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Joash Whom Jehovah bestowed. (1.) A contracted form of Jehoash, the father of Gideon (Jdg 6:11, Jdg 6:29; Jdg 8:13, Jdg 8:29, Jdg 8:32). (2.) One of the Benjamite archers who joined David at Ziklag (Ch1 12:3). (3.) One of King Ahab's sons (Kg1 22:26). (4.) King of Judah (Kg2 11:2; Kg2 12:19, Kg2 12:20). (See JEHOASH [1].) (5.) King of Israel (Kg2 13:9, Kg2 13:12, Kg2 13:13, Kg2 13:25). (See JEHOASH [2].) (6.) Ch1 7:8. (7.) One who had charge of the royal stores of oil under David and Solomon (Ch1 27:28).

Job Persecuted, an Arabian patriarch who resided in the land of Uz (q.v.). While living in the midst of great prosperity, he was suddenly overwhelmed by a series of sore trials that fell upon him. Amid all his sufferings he maintained his integrity. Once more God visited him with the rich tokens of his goodness and even greater prosperity than he had enjoyed before. He survived the period of trial for one hundred and forty years, and died in a good old age, an example to succeeding generations of integrity (Eze 14:14, Eze 14:20) and of submissive patience under the sorest calamities (Jam 5:11). His history, so far as it is known, is recorded in his book.

Job, Book of A great diversity of opinion exists as to the authorship of this book. From internal evidence, such as the similarity of sentiment and language to those in the Psalms and Proverbs (see Ps. 88 and 89), the prevalence of the idea of "wisdom," and the style and character of the composition, it is supposed by some to have been written in the time of David and Solomon. Others argue that it was written by Job himself, or by Elihu, or Isaiah, or perhaps more probably by Moses, who was "learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians, and mighty in words and deeds" (Act 7:22). He had opportunities in Midian for obtaining the knowledge of the facts related. But the authorship is altogether uncertain. As to the character of the book, it is a historical poem, one of the greatest and sublime poems in all literature. Job was a historical person, and the localities and names were real and not fictitious. It is "one of the grandest portions of the inspired Scriptures, a heavenly-replenished storehouse of comfort and instruction, the patriarchal Bible, and a precious monument of primitive theology. It is to the Old Testament what the Epistle to the Romans is to the New." It is a didactic narrative in a dramatic form. This book was apparently well known in the days of Ezekiel, 600 B.C. (Eze 14:14). It formed a part of the sacred Scriptures used by our Lord and his apostles, and is referred to as a part of the inspired Word (Heb 12:5; Co1 3:19). The subject of the book is the trial of Job, its occasion, nature, endurance, and issue. It exhibits the harmony of the truths of revelation and the dealings of Providence, which are seen to be at once inscrutable, just, and merciful. It shows the blessedness of the truly pious, even amid sore afflictions, and thus ministers comfort and hope to tried believers of every age. It is a book of manifold instruction, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, and for instruction in righteousness (Ti2 3:16). It consists of, (1.) An historical introduction in prose (Job 1, Job 2:1). (2.) The controversy and its solution, in poetry (Job 3 - 42:6). Job's desponding lamentation (Job 3) is the occasion of the controversy which is carried on in three courses of dialogues between Job and his three friends. The first course gives the commencement of the controversy (Job 4 - 14); the second the growth of the controversy (Job 15 - 21); and the third the height of the controversy (Job 22 - 27). This is followed by the solution of the controversy in the speeches of Elihu and the address of Jehovah, followed by Job's humble confession (Job 42:1) of his own fault and folly. (3.) The third division is the historical conclusion, in prose (Job 42:7). Sir J. W. Dawson in "The Expositor" says: "It would now seem that the language and theology of the book of Job can be better explained by supposing it to be a portion of Minean [Southern Arabia] literature obtained by Moses in Midian than in any other way. This view also agrees better than any other with its references to natural objects, the art of mining, and other matters."

Jobab Dweller in the desert. (1.) One of the sons of Joktan, and founder of an Arabian tribe (Gen 10:29). (2.) King of Edom, succeeded Bela (Gen 36:33, Gen 36:34). (3.) A Canaanitish king (Jos 11:1) who joined the confederacy against Joshua.

Jochebed Jehovah is her glory, the wife of Amram, and the mother of Miriam, Aaron, and Moses (Num 26:59). She is spoken of as the sister of Kohath, Amram's father (Exo 6:20; compare Ex. 16, 18; Exo 2:1).

Joel Jehovah is his God. (1.) The oldest of Samuel's two sons appointed by him as judges in Beersheba (Sa1 8:2). (2.) A descendant of Reuben (Ch1 5:4, Ch1 5:8). (3.) One of David's famous warriors (Ch1 11:38). (4.) A Levite of the family of Gershom (Ch1 15:7, Ch1 15:11). (5.) Ch1 7:3. (6.) Ch1 27:20. (7.) The second of the twelve minor prophets. He was the son of Pethuel. His personal history is only known from his book.

Joel, Book of Joel was probably a resident in Judah, as his commission was to that people. He makes frequent mention of Judah and Jerusalem (Joe 1:14; Joe 2:1, Joe 2:15, Joe 2:32; Joe 3:1, Joe 3:12, Joe 3:17, Joe 3:20, Joe 3:21). He probably flourished in the reign of Uzziah (about 800 B.C.), and was contemporary with Amos and Isaiah. The contents of this book are, (1.) A prophecy of a great public calamity then impending over the land, consisting of a want of water and an extraordinary plague of locusts (Joel 1:1 - 2:11). (2.) The prophet then calls on his countrymen to repent and to turn to God, assuring them of his readiness to forgive (Joe 2:12), and foretelling the restoration of the land to its accustomed fruitfulness (Joe 2:18). (3.) Then follows a Messianic prophecy, quoted by Peter (Act 2:39). (4.) Finally, the prophet foretells portents and judgments as destined to fall on the enemies of God (Joel 3, but in the Hebrew text Joel 4, Heb. Text).

Joelah A Benjamite who joined David at Ziklag (Ch1 12:7).

Joezer Jehovah is his help, one of the Korhites who became part of David's body-guard (Ch1 12:6).

Johanan Whom Jehovah graciously bestows. (1.) One of the Gadite heroes who joined David in the desert of Judah (Ch1 12:12). (2.) The oldest of King Josiah's sons (Ch1 3:15). (3.) Son of Careah, one of the Jewish chiefs who rallied round Gedaliah, whom Nebuchadnezzar had made governor in Jerusalem (Kg2 25:23; Jer 40:8). He warned Gedaliah of the plans of Ishmael against him, a warning which was unheeded (Jer 40:13, Jer 40:16). He afterwards pursued the murderer of the governor, and rescued the captives (Jer 41:8, Jer 41:13, Jer 41:15, Jer 41:16). He and his associates subsequently fled to Tahpanhes in Egypt (Jer 43:2, Jer 43:4, Jer 43:5), taken Jeremiah with them. "The flight of Gedaliah's community to Egypt extinguished the last remaining spark of life in the Jewish state. The work of the ten centuries since Joshua crossed the Jordan had been undone."