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p. v





p. vi

Demonolatrous Ceremonies of the Old Inhabitants of Haiti. After Picart

p. 11

Human Sacrifices Among the Greeks. After an ancient cameo in Berlin

p. 12

A Hind Substituted for Iphigenia. After a Pompeian fresco

p. 13

Apapi (Apophis) and Atmu. After Rawlinson

p. 16

Forms of Taourt. After Rawlinson

p. 16

Seth. After Brugsch

p. 16

The Soul Visiting the Mummy. From the Ani Papyrus

p. 16

Set Teaching the King the Art of War. After Erman

p. 18

The Weighing of the Heart in the Hall of Truth. After Lepsius's reproduction of the Turin papyrus

p. 21

The Abode of Bliss. After Lepsius's reproduction of the Turin papyrus

p. 25

Xisuthrus (the Babylonian Noah) in the Ark. After an ancient Babylonian cylinder. Reproduced from Smith

p. 32

Wall Decorations of the Royal Palace at Nineveh in Their Present State. After Place, reproduced from Lenormant

p. 33

Sacred Tree and Serpent. From an ancient Babylonian cylinder. After Smith

p. 35

The Tree of Life. Decorations on the embroidery of a royal mantle. British Museum

p. 36

Merodach Delivering the Moon-God from the Evil Spirits. From a Babylonian cylinder. Smith

p. 37

The Chaldean Trinity Blessing the Tree of Life. British Museum

p. 40

p. vi




The Goddess Anna. Bas-relief in the British Museum

p. 40

Fight Between Bel-Merodach and Tiamat. British Museum

p. 41

Evil Demons. British Museum

p. 43

Demon of the Southwest Wind. Statue in the Louvre. After Lenormant

p. 44

Nirgalli. British Museum. After Lenormant

p. 45

An Ancient Assyrian Bronze Tablet Representing the World in the Clutches of an Evil Demon. Collection of M. de Clercq. After Lenormant

p. 46

An Assyrian Cameo

p. 59

A Persian Cameo

p. 59

Assyrian Cylinder

p. 59

Sculptures on a Royal Tomb. Lenormant

p. 60

Bas-Relief of Persepolis. Lenormant

p. 61

The King Slaying a Unicorn. Bas-relief of Persepolis

p. 63

Saul and the Witch of Endor. After Schnorr von Carolsfeld

p. 68

Assyrian Goat Demons. Carvings on a boulder. After Lenormant

p. 69

The Brahman Trimurti. After Coleman

p. 75

Brahma. Fragment of a car. Musée Guimet

p. 76

Brahma and Suraswati. Reproduced from Hermann Göll

p. 77

Vishnu, Lakshmi, and Brahma. After a native illustration, reproduced from Hermann Göll

p. 78

The Matsya Avatar or Fish Incarnation. From Picart

p. 79

The Kurm Avatar or Tortoise Incarnation From Picart

p. 79

The Varâha Avatar or Wild Boar Incarnation. From Picart

p. 79

The Narasinha Avatar or Man-Lion Incarnation. From Picart

p. 79

Lakshmi, the Goddess of Beauty. Musée Guimet

p. 80

Vishnu Narasinha. Fragment of a car. Musée Guimet

p. 81

Hanuman, the Monkey King, Building the Bridge Over the Strait Between India and Lanka. Reproduced from Hermann Göll

p. 82

The Vâmana Avatar or Dwarf Incarnation

p. 83

The Parashura Avatar, or Battle-Ax Incarnation

p. 83

The Râma Chandra Avatar

p. 83

The Krishna Avatar

p. 83

p. vii




The Monkey King Sugriva Fighting. Reproduced from Coleman

p. 84

Vishnu and Shri-Lakshmi as Râma Chandra and Sita After Their Happy Reunion. Reproduced from Coleman

p. 85

Hanuman Reciting His Adventures to Râma Chandra and Sita. Reproduced from Coleman

p. 86

Krishna Nursed by Devaki. Reproduced from Moore's Hindu Pantheon

p. 87

Krishna. Bronze statue, Musée Guimet

p. 88

Krishna, the Favorite of the Country Lasses of Gokula. Reproduced from Coleman

p. 89

Krishna's Adventures. Reproduced from Coleman

p. 90

The Battle Between the Kurus and Pandus on the Field of Kurukshetra. Reproduced from Wilkins

p. 91

Jagannath with His Two Companions. After Schlagintweit

p. 92

Shiva with Parvati. Musée Guimet

p. 93

Shiva-Trimurti. Musée Guimet

p. 93

Shiva Dancing Surrounded by a Halo of Flames. Bronze Statue, Musée Guimet

p. 94

The Buddha Avatar or Vishnu's Incarnation as the Enlightened Teacher of Mankind. Reproduced from Picart

p. 95

The Kalki Avatar or the White-Horse Incarnation. From Picart

p. 95

Shiva Worship. From Picart

p. 95

Shiva and Parvati. From Göll

p. 96

Kali. After an Indian picture. From Schlagintweit

p. 97

Durga. Indian sculpture. From Schlagintweit

p. 98

mKha's Groma, the Tibetan Kali. Musée Guimet

p. 99

Kali-Durga in the Hindu Pantheon. From Wilkins

p. 100

Hari Hara. From Wilkins

p. 101

Ganesa. From Wilkins

p. 102

Agni. From Hermann Göll

p. 102

Kama. From Wollheim da Fonceka

p. 102

Shiva Slaying a Demon. From Wilkins

p. 102

The Demon of Lightning. A Japanese temple statue

p. 106

The Demon of Thunder. A Japanese temple statue

p. 107

p. viii




Mara's Army. Gandhara sculptures. Museum of Lahore. From Grünwedel

p. 110

Buddha, Tempted by Mara's Daughters. Gandhara sculptures. Reproduced from Grünwedel

p. 114

An Indian Wheel of Life. From L. E. Waddell's picture

p. 119

A Tibetan Wheel of Life. From Bastian

p. 121

A Japanese Wheel of Life. From Bastian

p. 123

Meifu, the Dark Tribunal. From Karma

p. 128

Kongo, the Sheriff. From a Japanese art print

p. 130

Emma, the Judge. From a Japanese art print

p. 130

The Devil as a Monk. Japanese wood carving, Musée Guimet

p. 131

Oni-no-Nembutzu. After a wood carving in the author's possession

p. 132

Hono-Kuruma, the Cart of Hell. After an old Japanese painting

p. 133

Tibetan Devil's Altar. From Waddell

p. 134

Buddha Extending His Help to a Sufferer in Hell. From Karma

p. 136

The Christian Trinity, God Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. Reproduced from Muther

p. 139

Asmodi, an Evil Spirit, Cast Out by Prayer. After Schnorr von Carolsfeld

p. 141

Heaven and Hell. After H. F., an unknown Old-German master

p. 144

The Holy Trinity in the Vatican. After Pietro Berrettini

p. 146

The Buddhist Trinity, the Buddha, the Dharma, the Sangha. Musée Gulmet

p. 147

The Trinity and Mary. After Lübke

p. 148

The Christian Trinity. From Bastian

p. 149

The Trinity of Salerno. Sketched by the artist of the Gartenlaube

p. 150

Jacob Böhme

p. 151

Vignette of Jacob Böhme's Book on the Threefold Life of Man

p. 152

The Three Principles. Frontispiece of Jacob Böhme's book

p. 153

Jesus Casting Out Devils. After Schnorr von Carolsfeld

p. 158

p. ix




The Fiend, Sowing Tares Among the Wheat. From a German Picture-Bible

p. 158

Dives Enjoying Life, and Lazarus Suffering. From a German Picture-Bible

p. 160

Dives Tormented in Hell. From a German Picture-Bible

p. 160

Cast Into Outer Darkness Where There Shall be Weeping and Gnashing of Teeth. From a German Picture-Bible

p. 161

The Day of the Lord. After Michelangelo

p. 162

The Last judgment. A fresco in the Campo Santo, Pisa

p. 164

The Christian World-Dispensation According to St. John the Divine. After Schnorr von Carolsfeld

p. 169

The Four Riders of the Apocalypse. Wall-painting on the Campo Santo, Berlin

p. 170

The Woman of Abominations. By Albrecht Dürer

p. 172

Christ's Descent Into Hell. By Sasha Schneider

p. 176

Christian Representation of the Last judgment. From Klassischer Skulpturenschatz

p. 180

Christian Representation of Hell. From Klassischer Skulpturenschatz

p. 181

The Typical Conception of Hell. German woodcut of the age of the Reformation

p. 185

Weighing the Evil and the Good of the Soul. From the cathedral in Autun, France

p. 188

The Doom of the Damned. After Luca Signorelli

p. 189

The Trinity Ideal of Mediæval Christianity. Reproduced from Muther

p. 190

Hades. From Mon. Inst.

p. 194

Human Sacrifices at the Funeral Pyre of Patroclus. From Michaelis, Handbuch der Kunstgeschichte

p. 195

Christ's Death on the Cross and its Prototypes. Biblia Pauperum. Woodcut of the fifteenth century

p. 196

Tuchulcha, the Demon of Infernal Tortures According to the Belief of the Etruscans. Part of a wall-picture of a tomb in Corneto

p. 197

Charun, the Etruscan Demon of Death, Waiting for a Victim. From an Etruscan vase

p. 197

p. x




Oknos and the Daughters of Danaos in Hades. Frieze of a Roman wall decoration

p. 197

Ixion on the Fiery Wheel

p. 198

Gigantomachy; the Giants Storming Heaven. Vatican Museum

p. 199

Zeus Conquering Typhœus. Baumeister

p. 199

Gigantomachy; the Giants Storming Heaven. Greek frieze

p. 200

War in Heaven. By Albrecht Dürer

p. 201

Chimæra of Arezzo. Now at Florence

p. 202

Theseus and Pirithous. Baumeister

p. 203

Perseus with the Head of the Decapitated Medusa. Baumeister

p. 204

Perseus and Andromeda. Baumeister

p. 205

Sicilian Coin with Medusa Head

p. 206

The Gorgoneion on the Shield of Phidias's Athene

p. 206

Gorgoneion, Ancient Face of the Gorgon Medusa. Glyptothek, Munich

p. 207

Medusa Rondanini. Glyptothek, Munich

p. 207

Bellerophon Slaying the Chimæra. British Museum

p. 208

The Lion-Killing Hero of Khorsabad

p. 209

Prometheus Tied by Zeus to the Stake (or Cross) and Exposed to the Eagle; Rescued by Hercules. Vase now at Berlin, Baumeister

p. 210

The Myth of Prometheus on a Sarcophagus

p. 212

The Temptations of Christ. Mosaic in the cathedral of Monreale, Sicily

p. 213

Christian Gem

p. 218

Mithras Monument of Ostburken

p. 220

Mithraic Symbols. From C. W. King

p. 220

Mithras the Saviour. Borghesi monument, the Louvre

p. 221

Æon of Zrvan Akarana. From Layard

p. 225

Abraxas Gem

p. 227

Agathodæmon. From C. W. King

p. 227

Iao Gem

p. 227


p. 228

Serapis Gem

p. 229

p. xi




Hermes, Saviour of Souls

p. 230

Staff of Hermes

p. 230

Hermes as Jupiter

p. 230

A Ship Symbolising the Church

p. 233

A Christian Gem with Serpent

p. 233

A Gnostic Gem

p. 233

Christian Symbols of the Catacombs

p. 234

Aramæan Warriors, Wearing the Cross as an Amulet for Protection in Battle. After Wilkinson

p. 235

St. Anthony Fighting the Devil with the Cross. After Salvator Rosa

p. 236

St. George, the Princess and the Dragon

p. 236

Archangel Michael Conquering Satan. By Raphael. In the Louvre

p. 238

Archangel Michael Holding the Scales for Weighing Souls. After Lorenzo Sabbatieri

p. 238

Hel, the Goddess of the Nether World. By Johannes Gehrts

p. 242

Ragnarok, or Doomsday of the Teutons. By Johannes Gehrts

p. 244

Dante's Ice Hell. By Gustave Doré

p. 248

St. Dunstan and the Devil. From Scheible

p. 255

The Legend of St. Cuthbert. From the Ingoldsby Legends

p. 257

The Legend of St. Medard. From the Ingoldsby Legends

p. 258

The Devil's Bridge Over the Reuss

p. 260

Modern Snake Charmers. Reproduced from Brehm

p. 262

Moses and Aaron Performing the Snake Miracle Before Pharaoh. After Schnorr von Carolsfeld

p. 263

The Egyptian Snake Naja Haje Made Motionless by a Pressure on the Neck. From Verworn after photographs

p. 264

A Successful Rain-Maker Slaying His Rivals. After Schnorr von Carolsfeld

p. 267

Tenskwatawa, the Shawano Prophet in 1808. Reproduced from the Fourteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology

p. 268

Tenskwatawa, the Shawano Prophet in 1831. Reproduced from the Fourteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology

p. 269

p. xii




The Ecstasy of the Ghost Dance of the North American Indians

p. 271

The Blessing. A Ceremony In the Ghost Dance of the North American Indians

p. 273

Henricus Cornelius Agrippa ab Nettesheim. Reproduced from the original edition of his works

p. 274

Illustrations from the Original Edition of Occulta Philosophia

p. 276,277

Exorcising by the Cross. Bas-relief on a water vessel found near Pisama

p. 278

Text of the Baptismal Abjuration Formula in Old Low-German. From O. Henne am Rhyn

p. 281

Specimen Page of an Illuminated Initial in Heisterbach's Dialogus Miraculorum. Original in Royal Library at Düsseldorf

p. 283

Witches Conjuring a Hail-Storm

p. 285

The Devil of Conceit as Seen by a Clergyman on the Dress of a Fashionable Lady

p. 285

The Main Actors in Mediaeval Mysteries. From Dr. Gustav Könnecke

p. 288

Witches. From Horndorff

p. 290

The Witches' Sabbath. After Picart

p. 291

Virgulta Divina. From an old MS. by George Conrad Horst

p. 294

A Seal of Petrus de Albano for Conjuring Good Spirits

p. 295

The Twelve Houses of a Horoscope. From Gerhard

p. 295

The Sign of the First Hour of Sunday

p. 296

The Divine Name Arranged for Conjuration

p. 296

Knight and Devil

p. 297

The Bishop of Lodi Preaching at the Trial of John Huss. From Castelar

p. 301


p. 302

Savonarola Praying in His Cell. From Castelar

p. 303

Burning of Savonarola. After Don Ricardo Balaca

p. 304

Pope Urban V. Proclaiming the Bull In Cæna Domini, 1362, Condemning Heretics

p. 311

The Banner of the Spanish Inquisition. From Picart

p. 312

p. xiii




The Banner of the Inquisition of Goa. From Picart

p. 312

The Chamber of the Inquisition. From Picart

p. 313

Various Manners of Cross-Examining the Defendants. From Picart

p. 314

A Man and a Woman Convicted of Heresy. From Picart

p. 315

Heretics Condemned to be Burned. From Picart

p. 316

A Man and a Woman Condemned to be Burned. From Picart

p. 317

The Inquisition in Session on the Market Square at Madrid. From Picart

p. 318

Procession of the Inquisition of Goa. From Picart

p. 319

The Last Sermon Preached to the Condemned. From Picart

p. 319

The Heretics' Death on the Fagots. From Picart

p. 320

The Water Ordeal

p. 327

The Torture-Room at Nuremberg. After C. Rau. Reproduced from B. E. König

p. 329

Agnes Bernauer Drowned as a Witch at the Request of Ernest, Duke of Bavaria. Reproduced from B. E. König

p. 335

Satanic Temptations and the Ladder of Life. From Heradis von Lansperg's Hortus Deliciarum

p. 339

Calvinism Tearing Down the Roman Empire

p. 340

The Kingdom of Satan or the Seven-Headed beast of the Revelation

p. 341

Temptation. A Protestant Conception of Evil. German woodcut of the time of Luther

p. 344

The Race for Fortune. After Henneberg's oil painting

p. 345

The Devil of Unchastity. From a German woodcut

p. 346

The Devil of Niggardliness Making the Miser Hard-Hearted. By Hans Holbein

p. 347

The Latest Fad In Clothes Pilloried. From Sigismund Feyerabend's Theatrum Diabolorum

p. 347

Scenes from M. Jacob Ruff's Religious Drama

p. 348

Macbeth Consulting the Witches

p. 349

The Natural State of Man

p. 354

The Holy Ghost Illumines the Heart

p. 354

The Holy Ghost in Possession

p. 355

p. xiv




The Passion of Christ in the Heart

p. 355

The Holy Trinity Resides in the Heart

p. 356

New Temptations

p. 356

Satan's Return with Seven Other Spirits More Wicked than Himself

p. 357

The Impious Man Is Doomed When He Dies

p. 357

A Heart Fortified in Christ

p. 358

The Pious Man is Saved at Death

p. 358

Poster of the Sixteenth Century

p. 361

Facsimile of the Contract Which Urban Grandier is Reported to have Made with the Devil

p. 364

Apparitions of the Cross. From Grünbeck

p. 371

Friedrich von Spee. After a picture in the Marzellen-Gymnasium at Cologne

p. 376

Illustrations from the Drutenzeitung, 1627

p. 378

Balthasar Bekker. From a portrait on the title-page of Die bezauberte Welt

p. 380

Bekker's Autograph. From his original handwriting

p. 381

Christian Thomasius. From a copper engraving by M. Bernigroth

p. 382

Signature of Christian Thomasius

p. 383

Schottel's Wheel of Hell

p. 385

The Christian Hell

p. 388

Schwenter's Hen Experiment. Reproduced by Father Athanasius Kircher

p. 391

Pater Gassner. Etching by Daniel Chodowiecki

p. 392

Demons on the Tomb of Dagobert. Church of St. Denys, near Paris

p. 412

Covetousness. Library of St. Geneviève, Paris

p. 413

Faust Signing the Contract with the Devil in Blood. By Franz Simm

p. 414

The Legend of Theophilus. From Monk Conrad's illumined MS.

p. 416

Mephistopheles Making His Appearance in Faust's Study. After Schnorr von Carolsfeld

p. 419

p. xv




Faust Beholding the Emblem of the Macrocosm. After p. Rembrandt

p. 419

Faust Riding on a Barrel out of Auerbach's Cellar. Fresco

p. 420

The Sense-Illusions of the Riotous Students and Faust's Escape. After p. Cornelius

p. 420

Faust Enjoying Himself in Auerbach's Cellar. Fresco

p. 421

Mephistopheles Having Faust Buried by the Devils. After Retzsch

p. 421

Studying Black Magic. Widman's Faust

p. 426

Conjuring the Devil. Widman's Faust

p. 426

Some Pleasantries of Black Magic. Widman's Faust

p. 426

Miracles and Conjurations. Widman's Faust

p. 426

Last Hours and Death. Widman's Faust

p. 427

Wagner Conjuring the Devil Auerhan

p. 428

Auerhan's Services

p. 428

Wagner's jokes

p. 428

Last Hours and Death

p. 428

The Devil in the Puppet Play

p. 429

Witches Celebrating Walpurgis Night. By Franz Simm

p. 431

Der Teuffel lest Keyn Lantzknecht mehr inn die Helle faren. Hans Sachs

p. 432

Hell According to Dionysius Klein's Tragico-Comœdia. Reproduced from Bastian's Die Denkschöpfung

p. 433

The Devil in Modern Satirical Journals

p. 436

Hell Up To Date. By permission from A. Young's Hell Up To Date

p. 437

Egyptian Devil. Post-classic age

p. 440

Mahâmâya, the Slayer of Mahisha. From Moor's Hindu Pantheon

p. 440

The Christian View of the Chained Ruler of Hell. Didron

p. 441

Persian Devil. Didron

p. 442

Turkish Devil. From a Turkish MS

p. 442

Satan Accusing Job. Fresco in the Campo Santo at Pisa

p. 443

Satan in His Ugliness. From a MS. in the National Library, Paris

p. 444

p. xvi




Satan in His Ugliness. From an Anglo-Saxon MS. in the British Museum

p. 444

The Trinity Fighting Behemoth and Leviathan. After Didron

p. 445

A Trinity of the Tenth Century. From Müller and Mathe's Archæology

p. 445

Milton's Satan. After Doré

p. 451

Lucifer Before the Fall. From the Hortus Deficiarum

p. 462

The Fallen Lucifer. After Doré

p. 463

The Feeling of Dependence. After Sasha Schneider

p. 470

Time as a Trinity of Past, Present, and Future. French miniature

p. 472

The Divine Trinity. From a MS. in the Bibliothèque de Sainte Geneviève

p. 472

Italian Trinity. Didron

p. 473

Satanic Trinity. Didron

p. 473

The Trinity. From a window in the Church of Notre Dame, at Chalons, France

p. 474

The Trinity of Evil. From a French MS. in the Bibliothèque Royale at Paris

p. 474

The Three-Headed Serapis. From Bartoli's Lucernæ Veterum Sepulchrales

p. 475

Aziel, the Guardian of Hidden Treasures. From Francisci's Proteus infernalis

p. 475

God Supporting the World. Fresco in the Campo Santo of Pisa

p. 476

Hercules with Cerberus. From a vase found in Alta mura

p. 477

St. Anthony Assaulted by Devils. After Schoengauer's copper engraving, 1420-1499

p. 479

The Good Lord and the Devil. By Franz Simm

p. 480

The Devil in the Campo Santo (Pisa)

p. 485

Seal of Satan. Didron

p. 486


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