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Judah, Kingdom of When the disruption took place at Shechem, at first only the tribe of Judah followed the house of David. But very soon after the tribe of Benjamin joined the tribe of Judah, and Jerusalem became the capital of the new kingdom (Jos 18:28), which was called the kingdom of Judah. It was very small in extent, being only about the size of the Scottish county of Perth. For the first sixty years the kings of Judah aimed at re-establishing their authority over the kingdom of the other ten tribes, so that there was a state of perpetual war between them. For the next eighty years there was no open war between them. For the most part they were in friendly alliance, co-operating against their common enemies, especially against Damascus. For about another century and a half Judah had a somewhat checkered existence after the termination of the kingdom of Israel till its final overthrow in the destruction of the temple (588 B.C.) by Nebuzar-adan, who was captain of Nebuchadnezzar's body-guard (Kg2 25:8). The kingdom maintained a separate existence for three hundred and eighty-nine years. It occupied an area of 3,435 square miles. (See ISRAEL, KINGDOM OF.)

Judas The Graecized form of Judah. (1.) The patriarch (Mat 1:2, Mat 1:3). (2.) Son of Simon (Joh 6:71; Joh 13:2, Joh 13:26), surnamed Iscariot, i.e., a man of Kerioth (Jos 15:25). His name is uniformly the last in the list of the apostles, as given in the synoptic (i.e., the first three) Gospels. The evil of his nature probably gradually unfolded itself till "Satan entered into him" (Joh 13:27), and he betrayed our Lord (Joh 18:3). Afterwards he owned his sin with "an exceeding bitter cry," and cast the money he had received as the wages of his iniquity down on the floor of the sanctuary, and "departed and went and hanged himself" (Mat 27:5). He perished in his guilt, and "went unto his own place" (Act 1:25). The statement in Act 1:18 that he "fell headlong and burst asunder in the midst, and all his bowels gushed out," is in no way contrary to that in Mat 27:5. The suicide first hanged himself, perhaps over the valley of Hinnom, "and the rope giving way, or the branch to which he hung breaking, he fell down headlong on his face, and was crushed and mangled on the rocky pavement below." Why such a man was chosen to be an apostle we know not, but it is written that "Jesus knew from the beginning who should betray him" (Joh 6:64). Nor can any answer be satisfactorily given to the question as to the motives that led Judas to betray his Master. "Of the motives that have been assigned we need not care to fix on any one as that which simply led him on. Crime is, for the most part, the result of a hundred motives rushing with bewildering fury through the mind of the criminal." (3.) A Jew of Damascus (Act 9:11), to whose house Ananias was sent. The street called "Straight" in which it was situated is identified with the modern "street of bazaars," where is still pointed out the so-called "house of Judas." (4.) A Christian teacher, surnamed Barsabas. He was sent from Jerusalem to Antioch along with Paul and Barnabas with the decision of the council (Act 15:22, Act 15:27, Act 15:32). He was a "prophet" and a "chief man among the brethren."

Jude =Judas Among the apostles there were two who bore this name, (1.) Judas (Jde 1:1; Mat 13:55; Joh 14:22; Act 1:13), called also Lebbaeus or Thaddaeus (Mat 10:3; Mar 3:18); and (2.) Judas Iscariot (Mat 10:4; Mar 3:19). He who is called "the brother of James" (Luk 6:16), may be the same with the Judas surnamed Lebbaeus. The only thing recorded regarding him is in Joh 14:22.

Jude, Epistle of The author was "Judas, the brother of James" the Less (Jde 1:1), called also Lebbaeus (Mat 10:3) and Thaddaeus (Mar 3:18). The genuineness of this epistle was early questioned, and doubts regarding it were revived at the time of the Reformation; but the evidences in support of its claims are complete. It has all the marks of having proceeded from the writer whose name it bears. There is nothing very definite to determine the time and place at which it was written. It was apparently written in the later period of the apostolic age, for when it was written there were persons still alive who had heard the apostles preach (Jde 1:17). It may thus have been written about A.D. 66 or 70, and apparently in Palestine. The epistle is addressed to Christians in general (Jde 1:1), and its design is to put them on their guard against the misleading efforts of a certain class of terrorists to which they were exposed. The style of the epistle is that of an "impassioned invective, in the impetuous whirlwind of which the writer is hurried along, collecting example after example of divine vengeance on the ungodly; heaping epithet upon epithet, and piling image upon image, and, as it were, labouring for words and images strong enough to depict the polluted character of the licentious apostates against whom he is warning the Church; returning again and again to the subject, as though all language was insufficient to give an adequate idea of their profligacy, and to express his burning hatred of their perversion of the doctrines of the gospel." The striking resemblance this epistle bears to 2 Peter suggests the idea that the author of the one had seen the epistle of the other. The doxology with which the epistle concludes is regarded as the finest in the New Testament.

Judea After the Captivity this name was applied to the whole of the country west of the Jordan (Hag 1:1, Hag 1:14; Hag 2:2). But under the Romans, in the time of Christ, it denoted the southernmost of the three divisions of Palestine (Mat 2:1, Mat 2:5; Mat 3:1; Mat 4:25), although it was also sometimes used for Palestine generally (Act 28:21). The province of Judea, as distinguished from Galilee and Samaria, included the territories of the tribes of Judah, Benjamin, Dan, Simeon, and part of Ephraim. Under the Romans it was a part of the province of Syria, and was governed by a procurator.

Judge (Heb. shophet , pl. shophetim ), properly a magistrate or ruler, rather than one who judges in the sense of trying a cause. This is the name given to those rulers who presided over the affairs of the Israelites during the interval between the death of Joshua and the accession of Saul (Jdg 2:18), a period of general anarchy and confusion. "The office of judges or regents was held during life, but it was not hereditary, neither could they appoint their successors. Their authority was limited by the law alone, and in doubtful cases they were directed to consult the divine King through the priest by Urim and Thummim (Num 27:21). Their authority extended only over those tribes by whom they had been elected or acknowledged. There was no income attached to their office, and they bore no external marks of dignity. The only cases of direct divine appointment are those of Gideon and Samson, and the latter stood in the peculiar position of having been from before his birth ordained 'to begin to deliver Israel.' Deborah was called to deliver Israel, but was already a judge. Samuel was called by the Lord to be a prophet but not a judge, which ensued from the high gifts the people recognized as dwelling in him; and as to Eli, the office of judge seems to have devolved naturally or rather ex officio upon him." Of five of the judges, Tola (Jdg 10:1), Jair (Jdg 10:3), Ibzan, Elon, and Abdon (Jdg 12:8), we have no record at all beyond the bare fact that they were judges. Sacred history is not the history of individuals but of the kingdom of God in its onward progress. In Exo 2:14 Moses is so styled. This fact may indicate that while for revenue purposes the "taskmasters" were over the people, they were yet, just as at a later time when under the Romans, governed by their own rulers.

Judges, Book of Is so called because it contains the history of the deliverance and government of Israel by the men who bore the title of the "judges." The book of Ruth originally formed part of this book, but about A.D. 450 it was separated from it and placed in the Hebrew scriptures immediately after the Song of Solomon. The book contains, (1.) An introduction (Judg. 1 - 3:6), connecting it with the previous narrative in Joshua, as a "link in the chain of books." (2.) The history of the thirteen judges (Judg. 3:7 - 16:31) see table: Thirteen Judges Years FIRST PERIOD (Judg. 3:7 - 5) Servitude under Chushan-rishathaim of Mesopotamia OTHNIEL delivers Israel-rest Servitude under Eglon of Moab: Ammon, Amalek EHUD's deliverance-rest SHAMGAR Servitude under Jabin of Hazor in Canaan DEBORAH [BARAK] 8 40 18 80 Unknown 20 40 First period total of years 206 SECOND PERIOD (Judg. 6 - 10:5) Servitude under Midian, Amalek, and children of the east GIDEON ABIMELECH, Gideon's son, reigns as king over Israel TOLA JAIR 7 40 3 23 22 Second period total of years 95 THIRD PERIOD (Jdg 10:6) Servitude under Ammonites with the Philistines JEPHTHAH IBZAN ELON ABDON 18 6 7 10 8 Third period total of years 49 FOURTH PERIOD (Judg. 13 - 16) Servitude under Philistines SAMSON 40 20 Fourth period total of years 60 Total of four periods 410 Samson's exploits probably synchronize with the period immediately preceding the national repentance and reformation under Samuel (Sa1 7:2). After Samson came Eli, who was both high priest and judge. He directed the civil and religious affairs of the people for forty years, at the close of which the Philistines again invaded the land and oppressed it for twenty years. Samuel was raised up to deliver the people from this oppression, and he judged Israel for some twelve years, when the direction of affairs fell into the hands of Saul, who was anointed king. If Eli and Samuel are included, there were then fifteen judges. But the chronology of this whole period is uncertain. (3.) The historic section of the book is followed by an appendix (Judg. 17 - 21), which has no formal connection with that which goes before. It records (a) the conquest (Jdg 17:1, 18) of Laish by a portion of the tribe of Dan; and (b) the almost total extinction of the tribe of Benjamin by the other tribes, in consequence of their assisting the men of Gibeah (Judg. 19 - 21). This section properly belongs to the period only a few years after the death of Joshua. It shows the religious and moral degeneracy of the people. The author of this book was most probably Samuel. The internal evidence both of the first sixteen chapters and of the appendix warrants this conclusion. It was probably composed during Saul's reign, or at the very beginning of David's. The words in Jdg 18:30, Jdg 18:31, imply that it was written after the taking of the ark by the Philistines, and after it was set up at Nob (Sa1 21:1). In David's reign the ark was at Gibeon (Ch1 16:39)

Judgment Hall Gr. praitorion (Joh 18:28, Joh 18:33; Joh 19:9; Mat 27:27), "common hall." In all these passages the Revised Version renders "palace." In Mar 15:16 the word is rendered "Praetorium" (q.v.), which is a Latin word, meaning literally the residence of the praetor, and then the governor's residence in general, though not a praetor. Throughout the Gospels the word "praitorion" has this meaning (Compare Act 23:35). Pilate's official residence when he was in Jerusalem was probably a part of the fortress of Antonia. The trial of our Lord was carried on in a room or office of the palace. The "whole band" spoken of by Mark were gathered together in the palace court.

Judgment, The final The sentence that will be passed on our actions at the last day (Matt. 25; Rom 14:10, Rom 14:11; Co2 5:10; Th2 1:7). The judge is Jesus Christ, as mediator. All judgment is committed to him (Act 17:31; Joh 5:22, Joh 5:27; Rev 1:7). "It pertains to him as mediator to complete and publicly manifest the salvation of his people and the overthrow of his enemies, together with the glorious righteousness of his work in both respects." The persons to be judged are, (1.) the whole race of Adam without a single exception (Matt. 25:31-46; Co1 15:51, Co1 15:52; Rev 20:11); and (2.) the fallen angels (Pe2 2:4; Jde 1:6). The rule of judgment is the standard of God's law as revealed to men, the heathen by the law as written on their hearts (Luk 12:47, Luk 12:48; Rom 2:12); the Jew who "sinned in the law shall be judged by the law" (Rom 2:12); the Christian enjoying the light of revelation, by the will of God as made known to him (Mat 11:20; Joh 3:19). Then the secrets of all hearts will be brought to light (Co1 4:5; Luk 8:17; Luk 12:2, Luk 12:3) to vindicate the justice of the sentence pronounced. The time of the judgment will be after the resurrection (Heb 9:27; Act 17:31). As the Scriptures represent the final judgment "as certain [Ecc 11:9], universal [Co2 5:10], righteous [Rom 2:5], decisive [Co1 15:52], and eternal as to its consequences [Heb 6:2], let us be concerned for the welfare of our immortal interests, flee to the refuge set before us, improve our precious time, depend on the merits of the Redeemer, and adhere to the dictates of the divine word, that we may be found of him in peace."

Judgments of God (1.) The secret decisions of God's will (Psa 110:5; Psa 36:6). (2.) The revelations of his will (Exo 21:1; Deu 6:20; Ps. 119:7-175). (3.) The infliction of punishment on the wicked (Exo 6:6; Exo 12:12; Eze 25:11; Rev 16:7), such as is mentioned in Gen. 7; Gen 19:24, Gen 19:25; Jdg 1:6, Jdg 1:7; Act 5:1, etc.