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Shebuel Captive of God. (1.) One of the descendants of Gershom, who had charge of the temple treasures in the time of David (Ch1 23:16; Ch1 26:24). (2.) One of the sons of Heman; one of those whose duty it was to "lift up the horn" in the temple service (Ch1 25:4, Ch1 25:5); called also Shubael (Ch1 25:20).

Shecaniah One intimate with Jehovah. (1.) A priest to whom the tenth lot came forth when David divided the priests (Ch1 24:11). (2.) One of the priests who were set "to give to their brethren by courses" of the daily portion (Ch2 31:15).

Shechaniah Id. (1.) A priest whose sons are mentioned in Ch1 3:21, Ch1 3:22. (2.) Ezr 8:5. (3.) Ezr 10:2. (4.) The father of Shemaiah, who repaired the wall of Jerusalem (Neh 3:29). (5.) The father-in-law of Tobiah (Neh 6:18). (6.) A priest who returned from the Captivity with Zerubbabel (Neh 12:3; marg., or Shebaniah).

Shechem Shoulder. (1.) The son of Hamor the Hivite (Gen 33:19; 34). (2.) A descendant of Manasseh (Num 26:31; Jos 17:2). (3.) A city in Samaria (Gen 33:18), called also Sichem (Gen 12:6), Sychem (Act 7:16). It stood in the narrow sheltered valley between Ebal on the north and Gerizim on the south, these mountains at their base being only some 500 yards apart. Here Abraham pitched his tent and built his first altar in the Promised Land, and received the first divine promise (Gen 12:6, Gen 12:7). Here also Jacob "bought a parcel of a field at the hands of the children of Hamor" after his return from Mesopotamia, and settled with his household, which he purged from idolatry by burying the teraphim of his followers under an oak tree, which was afterwards called "the oak of the sorcerer" (Gen 33:19; Gen 35:4; Jdg 9:37). (See MEONENIM.) Here too, after a while, he dug a well, which bears his name to this day (Joh 4:5, Joh 4:39). To Shechem Joshua gathered all Israel "before God," and delivered to them his second parting address (Jos 24:1). He "made a covenant with the people that day" at the very place where, on first entering the land, they had responded to the law from Ebal and Gerizim (Jos 24:25), the terms of which were recorded "in the book of the law of God", i.e., in the roll of the law of Moses; and in memory of this solemn transaction a great stone was set up "under an oak" (compare Gen 28:18; Gen 31:44; Exo 24:4; Jos 4:3, Jos 4:8, Jos 4:9), possibly the old "oak of Moreh," as a silent witness of the transaction to all coming time. Shechem became one of the cities of refuge, the central city of refuge for Western Palestine (Jos 20:7), and here the bones of Joseph were buried (Jos 24:32). Rehoboam was appointed king in Shechem (Kg1 12:1, Kg1 12:19), but Jeroboam afterwards took up his residence here. This city is mentioned in connection with our Lord's conversation with the woman of Samaria (Joh 4:5); and thus, remaining as it does to the present day, it is one of the oldest cities of the world. It is the modern Nablus, a contraction for Neapolis, the name given to it by Vespasian. It lies about a mile and a half up the valley on its southern slope, and on the north of Gerizim, which rises about 1,100 feet above it, and is about 34 miles north of Jerusalem. It contains about 10,000 inhabitants, of whom about 160 are Samaritans and 100 Jews, the rest being Christians and Mohammedans. The site of Shechem is said to be of unrivaled beauty. Stanley says it is "the most beautiful, perhaps the only very beautiful, spot in Central Palestine." Gaza, near Shechem, only mentioned Ch1 7:28, has entirely disappeared. It was destroyed at the time of the Conquest, and its place was taken by Shechem. (See SYCHAR.)

Shechinah A Chaldee word meaning resting-place, not found in Scripture, but used by the later Jews to designate the visible symbol of God's presence in the tabernacle, and afterwards in Solomon's temple. When the Lord led Israel out of Egypt, he went before them "in a pillar of a cloud." This was the symbol of his presence with his people. For references made to it during the wilderness wanderings, see Exo 14:20; Exo 40:34; Lev 9:23, Lev 9:24; Num 14:10; Num 16:19, Num 16:42. It is probable that after the entrance into Canaan this glory-cloud settled in the tabernacle upon the ark of the covenant in the most holy place. We have, however, no special reference to it till the consecration of the temple by Solomon, when it filled the whole house with its glory, so that the priests could not stand to minister (Kg1 8:10; Ch2 5:13, Ch2 5:14; Ch2 7:1). Probably it remained in the first temple in the holy of holies as the symbol of Jehovah's presence so long as that temple stood. It afterwards disappeared. (See CLOUD.)

Sheep Are of different varieties. Probably the flocks of Abraham and Isaac were of the wild species found still in the mountain regions of Persia and Kurdistan. After the Exodus, and as a result of intercourse with surrounding nations, other species were no doubt introduced into the herds of the people of Israel. They are frequently mentioned in Scripture. The care of a shepherd over his flock is referred to as illustrating God's care over his people (Psa 23:1, Psa 23:2; Psa 74:1; Psa 77:20; Isa 40:11; Isa 53:6; Joh 10:1, Joh 10:7). "The sheep of Palestine are longer in the head than ours, and have tails from 5 inches broad at the narrowest part to 15 inches at the widest, the weight being in proportion, and ranging generally from 10 to 14 lb., but sometimes extending to 30 lb. The tails are indeed huge masses of fat" (Geikie's Holy Land, etc.). The tail was no doubt the "rump" so frequently referred to in the Levitical sacrifices (Exo 29:22; Lev 3:9; Lev 7:3; Lev 9:19). Sheep-shearing was generally an occasion of great festivity (Gen 31:19; Gen 38:12, Gen 38:13; Sa1 25:4, Sa1 25:36; Sa2 13:23).

Sheep-fold A strong fenced enclosure for the protection of the sheep gathered within it (Num 32:24; Ch1 17:7; Psa 50:9; Psa 78:70). In Joh 10:16 the Authorized Version renders by "fold" two distinct Greek words, aule and poimne , the latter of which properly means a "flock," and is so rendered in the Revised Version. (See also Mat 26:31; Luk 2:8; Co1 9:7.) (See FOLD.)

Sheep-gate One of the gates of Jerusalem mentioned by Nehemiah (Neh 3:1, Neh 3:32; Neh 12:39). It was in the eastern wall of the city.

Sheep-market Occurs only in Joh 5:2 (marg., also R.V., "sheep-gate"). The word so rendered is an adjective, and it is uncertain whether the noun to be supplied should be "gate" or, following the Vulgate Version, "pool."

Shekel Weight, the common standard both of weight and value among the Hebrews. It is estimated at 220 English grains, or a little more than half an ounce avoirdupois. The "shekel of the sanctuary" (Exo 30:13; Num 3:47) was equal to twenty gerahs (Eze 45:12). There were shekels of gold (Ch1 21:25), of silver (Sa1 9:8), of brass (Sa1 17:5), and of iron (Sa1 17:7). When it became a coined piece of money, the shekel of gold was equivalent to about 2 pound of our money. Six gold shekels, according to the later Jewish system, were equal in value to fifty silver ones. The temple contribution, with which the public sacrifices were bought (Exo 30:13; Ch2 24:6), consisted of one common shekel, or a sanctuary half-shekel, equal to two Attic drachmas. The coin, a stater (q.v.), which Peter found in the fish's mouth paid this contribution for both him and Christ (Mat 17:24, Mat 17:27). A zuza, or quarter of a shekel, was given by Saul to Samuel (Sa1 9:8).