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Nail (1.) For fastening. (a.) Hebrew yathed, "piercing," a peg or nail of any material (Eze 15:3), more especially a tent-peg (Exo 27:19; Exo 35:18; Exo 38:20), with one of which Jael (q.v.) pierced the temples of Sisera (Jdg 4:21, Jdg 4:22). This word is also used metaphorically (Zac 10:4) for a prince or counsellor, just as "the battlebow" represents a warrior. (b.) Masmer, a "point," the usual word for a nail. The words of the wise are compared to "nails fastened by the masters of assemblies" (Ecc 12:11, A.V.). The Revised Version reads, "as nails well fastened are the words of the masters," etc. Others (as Plumptre) read, "as nails fastened are the masters of assemblies" (Compare Isa 22:23; Ezr 9:8). David prepared nails for the temple (Ch1 22:3; Ch2 3:9). The nails by which our Lord was fixed to the cross are mentioned (Joh 20:25; Col 2:14). (2.) Of the finger (Heb. tsipporen , "scraping"). To "pare the nails" is in Deu 21:12 (marg., "make," or "dress," or "suffer to grow") one of the signs of purification, separation from former heathenism (Compare Lev 14:8; Num 8:7). In Jer 17:1 this word is rendered "point."

Nain From Heb. nain , "green pastures," "lovely"), the name of a town near the gate of which Jesus raised to life a widow's son (Luk 7:11). It is identified with the village called Nein, standing on the north-western slope of Jebel ed-Duhy (= the "hill Moreh" = "Little hermon"), about 4 miles from Tabor and 25 southwest of Capernaum. At the foot of the slope on which it stands is the great plain of Esdraelon. This was the first miracle of raising the dead our Lord had wrought, and it excited great awe and astonishment among the people.

Naioth Dwellings, the name given to the prophetical college established by Samuel near Ramah. It consisted of a cluster of separate dwellings, and hence its name. David took refuge here when he fled from Saul (Sa1 19:18, Sa1 19:19, Sa1 19:22, Sa1 19:23), and here he passed a few weeks in peace (Compare Psa 11:1). It was probably the common residence of the "sons of the prophets."

Naked This word denotes (1.) absolute nakedness (Gen 2:25; Job 1:21; Ecc 5:15; Mic 1:8; Amo 2:16); (2.) being poorly clad (Isa 58:7; Jam 2:15). It denotes also (3.) the state of one who has laid aside his loose outer garment (Lat. nudus ), and appears clothed only in a long tunic or under robe worn next the skin (Sa1 19:24; Isa 47:3; compare Mar 14:52; Joh 21:7). It is used figuratively, meaning "being discovered" or "made manifest" (Job 26:6; Heb 4:13). In Exo 32:25 the expression "the people were naked" (A.V.) is more correctly rendered in the Revised Version "the people were broken loose", i.e., had fallen into a state of lawlessness and insubordination. In Ch2 28:19 the words "he made Judah naked" (A.V.), but Revised Version "he had dealt wantonly in Judah," mean "he had permitted Judah to break loose from all the restraints of religion."

Naomi The lovable; my delight, the wife of Elimelech, and mother of Mahlon and Chilion, and mother-in-law of Ruth (Rut 1:2, Rut 1:20, Rut 1:21; Rut 2:1). Elimelech and his wife left the district of Bethlehem-Judah, and found a new home in the uplands of Moab. In course of time he died, as also his two sons Mahlon and Chilion, who had married women of Moab, and three widows were left mourning the loss of their husbands. Naomi longs to return now to her own land, to Bethlehem. One of her widowed daughters-in-law, Ruth, accompanies her, and is at length married to Boaz (q.v.).

Naphish Refresher, one of the sons of Ishmael (Gen 25:15; Ch1 1:31). He was the father of an Arab tribe.

Naphtali My wrestling, the fifth son of Jacob. His mother was Bilhah, Rachel's handmaid (Gen 30:8). When Jacob went down into Egypt, Naphtali had four sons (Gen 46:24). Little is known of him as an individual.

Naphtali, Tribe of On this tribe Jacob pronounced the patriarchal blessing, "Naphtali is a hind let loose: he giveth goodly words" (Gen 49:21). It was intended thus to set forth under poetic imagery the future character and history of the tribe. At the time of the Exodus this tribe numbered 53,400 adult males (Num 1:43), but at the close of the wanderings they numbered only 45,400 (Num 26:48). Along with Dan and Asher they formed "the camp of Dan," under a common standard (Num 2:25), occupying a place during the march on the north side of the tabernacle. The possession assigned to this tribe is set forth in Jos 19:32. It lay in the north-eastern corner of the land, bounded on the east by the Jordan and the lakes of Merom and Galilee, and on the north it extended far into Coele-Syria, the valley between the two Lebanon ranges. It comprehended a greater variety of rich and beautiful scenery and of soil and climate than fell to the lot of any other tribe. The territory of Naphtali extended to about 800 square miles, being the double of that of Issachar. The region around Kedesh, one of its towns, was originally called Galil, a name afterwards given to the whole northern division of Canaan. A large number of foreigners settled here among the mountains, and hence it was called "Galilee of the Gentiles" (q.v.), Mat 4:15, Mat 4:16. The southern portion of Naphtali has been called the "Garden of Palestine." It was of unrivaled fertility. It was the principal scene of our Lord's public ministry. Here most of his parables were spoken and his miracles wrought. This tribe was the first to suffer from the invasion of Benhadad, king of Syria, in the reigns of Baasha, king of Israel, and Asa, king of Judah (Kg1 15:20; Ch2 16:4). In the reign of Pekah, king of Israel, the Assyrians under Tiglath-pileser swept over the whole north of Israel, and carried the people into captivity (Kg2 15:29). Thus the kingdom of Israel came to an end (722 B.C.). Naphtali is now almost wholly a desert, the towns of Tiberias, on the shore of the Lake of Galilee, and Safed being the only places in it of any importance.

Naphtali, Mount The mountainous district of Naphtali (Jos 20:7).

Naphtuhim A Hamitic tribe descended from Mizraim (Gen 10:13). Others identify this word with Napata, the name of the city and territory on the southern frontier of Mizraim, the modern Meroe, at the great bend of the Nile at Soudan. This city was the royal residence, it is said, of Queen Candace (Act 8:27). Here there are extensive and splendid ruins.