Sacred Texts  Bible  Index 

Medeba Waters of quiet, an ancient Moabite town (Num 21:30). It was assigned to the tribe of Reuben (Jos 13:16). Here was fought the great battle in which Joab defeated the Ammonites and their allies (Ch1 19:7; compare Sa2 10:6). In the time of Isaiah (Isa 15:2) the Moabites regained possession of it from the Ammonites. (See HANUN.) The ruins of this important city, now Madeba or Madiyabah, are seen about 8 miles south-west of Heshbon, and 14 east of the Dead Sea. Among these are the ruins of what must have been a large temple. and of three cisterns of considerable extent, which are now dry. These cisterns may have originated the name Medeba, "waters of quiet." (See OMRI.)

Media Heb. Madai , which is rendered in the Authorized Version (1.) " Madai ," Gen 10:2; (2.) " Medes ," Kg2 17:6; Kg2 18:11; (3.) " Media ," Est 1:3; Est 10:2; Isa 21:2; Dan 8:20; (4.) " Mede ," only in Dan 11:1. We first hear of this people in the Assyrian cuneiform records, under the name of Amada, about 840 B.C.. They appear to have been a branch of the Aryans, who came from the east bank of the Indus, and were probably the predominant race for a while in the Mesopotamian valley. They consisted for three or four centuries of a number of tribes, each ruled by its own chief, who at length were brought under the Assyrian yoke (Kg2 17:6). From this subjection they achieved deliverance, and formed themselves into an empire under Cyaxares (633 B.C.). This monarch entered into an alliance with the king of Babylon, and invaded Assyria, capturing and destroying the city of Nineveh (625 B.C.), thus putting an end to the Assyrian monarchy (Nah 1:8; Nah 2:5, Nah 2:6; Nah 3:13, Nah 3:14). Media now rose to a place of great power, vastly extending its boundaries. But it did not long exist as an independent kingdom. It rose with Cyaxares, its first king, and it passed away with him; for during the reign of his son and successor Astyages, the Persians waged war against the Medes and conquered them, the two nations being united under one monarch, Cyrus the Persian (558 B.C.). The "cities of the Medes" are first mentioned in connection with the deportation of the Israelites on the destruction of Samaria (Kg2 17:6; Kg2 18:11). Soon afterwards Isaiah (Isa 13:17; Isa 21:2) speaks of the part taken by the Medes in the destruction of Babylon (Compare Jer 51:11, Jer 51:28). Daniel gives an account of the reign of Darius the Mede, who was made viceroy by Cyrus (Dan. 6:1-28). The decree of Cyrus, Ezra informs us (Ezr 6:2), was found in "the palace that is in the province of the Medes," Achmetha or Ecbatana of the Greeks, which is the only Median city mentioned in Scripture.

Mediator One who intervenes between two persons who are at variance, with a view to reconcile them. This word is not found in the Old Testament; but the idea it expresses is found in Job 9:33, in the word "daysman" (q.v.), marg., "umpire." This word is used in the New Testament to denote simply an internuncius, an ambassador, one who acts as a medium of communication between two contracting parties. In this sense Moses is called a mediator in Gal 3:19. Christ is the one and only mediator between God and man (Ti1 2:5; Heb 8:6; Heb 9:15; Heb 12:24). He makes reconciliation between God and man by his all-perfect atoning sacrifice. Such a mediator must be at once divine and human, divine, that his obedience and his sufferings might possess infinite worth, and that he might possess infinite wisdom and knowledge and power to direct all things in the kingdoms of providence and grace which are committed to his hands (Mat 28:18; Joh 5:22, Joh 5:25, Joh 5:26, Joh 5:27); and human, that in his work he might represent man, and be capable of rendering obedience to the law and satisfying the claims of justice (Heb 2:17, Heb 2:18; Heb 4:15, Heb 4:16), and that in his glorified humanity he might be the head of a glorified Church (Rom 8:29). This office involves the three functions of prophet, priest, and king, all of which are discharged by Christ both in his estate of humiliation and exaltation. These functions are so inherent in the one office that the quality appertaining to each gives character to every mediatorial act. They are never separated in the exercise of the office of mediator.

Meekness A calm temper of mind, not easily provoked (Jam 3:13). Peculiar promises are made to the meek (Mat 5:5; Isa 66:2). The cultivation of this spirit is enjoined (Col 3:12; Ti1 6:11; Zep 2:3), and is exemplified in Christ (Mat 11:29), Abraham (Gen. 13; Gen 16:5, Gen 16:6) Moses (Num 12:3), David (Zac 12:8; Sa2 16:10, Sa2 16:12), and Paul (Co1 9:19).

Megiddo Place of troops, originally one of the royal cities of the Canaanites (Jos 12:21), belonged to the tribe of Manasseh (Jdg 1:27), but does not seem to have been fully occupied by the Israelites till the time of Solomon (Kg1 4:12; Kg1 9:15). The valley or plain of Megiddo was part of the plain of Esdraelon, the great battle-field of Palestine. It was here Barak gained a notable victory over Jabin, the king of Hazor, whose general, Sisera, led on the hostile army. Barak rallied the warriors of the northern tribes, and under the encouragement of Deborah (q.v.), the prophetess, attacked the Canaanites in the great plain. The army of Sisera was thrown into complete confusion, and was engulfed in the waters of the Kishon, which had risen and overflowed its banks (Jdg 4:5). Many years after this (610 B.C.), Pharaohnecho II., on his march against the king of Assyria, passed through the plains of Philistia and Sharon; and King Josiah, attempting to bar his progress in the plain of Megiddo, was defeated by the Egyptians. He was wounded in battle, and died as they bore him away in his chariot towards Jerusalem (Kg2 23:29; Ch2 35:22), and all Israel mourned for him. So general and bitter was this mourning that it became a proverb, to which Zechariah (Zac 12:11, Zac 12:12) alludes. Megiddo has been identified with the modern el-Lejjun, at the head of the Kishon, under the north-eastern brow of Carmel, on the south-western edge of the plain of Esdraelon, and 9 miles west of Jezreel. Others identify it with Mujedd'a , 4 miles south-west of Bethshean, but the question of its site is still undetermined.

Mehetabeel Whose benefactor is God, the father of Delaiah, and grandfather of Shemaiah, who joined Sanballat against Nehemiah (Neh 6:10).

Mehetabel Wife of Hadad, one of the kings of Edom (Gen 36:39).

Mehujael Smitten by God, the son of Irad, and father of Methusael (Gen 4:18).

Mehuman Faithful, one of the eunuchs whom Ahasuerus (Xerxes) commanded to bring in Vashti (Est 1:10).

Mehunims Habitations, (Ch2 26:7; R.V. "Meunim," Vulg. Ammonitae), a people against whom Uzziah waged a successful war. This word is in Hebrew the plural of Ma'on , and thus denotes the Maonites who inhabited the country on the eastern side of the Wady el-Arabah. They are again mentioned in Ch1 4:41 (R.V.), in the reign of King Hezekiah, as a Hamite people, settled in the eastern end of the valley of Gedor, in the wilderness south of Palestine. In this passage the Authorized Version has "habitation," erroneously following the translation of Luther. They are mentioned in the list of those from whom the Nethinim were made up (Ezr 2:50; Neh 7:52).