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Robbery Practiced by the Ishmaelites (Gen 16:12), the Chaldeans and Sabeans (Job 1:15, Job 1:17), and the men of Shechem (Jdg 9:25. See also Sa1 27:6; 30; Hos 4:2; Hos 6:9). Robbers infested Judea in our Lord's time (Luk 10:30; Joh 18:40; Act 5:36, Act 5:37; Act 21:38; Co2 11:26). The words of the Authorized Version, "counted it not robbery to be equal," etc. (Phi 2:6, Phi 2:7), are better rendered in the Revised Version, "counted it not a prize to be on an equality," etc., i.e., "did not look upon equality with God as a prize which must not slip from his grasp" = "did not cling with avidity to the prerogatives of his divine majesty; did not ambitiously display his equality with God." "Robbers of churches" should be rendered, as in the Revised Version, "of temples." In the temple at Ephesus there was a great treasure-chamber, and as all that was laid up there was under the guardianship of the goddess Diana, to steal from such a place would be sacrilege (Act 19:37).

Rock (Heb. tsur ), employed as a symbol of God in the Old Testament (Sa1 2:2; Sa2 22:3; Isa 17:10; Psa 28:1; Psa 31:2, Psa 31:3; Psa 89:26; Psa 95:1); also in the New Testament (Mat 16:18; Rom 9:33; Co1 10:4). In Dan 2:45 the Chaldaic form of the Hebrew word is translated "mountain." It ought to be translated "rock," as in Hab 1:12 in the Revised Version. The "rock" from which the stone is cut there signifies the divine origin of Christ. (See STONE.)

Roe (Heb. tsebi ), properly the gazelle (Arab. ghazal ), permitted for food (Deu 14:5; compare Deu 12:15, Deu 12:22; Deu 15:22; Kg1 4:23), noted for its swiftness and beauty and grace of form (Sa2 2:18; Ch1 12:8; Sol 2:9; Sol 7:3; Sol 8:14). The gazelle (Gazella dorcas) is found in great numbers in Palestine. "Among the gray hills of Galilee it is still 'the roe upon the mountains of Bether,' and I have seen a little troop of gazelles feeding on the Mount of Olives close to Jerusalem itself" (Tristram). The Hebrew word ( 'ayyalah ) in Pro 5:19 thus rendered (R.V., "doe"), is properly the "wild she-goat," the mountain goat, the ibex. (See Sa1 24:2; Psa 104:18; Job 39:1.)

Rogelim Fullers, a town of Gilead, the residence of Barzillai the Gileadite (Sa2 17:27; Sa2 19:31), probably near to Mahanaim.

Roll The common form of ancient books. The Hebrew word rendered "roll" or "volume" is meghillah, found in Ezr 6:2; Psa 40:7; Jer 36:2, Jer 36:6, Jer 36:23, Jer 36:28, Jer 36:29; Eze 2:9; Eze 3:1; Zac 5:1, Zac 5:2. "Rolls" (Chald. pl. of sephar, corresponding to Heb. sepher ) in Ezr 6:1 is rendered in the Revised Version "archives." In the New Testament the word "volume" (Heb 10:7; R.V., "roll") occurs as the rendering of the Greek kephalis , meaning the head or top of the stick or cylinder on which the manuscript was rolled, and hence the manuscript itself. (See BOOK.)

Romamti-ezer Elevation of help, one of the sons of Heman, "the king's seer in the words of God, to lift up the horn." He was head of the "four-and-twentieth" course of singers (Ch1 25:4, Ch1 25:31).

Romans, Epistle to the This epistle was probably written at Corinth. Phoebe (Rom 16:1) of Cenchrea conveyed it to Rome, and Gaius of Corinth entertained the apostle at the time of his writing it (Rom 16:23; Co1 1:14), and Erastus was chamberlain of the city, i.e., of Corinth (Ti2 4:20). The precise time at which it was written is not mentioned in the epistle, but it was obviously written when the apostle was about to "go unto Jerusalem to minister unto the saints", i.e., at the close of his second visit to Greece, during the winter preceding his last visit to that city (Rom 15:25; compare Act 19:21; Act 20:2, Act 20:3, Act 20:16; Co1 16:1), early in A.D. 58. It is highly probable that Christianity was planted in Rome by some of those who had been at Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost (Act 2:10). At this time the Jews were very numerous in Rome, and their synagogues were probably resorted to by Romans also, who in this way became acquainted with the great facts regarding Jesus as these were reported among the Jews. Thus a church composed of both Jews and Gentiles was formed at Rome. Many of the brethren went out to meet Paul on his approach to Rome. There are evidences that Christians were then in Rome in considerable numbers, and had probably more than one place of meeting (Rom 16:14, Rom 16:15). The object of the apostle in writing to this church was to explain to them the great doctrines of the gospel. His epistle was a "word in season." Himself deeply impressed with a sense of the value of the doctrines of salvation, he opens up in a clear and connected form the whole system of the gospel in its relation both to Jew and Gentile. This epistle is peculiar in this, that it is a systematic exposition of the gospel of universal application. The subject is here treated argumentatively, and is a plea for Gentiles addressed to Jews. In the Epistle to the Galatians, the same subject is discussed, but there the apostle pleads his own authority, because the church in Galatia had been founded by him. After the introduction (Rom 1:1), the apostle presents in it divers aspects and relations the doctrine of justification by faith (Rom. 1:16 - 11:36) on the ground of the imputed righteousness of Christ. He shows that salvation is all of grace, and only of grace. This main section of his letter is followed by various practical exhortations (Rom. 12:1 - 15:13), which are followed by a conclusion containing personal explanations and salutations, which contain the names of twenty-four Christians at Rome, a benediction, and a doxology (Rom 15:14).

Rome The most celebrated city in the world at the time of Christ. It is said to have been founded 753 B.C.. When the New Testament was written, Rome was enriched and adorned with the spoils of the world, and contained a population estimated at 1,200,000, of which the half were slaves, and including representatives of nearly every nation then known. It was distinguished for its wealth and luxury and profligacy. The empire of which it was the capital had then reached its greatest prosperity. On the day of Pentecost there were in Jerusalem "strangers from Rome," who doubtless carried with them back to Rome tidings of that great day, and were instrumental in founding the church there. Paul was brought to this city a prisoner, where he remained for two years (Act 28:30, Act 28:31) "in his own hired house." While here, Paul wrote his epistles to the Philippians, to the Ephesians, to the Colossians, to Philemon, and probably also to the Hebrews. He had during these years for companions Luke and Aristarchus (Act 27:2), Timothy (Phi 1:1; Col 1:1), Tychicus (Eph 6:21), Epaphroditus (Phi 4:18), and John Mark (Col 4:10). (See PAUL.) Beneath this city are extensive galleries, called "catacombs," which were used from about the time of the apostles (one of the inscriptions found in them bears the date A.D. 71) for some three hundred years as places of refuge in the time of persecution, and also of worship and burial. About four thousand inscriptions have been found in the catacombs. These give an interesting insight into the history of the church at Rome down to the time of Constantine.

Rose Many varieties of the rose proper are indigenous to Syria. The famed rose of Damascus is white, but there are also red and yellow roses. In Sol 2:1 and Isa 35:1 the Hebrew word habatstseleth (found only in these passages), rendered "rose" (R.V. marg., "autumn crocus"), is supposed by some to mean the oleander, by others the sweet-scented narcissus (a native of Palestine), the tulip, or the daisy; but nothing definite can be affirmed regarding it. The "rose of Sharon" is probably the cistus or rock-rose, several species of which abound in Palestine. "Mount Carmel especially abounds in the cistus, which in April covers some of the barer parts of the mountain with a glow not inferior to that of the Scottish heather." (See MYRRH [2].)

Rosh (Eze 38:2, Eze 38:3; Eze 39:1) is rendered "chief" in the Authorized Version. It is left untranslated as a proper name in the Revised Version. Some have supposed that the Russians are here meant, as one of the three Scythian tribes of whom Magog was the prince. They invaded the land of Judah in the days of Josiah. Herodotus, the Greek historian, says: "For twenty-eight years the Scythians ruled over Asia, and things were turned upside down by their violence and contempt." (See BETH-SHEAN.)