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Moloch King, the name of the national god of the Ammonites, to whom children were sacrificed by fire. He was the consuming and destroying and also at the same time the purifying fire. In Amo 5:26, "your Moloch" of the Authorized Version is "your king" in the Revised Version (Compare Act 7:43). Solomon (Kg1 11:7) erected a high place for this idol on the Mount of Olives, and from that time till the days of Josiah his worship continued (Kg2 23:10, Kg2 23:13). In the days of Jehoahaz it was partially restored, but after the Captivity wholly disappeared. He is also called Molech (Lev 18:21; Lev 20:2, etc.), Milcom (Kg1 11:5, Kg1 11:33, etc.), and Malcham (Zep 1:5). This god became Chemosh among the Moabites.

Money Of uncoined money the first notice we have is in the history of Abraham (Gen 13:2; Gen 20:16; Gen 24:35). Next, this word is used in connection with the purchase of the cave of Machpelah (Gen 23:16), and again in connection with Jacob's purchase of a field at Shalem (Gen 33:18, Gen 33:19) for "an hundred pieces of money" = an hundred Hebrew kesitahs (q.v.), i.e., probably pieces of money, as is supposed, bearing the figure of a lamb. The history of Joseph affords evidence of the constant use of money, silver of a fixed weight. This appears also in all the subsequent history of the Jewish people, in all their internal as well as foreign transactions. There were in common use in trade silver pieces of a definite weight, shekels, half-shekels, and quarter-shekels. But these were not properly coins, which are pieces of metal authoritatively issued, and bearing a stamp. Of the use of coined money we have no early notice among the Hebrews. The first mentioned is of Persian coinage, the daric (Ezr 2:69; Neh 7:70) and the 'adarkon (Ezr 8:27). The daric (q.v.) was a gold piece current in Palestine in the time of Cyrus. As long as the Jews, after the Exile, lived under Persian rule, they used Persian coins. These gave place to Greek coins when Palestine came under the dominion of the Greeks (331 B.C.), the coins consisting of gold, silver, and copper pieces. The usual gold pieces were staters (q.v.), and the silver coins tetradrachms and drachmas. In the year 140 B.C., Antiochus VII. gave permission to Simon the Maccabee to coin Jewish money. Shekels (q.v.) were then coined bearing the figure of the almond rod and the pot of manna.

Money-changer (Mat 21:12; Mar 11:15; Joh 2:15). Every Israelite from twenty years and upwards had to pay (Exo 30:13) into the sacred treasury half a shekel every year as an offering to Jehovah, and that in the exact Hebrew half-shekel piece. There was a class of men, who frequented the temple courts, who exchanged at a certain premium foreign moneys for these half-shekels to the Jews who came up to Jerusalem from all parts of the world. (See PASSOVER.) When our Lord drove the traffickers out of the temple, these money-changers fared worst. Their tables were overturned and they themselves were expelled.

Month Among the Egyptians the month of thirty days each was in use long before the time of the Exodus, and formed the basis of their calculations. From the time of the institution of the Mosaic law the month among the Jews was lunar. The cycle of religious feasts depended on the moon. The commencement of a month was determined by the observation of the new moon. The number of months in the year was usually twelve (Kg1 4:7; Ch1 27:1); but every third year an additional month (ve-Adar) was inserted, so as to make the months coincide with the seasons. "The Hebrews and Phoenicians had no word for month save 'moon,' and only saved their calendar from becoming vague like that of the Moslems by the interpolation of an additional month. There is no evidence at all that they ever used a true solar year such as the Egyptians possessed. The latter had twelve months of thirty days and five epagomenac or odd days.", Palestine Quarterly, January 1889. See table: Months Beginning with new moon Sa- cred Civil Seasons Festivals Nisan, or Abib (30 days) Exo 12:2, Exo 12:18; Est 3:7 March April 1 7 14. Paschal lamb killed 15. Passover 16. First-fruits of barley harvest 21. Passover ended Zif (29 days) Kg1 6:1 April May 2 8 Harvest 14. The second Passover (Num 9:10, Num 9:11) Sivan (30 days) May 3 9 6. Pentecost. First-fruits of Est 8:9 June wheat season Tammuz (29 days) Eze 8:14 June July 4 10 Summer Ab (30 days) July August 5 11 Elul (29 days) Neh 6:15 August Sept. 6 12 Hot Season Ethanim, Tisri Sept. 1. Feast of Trumpets. (30 days) Oct. 7 1 10. Day of Atonement Kg1 8:2 15. Feat of Tabernacles Seed First-fruits of wine and oil Marchesvan, Bul (29 days) Kg1 6:38 Oct. Nov. 8 2 Time Chisleu Nov. 25. Feast of the Dedication of (30 days) Dec. 9 3 the Temple Zac 7:1 Tebeth (29 days) Est 2:16 Dec. Jan. 10 4 Winter Sebat, Sevet Jan. 11 5 (30 days) Feb. Zac 1:7 Adar (29 days) Est 3:7 12 6 Cold Season 14, 15. Feast of Purim Ve-Adar was added to this month when necessary

Moon Heb. yareah, from its paleness (Ezr 6:15), and lebanah, the "white" (Sol 6:10; Isa 24:23), was appointed by the Creator to be with the sun "for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years" (Gen 1:14). A lunation was among the Jews the period of a month, and several of their festivals were held on the day of the new moon. It is frequently referred to along with the sun (Jos 10:12; Psa 72:5, Psa 72:7, Psa 72:17; Psa 89:36, Psa 89:37; Ecc 12:2; Isa 24:23, etc.), and also by itself (Psa 8:3; Psa 121:6). The great brilliance of the moon in Eastern countries led to its being early an object of idolatrous worship (Deu 4:19; Deu 17:3; Job 31:26), a form of idolatry against which the Jews were warned (Deu 4:19; Deu 17:3). They, however, fell into this idolatry, and offered incense (Kg2 23:5; Jer 8:2), and also cakes of honey, to the moon (Jer 7:18; Jer 44:17, Jer 44:25).

Mordecai The son of Jair, of the tribe of Benjamin. It has been alleged that he was carried into captivity with Jeconiah, and hence that he must have been at least one hundred and twenty-nine years old in the twelfth year of Ahasuerus (Xerxes). But the words of Esther do not necessarily lead to this conclusion. It was probably Kish of whom it is said (Est 2:6) that he "had been carried away with the captivity." He resided at Susa, the metropolis of Persia. He adopted his cousin Hadassah (Esther), an orphan child, whom he tenderly brought up as his own daughter. When she was brought into the king's harem and made queen in the room of the deposed queen Vashti, he was promoted to some office in the court of Ahasuerus, and was one of those who "sat in the king's gate" (Est 2:21). While holding this office, he discovered a plot of the eunuchs to put the king to death, which, by his vigilance, was defeated. His services to the king in this matter were duly recorded in the royal chronicles. Haman (q.v.) the Agagite had been raised to the highest position at court. Mordecai refused to bow down before him; and Haman, being stung to the quick by the conduct of Mordecai, resolved to accomplish his death in a wholesale destruction of the Jewish exiles throughout the Persian empire (Est 3:8). Tidings of this cruel scheme soon reached the ears of Mordecai, who communicated with Queen Esther regarding it, and by her wise and bold intervention the scheme was frustrated. The Jews were delivered from destruction, Mordecai was raised to a high rank, and Haman was executed on the gallows he had by anticipation erected for Mordecai (Esther 6:2-7:10). In memory of the signal deliverance thus wrought for them, the Jews to this day celebrate the feast (Est 9:26) of Purim (q.v.).

Moreh An archer, teacher; fruitful. (1.) A Canaanite probably who inhabited the district south of Shechem, between Mounts Ebal and Gerizim, and gave his name to the "plain" there (Gen 12:6). Here at this "plain," or rather (R.V.) "oak," of Moreh, Abraham built his first altar in the land of Palestine; and here the Lord appeared unto him. He afterwards left this plain and moved southward, and pitched his tent between Bethel on the west and Hai on the east (Gen 12:7, Gen 12:8).

Moreh, The Hill of Probably identical with "little Hermon," the modern Jebel ed-Duhy, or perhaps one of the lower spurs of this mountain. It is a gray ridge parallel to Gilboa on the north; and between the two lay the battle-field, the plain of Jezreel (q.v.), where Gideon overthrew the Midianites (Jdg 7:1).

Moresheth-gath Possession of the wine-press, the birthplace of the prophet Micah (Mic 1:14), who is called the "Morasthite" (Jer 26:18). This place was probably a suburb of Gath.

Moriah The chosen of Jehovah. Some contend that Mount Gerizim is meant, but most probably we are to regard this as one of the hills of Jerusalem. Here Solomon's temple was built, on the spot that had been the threshing-floor of Ornan the Jebusite (Sa2 24:24, Sa2 24:25; Ch2 3:1). It is usually included in Zion, to the north-east of which it lay, and from which it was separated by the Tyropoean valley. This was "the land of Moriah" to which Abraham went to offer up his son Isaac (Gen 22:2). It has been supposed that the highest point of the temple hill, which is now covered by the Mohammedan Kubbetes-Sakhrah, or "Dome of the Rock," is the actual site of Araunah's threshing-floor. Here also, one thousand years after Abraham, David built an altar and offered sacrifices to God. (See JERUSALEM; NUMBERING THE PEOPLE.)