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Publius "The chief man of the island" of Malta (Act 28:7), who courteously entertained Paul and his shipwrecked companions for three days, till they found a more permanent place of residence; for they remained on the island for three months, till the stormy season had passed. The word here rendered "chief man" (protos) is supposed by some to be properly a Maltese term, the official title of the governor.

Pudens Bashful, a Christian at Rome, who sent his greetings to Timothy (Ti2 4:21). (See CLAUDIA.)

Pul (1.) An Assyrian king. It has been a question whether he was identical with Tiglath-pileser III. (q.v.), or was his predecessor. The weight of evidence is certainly in favour of their identity. Pul was the throne-name he bore in Babylonia as king of Babylon, and Tiglath-pileser the throne-name he bore as king of Assyria. He was the founder of what is called the second Assyrian empire. He consolidated and organized his conquests on a large scale. He subdued Northern Syria and Hamath, and the kings of Syria rendered him homage and paid him tribute. His ambition was to found in Western Asia a kingdom which should embrace the whole civilized world, having Nineveh as its centre. Menahem, king of Israel, gave him the enormous tribute of a thousand talents of silver, "that his hand might be with him" (Kg2 15:19; Ch1 5:26). The fact that this tribute could be paid showed the wealthy condition of the little kingdom of Israel even in this age of disorder and misgovernment. Having reduced Syria, he turned his arms against Babylon, which he subdued. The Babylonian king was slain, and Babylon and other Chaldean cities were taken, and Pul assumed the title of "King of Sumer [i.e., Shinar] and Accad." He was succeeded by Shalmanezer IV. (2.) A geographical name in Isa 66:19. Probably = Phut (Gen 10:6; Jer 46:9, R.V. "Put;" Eze 27:10).

Pulpit (Neh 8:4). (See EZRA.)

Pulse (Dan 1:12, Dan 1:16), R.V. "herbs," vegetable food in general.

Punishment The New Testament lays down the general principles of good government, but contains no code of laws for the punishment of offenders. Punishment proceeds on the principle that there is an eternal distinction between right and wrong, and that this distinction must be maintained for its own sake. It is not primarily intended for the reformation of criminals, nor for the purpose of deterring others from sin. These results may be gained, but crime in itself demands punishment. (See MURDER; THEFT.) Endless, of the impenitent and unbelieving. The rejection of this doctrine "cuts the ground from under the gospel... blots out the attribute of retributive justice; transmutes sin into misfortune instead of guilt; turns all suffering into chastisement; converts the piacular work of Christ into moral influence... The attempt to retain the evangelical theology in connection with it is futile" (Shedd).

Pur Or purim, a lot, lots, a festival instituted by the Jews (Est 9:24) in ironical commemoration of Haman's consultation of the Pur (a Persian word), for the purpose of ascertaining the auspicious day for executing his cruel plot against their nation. It became a national institution by the common consent of the Jews, and is observed by them to the present day, on the 14th and 15th of the month Adar, a month before the Passover.

Purification The process by which a person unclean, according to the Levitical law, and thereby cut off from the sanctuary and the festivals, was restored to the enjoyment of all these privileges. The great annual purification of the people was on the Day of Atonement (q.v.). But in the details of daily life there were special causes of ceremonial uncleanness which were severally provided for by ceremonial laws enacted for each separate case. For example, the case of the leper (Lev. 13, 14), and of the house defiled by leprosy (Lev 14:49; see also Mat 8:2). Uncleanness from touching a dead body (Num 19:11; Hos 9:4; Hag 2:13; Mat 23:27; Luk 11:44). The case of the high priest and of the Nazarite (Lev 21:1, Lev 21:10, Lev 21:11; Num 6:6, Num 6:7; Eze 44:25). Purification was effected by bathing and washing the clothes (Lev 14:8, Lev 14:9); by washing the hands (Deu 21:6; Mat 27:24); washing the hands and feet (Exo 30:18; Heb 6:2, "baptisms", R.V. marg., "washings;" Heb 9:10); sprinkling with blood and water (Exo 24:5; Heb 9:19), etc. Allusions to this rite are found in Psa 26:6; Psa 51:7; Eze 36:25; Heb 10:22.

Purse (1.) Gr. balantion , a bag (Luk 10:4; Luk 22:35, Luk 22:36). (2.) Gr. zone , properly a girdle (Mat 10:9; Mar 6:8), a money-belt. As to our Lord's sending forth his disciples without money in their purses, the remark has been made that in this "there was no departure from the simple manners of the country. At this day the farmer sets out on excursions quite as extensive without a para in his purse; and a modern Moslem prophet of Tarshisha thus sends forth his apostles over this identical region. No traveler in the East would hesitate to throw himself on the hospitality of any village." Thomson's Land and the Book. (See SCRIP.)

Put, Phut (1.) One of the sons of Ham (Gen 10:6). (2.) A land or people from among whom came a portion of the mercenary troops of Egypt, Jer 46:9 (A.V., "Libyans," but correctly, R.V., "Put"); Eze 27:10; Eze 30:5 (A.V., "Libya;" R.V., "Put"); Eze 38:5; Nah 3:9.