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Leviticus The third book of the Pentateuch; so called in the Vulgate, after the LXX., because it treats chiefly of the Levitical service. In the first section of the book (Lev. 1 - 17), which exhibits the worship itself, there is, (1.) A series of laws (Lev. 1 - 7) regarding sacrifices, burnt-offerings, meat-offerings, and thank-offerings (Lev. 1 - 3), sin-offerings and trespass-offerings (Lev. 4; 5), followed by the law of the priestly duties in connection with the offering of sacrifices (Lev. 6; 7). (2.) An historical section (Lev. 8 - 10), giving an account of the consecration of Aaron and his sons (Lev. 8); Aaron's first offering for himself and the people (Lev. 9); Nadab and Abihu's presumption in offering "strange fire before Jehovah," and their punishment (Lev. 10). (3.) Laws concerning purity, and the sacrifices and ordinances for putting away impurity (Lev. 11 - 16). An interesting fact may be noted here. Canon Tristram, speaking of the remarkable discoveries regarding the flora and fauna of the Holy Land by the Palestine Exploration officers, makes the following statement: "Take these two catalogues of the clean and unclean animals in the books of Leviticus [11] and Deuteronomy [14]. There are eleven in Deuteronomy which do not occur in Leviticus, and these are nearly all animals and birds which are not found in Egypt or the Holy Land, but which are numerous in the Arabian desert. They are not named in Leviticus a few weeks after the departure from Egypt; but after the people were thirty-nine years in the desert they are named, a strong proof that the list in Deuteronomy was written at the end of the journey, and the list in Leviticus at the beginning. It fixes the writing of that catalogue to one time and period only, viz., that when the children of Israel were familiar with the fauna and the flora of the desert" (Palest. Expl. Quart., Jan. 1887). (4.) Laws marking the separation between Israel and the heathen (Lev. 17 - 20). (5.) Laws about the personal purity of the priests, and their eating of the holy things (Lev. 20; 21); about the offerings of Israel, that they were to be without blemish (Lev. 22:17-33); and about the due celebration of the great festivals (Lev. 23; 25). (6.) Then follow promises and warnings to the people regarding obedience to these commandments, closing with a section on vows. The various ordinances contained in this book were all delivered in the space of a month (Compare Exo 40:17; Num 1:1), the first month of the second year after the Exodus. It is the third book of Moses. No book contains more of the very words of God. He is almost throughout the whole of it the direct speaker. This book is a prophecy of things to come, a shadow whereof the substance is Christ and his kingdom. The principles on which it is to be interpreted are laid down in the Epistle to the Hebrews. It contains in its complicated ceremonial the gospel of the grace of God.

Levy (Kg1 4:6, R.V.; Kg1 5:13), forced service. The service of tributaries was often thus exacted by kings. Solomon raised a "great levy" of 30,000 men, about two per cent. of the population, to work for him by courses on Lebanon. Adoram (Kg1 12:18) presided over this forced labour service (Ger. Frohndienst; Fr. corvee).

Lewdness (Act 18:14), villainy or wickedness, not lewdness in the modern sense of the word. The word "lewd" is from the Saxon, and means properly "ignorant," "unlearned," and hence low, vicious (Act 17:5).

Libertine Found only Act 6:9, one who once had been a slave, but who had been set at liberty, or the child of such a person. In this case the name probably denotes those descendants of Jews who had been carried captives to Rome as prisoners of war by Pompey and other Roman generals in the Syrian wars, and had afterwards been liberated. In A.D. 19 these manumitted Jews were banished from Rome. Many of them found their way to Jerusalem, and there established a synagogue.

Libnah Transparency; whiteness. (1.) One of the stations of the Israelites in the wilderness (Num 33:20, Num 33:21). (2.) One of the royal cities of the Canaanites taken by Joshua (Jos 10:29; Jos 12:15). It became one of the Levitical towns in the tribe of Judah (Jos 21:13), and was strongly fortified. Sennacherib laid siege to it (Kg2 19:8; Isa 37:8). It was the native place of Hamutal, the queen of Josiah (Kg2 23:31). It stood near Lachish, and has been identified with the modern Arak el-Menshiyeh.

Libni White, one of the two sons of Gershon, the son of Levi (Exo 6:17; Num 3:18, Num 3:21).

Libya The country of the Ludim (Gen 10:13), Northern Africa, a large tract lying along the Mediterranean, to the west of Egypt (Act 2:10). Cyrene was one of its five cities.

Lice (Heb. kinnim ), the creatures employed in the third plague sent upon Egypt (Exo 8:16). They were miraculously produced from the dust of the land. "The entomologists Kirby and Spence place these minute but disgusting insects in the very front rank of those which inflict injury upon man. A terrible list of examples they have collected of the ravages of this and closely allied parasitic pests." The plague of lice is referred to in Psa 105:31. Some have supposed that the word denotes not lice properly, but gnats. Others, with greater probability, take it to mean the "tick" which is much larger than lice.

Lie An intentional violation of the truth. Lies are emphatically condemned in Scripture (Joh 8:44; Ti1 1:9, Ti1 1:10; Rev 21:27; Rev 22:15). Mention is made of the lies told by good men, as by Abraham (Gen 12:12, Gen 12:13; Gen 20:2), Isaac (Gen 26:7), and Jacob (Gen 27:24); also by the Hebrew midwives (Exo 1:15), by Michal (Sa1 19:14), and by David (Sa1 20:6). (See ANANIAS.)

Lieutenant (only in A.V. Est 3:12; Est 8:9; Est 9:3; Ezr 8:36), a governor or viceroy of a Persian province having both military and civil power. Correctly rendered in the Revised Version "satrap."