank of the river. 'Lord,' said his chieftains, 'knowest thou the nature of this river, that nothing can go across it, and there is no bridge over it?' 'What,' said they, 'is thy counsel concerning a bridge?' 'There is none,' said he, 'except that he who will be chief let him be a bridge. I will be so,' said he. And then was that saying first uttered, and it is still used as a proverb. And when he had lain down across the river, hurdles were placed upon him, and the host passed over thereby."--Mabinogi, Branwen the Daughter of Llyr.
Gwilym Tew (1433--1470) describes our Saviour as
[paragraph continues] And Lewys Daron, (1580-1600,) in his Elegy on Tudur Aled, applies the same expressions to him:--
Who was chief? What son was he?
Who but Tudur? He was a bridge.
75:3 Qu. Whether the Glamorgan expressions, "Gwadu coed, maes, a mynydd," "Cyhoeddi coed, maes, a mynydd," &c., are derived from these announcements?
77:1 p. 76 Al. "and an ancient usage."
77:2 Al. "a court and village."
77:3 Al. "a labourer."
81:1 p. 80 Al. "and looking in the eye of the sun and the face of light."
83:1 p. 82 "Al. "nor should they be restrained from such as may desire them."
85:1 p. 84 Al. "corn contribution; milk contribution; and honey contribution."
87:1 p. 86 Al. "privileged."
91:1 p. 90 Al. "a foreign army that wins in behalf of the nation of the Cymry"
The plough is no sanctuary without the irons, or without seed.
95:1 p. 94 I.e. the proclamation of peace by means of a horn.