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Jeiel Snatched away by God. (1.) A descendant of Benjamin (Ch1 9:35; Ch1 8:29). (2.) One of the Levites who took part in praising God on the removal of the ark to Jerusalem (Ch1 16:5). (3.) Ch2 29:13. A Levite of the sons of Asaph. (4.) Ch2 26:11. A scribe. (5.) Ch1 5:7. A Reubenite chief. (6.) One of the chief Levites, who made an offering for the restoration of the Passover by Josiah (Ch2 35:9). (7.) Ezr 8:13. (8.) Ezr 10:43.

Jemima Dove, the eldest of Job's three daughters born after his time of trial (Job 42:14).

Jephthah Whom God sets free, or the breaker through, a "mighty man of valour" who delivered Israel from the oppression of the Ammonites (Judg. 11:1-33), and judged Israel six years (Jdg 12:7). He has been described as "a wild, daring, Gilead mountaineer, a sort of warrior Elijah." After forty-five years of comparative quiet Israel again apostatized, and in "process of time the children of Ammon made war against Israel" (Jdg 11:5). In their distress the elders of Gilead went to fetch Jephthah out of the land of Tob, to which he had fled when driven out wrongfully by his brothers from his father's inheritance (2), and the people made him their head and captain. The "elders of Gilead" in their extremity summoned him to their aid, and he at once undertook the conduct of the war against Ammon. Twice he sent an embassy to the king of Ammon, but in vain. War was inevitable. The people obeyed his summons, and "the spirit of the Lord came upon him." Before engaging in war he vowed that if successful he would offer as a "burnt-offering" whatever would come out of the door of his house first to meet him on his return. The defeat of the Ammonites was complete. "He smote them from Aroer, even till thou come to Minnith, even twenty cities, and unto the plain of the vineyards [Heb. 'Abel Keramim ], with a very great slaughter" (Jdg 11:33). The men of Ephraim regarded themselves as insulted in not having been called by Jephthah to go with him to war against Ammon. This led to a war between the men of Gilead and Ephraim (Jos 12:4), in which many of the Ephraimites perished. (See SHIBBOLETH.) "Then died Jephthah the Gileadite, and was buried in one of the cities of Gilead" (Jos 12:7).

Jephthah's vow (Jdg 11:30, Jdg 11:31). After a crushing defeat of the Ammonites, Jephthah returned to his own house, and the first to welcome him was his own daughter. This was a terrible blow to the victor, and in his despair he cried out, "Alas, my daughter! thou hast brought me very low... I have opened my mouth unto the Lord, and cannot go back." With singular nobleness of spirit she answered, "Do to me according to that which hath proceeded out of thy mouth." She only asked two months to bewail her maidenhood with her companions upon the mountains. She utters no reproach against her father's rashness, and is content to yield her life since her father has returned a conqueror. But was it so? Did Jephthah offer up his daughter as a "burnt-offering"? This question has been much debated, and there are many able commentators who argue that such a sacrifice was actually offered. We are constrained, however, by a consideration of Jephthah's known piety as a true worshipper of Jehovah, his evident acquaintance with the law of Moses, to which such sacrifices were abhorrent (Lev 18:21; Lev 20:2; Deu 12:31), and the place he holds in the roll of the heroes of the faith in the Epistle to the Hebrews (Heb 11:32), to conclude that she was only doomed to a life of perpetual celibacy.

Jephunneh Nimble, or a beholder. (1.) The father of Caleb, who was Joshua's companion in exploring Canaan (Num 13:6), a Kenezite (Jos 14:14). (2.) One of the descendants of Asher (Ch1 7:38).

Jerahmeel Loving God. (1.) The son of Hezron, the brother of Caleb (Ch1 2:9, Ch1 2:25, Ch1 2:26, etc.). (2.) The son of Kish, a Levite (Ch1 24:29). (3.) Son of Hammelech (Jer 36:26).

Jeremiah Raised up or appointed by Jehovah. (1.) A Gadite who joined David in the wilderness (Ch1 12:10). (2.) A Gadite warrior (Ch1 12:13). (3.) A Benjamite slinger who joined David at Ziklag (Ch1 12:4). (4.) One of the chiefs of the tribe of Manasseh on the east of Jordan (Ch1 5:24). (5.) The father of Hamutal (Kg2 23:31), the wife of Josiah. (6.) One of the "greater prophets" of the Old Testament, son of Hilkiah (q.v.), a priest of Anathoth (Jer 1:1; Jer 32:6). He was called to the prophetical office when still young (Jer 1:6), in the thirteenth year of Josiah (628 B.C.). He left his native place, and went to reside in Jerusalem, where he greatly assisted Josiah in his work of reformation (2 Kings 23:1-25). The death of this pious king was bewailed by the prophet as a national calamity (Ch2 35:25). During the three years of the reign of Jehoahaz we find no reference to Jeremiah, but in the beginning of the reign of Jehoiakim the enmity of the people against him broke out in bitter persecution, and he was placed apparently under restraint (Jer 36:5). In the fourth year of Jehoiakim he was commanded to write the predictions given to him, and to read them to the people on the fast-day. This was done by Baruch his servant in his stead, and produced much public excitement. The roll was read to the king. In his recklessness he seized the roll, and cut it to pieces, and cast it into the fire, and ordered both Baruch and Jeremiah to be apprehended. Jeremiah procured another roll, and wrote in it the words of the roll the king had destroyed, and "many like words" besides (Jer 36:32). He remained in Jerusalem, uttering from time to time his words of warning, but without effect. He was there when Nebuchadnezzar besieged the city (Jer 37:4, Jer 37:5), 589 B.C.. The rumour of the approach of the Egyptians to aid the Jews in this crisis induced the Chaldeans to withdraw and return to their own land. This, however, was only for a time. The prophet, in answer to his prayer, received a message from God announcing that the Chaldeans would come again and take the city, and burn it with fire (Jer 37:7, Jer 37:8). The princes, in their anger at such a message by Jeremiah, cast him into prison (Jer. 37:15 - 38:13). He was still in confinement when the city was taken (588 B.C.). The Chaldeans released him, and showed him great kindness, allowing him to choose the place of his residence. He accordingly went to Mizpah with Gedaliah, who had been made governor of Judea. Johanan succeeded Gedaliah, and refusing to listen to Jeremiah's counsels, went down into Egypt, taking Jeremiah and Baruch with him (Jer 43:6). There probably the prophet spent the remainder of his life, in vain seeking still to turn the people to the Lord, from whom they had so long revolted (Jer. 44). He lived till the reign of Evil-Merodach, son of Nebuchadnezzar, and must have been about ninety years of age at his death. We have no authentic record of his death. He may have died at Tahpanhes, or, according to a tradition, may have gone to Babylon with the army of Nebuchadnezzar; but of this there is nothing certain.

Jeremiah, Book of Consists of twenty-three separate and independent sections, arranged in five books. I. The introduction, chapter 1. II. Reproofs of the sins of the Jews, consisting of seven sections: (1.) Jer. 2 (2.) Jer. 3 - 6 (3.) Jer. 7 - 10 (4.) Jer. 11 - 13 (5.) Jer. 14 - 17:18 (6.) Jer 17:19 (7.) Jer. 21 - 24 III. A general review of all nations, in two sections: (1.)Jer. 46 - 49 (2.) Jer. 25; with an historical appendix of three sections: (a.) Jer. 26 (b.) Jer. 27 (c.) Jer. 28, 29 IV. Two sections picturing the hopes of better times: (1.) Jer. 30, 31 (2.) Jer. 32, 33; to which is added an historical appendix in three sections: (a.) Jer 34:1 (b.) Jer 34:8 (c.) Jer. 35 V. The conclusion, in two sections: (1.) Jer. 36 (2.) Jer 45:1 In Egypt, after an interval, Jeremiah is supposed to have added three sections, viz., Jer. 37 - 39; 40 - 43; and 44. The principal Messianic prophecies are found in Jer 23:1; Jer 31:31; and Jer 33:14. Jeremiah's prophecies are noted for the frequent repetitions found in them of the same words and phrases and imagery. They cover the period of about 30 years. They are not recorded in the order of time. When and under what circumstances this book assumed its present form we know not. The LXX. Version of this book is, in its arrangement and in other particulars, singularly at variance with the original. The LXX. omits Jer 10:6; Jer 27:19; Jer 29:16; Jer 33:14; Jer 39:4; Jer 52:2, Jer 52:3, Jer 52:15, Jer 52:28, etc. About 2,700 words in all of the original are omitted. These omissions, etc., are capricious and arbitrary, and render the version unreliable.

Jericho Place of fragrance, a fenced city in the midst of a vast grove of palm trees, in the plain of Jordan, over against the place where that river was crossed by the Israelites (Jos 3:16). Its site was near the 'Ain es-Sultan , Elisha's Fountain (Kg2 2:19), about 5 miles west of Jordan. It was the most important city in the Jordan valley (Num 22:1; Num 34:15), and the strongest fortress in all the land of Canaan. It was the key to Western Palestine. This city was taken in a very remarkable manner by the Israelites (Josh. 6). God gave it into their hands. The city was "accursed" (Heb. herem , "devoted" to Jehovah), and accordingly (Jos 6:17; compare Lev 27:28, Lev 27:29; Deu 13:16) all the inhabitants and all the spoil of the city were to be destroyed, "only the silver, and the gold, and the vessels of brass and of iron" were reserved and "put into the treasury of the house of Jehovah" (Jos 6:24; compare Num 31:22, Num 31:23, Num 31:50). Only Rahab "and her father's household, and all that she had," were preserved from destruction, according to the promise of the spies (Jos 2:14). In one of the Amarna tablets Adoni-zedec (q.v.) writes to the king of Egypt informing him that the 'Abiri (Hebrews) had prevailed, and had taken the fortress of Jericho, and were plundering "all the king's lands." It would seem that the Egyptian troops had before this been withdrawn from Palestine. This city was given to the tribe of Benjamin (Jos 18:21), and it was inhabited in the time of the Judges (Jdg 3:13; Sa2 10:5). It is not again mentioned till the time of David (Sa2 10:5). "Children of Jericho" were among the captives who returned under Zerubbabel Ezr 2:34; Neh 7:36). Hiel (q.v.) the Bethelite attempted to make it once more a fortified city (Kg1 16:34). Between the beginning and the end of his undertaking all his children were cut off. In New Testament times Jericho stood some distance to the south-east of the ancient one, and near the opening of the valley of Achor. It was a rich and flourishing town, having a considerable trade, and celebrated for the palm trees which adorned the plain around. It was visited by our Lord on his last journey to Jerusalem. Here he gave sight to two blind men (Mat 20:29; Mar 10:46), and brought salvation to the house of Zacchaeus the publican (Luk 19:2). The poor hamlet of er-Riha, the representative of modern Jericho, is situated some two miles farther to the east. It is in a ruinous condition, having been destroyed by the Turks in 1840. "The soil of the plain," about the middle of which the ancient city stood, "is unsurpassed in fertility; there is abundance of water for irrigation, and many of the old aqueducts are almost perfect; yet nearly the whole plain is waste and desolate... The climate of Jericho is exceedingly hot and unhealthy. This is accounted for by the depression of the plain, which is about 1,200 feet below the level of the sea." There were three different Jerichos, on three different sites, the Jericho of Joshua, the Jericho of Herod, and the Jericho of the Crusades. Er-Riha, the modern Jericho, dates from the time of the Crusades. Dr. Bliss has found in a hollow scooped out for some purpose or other near the foot of the biggest mound above the Sultan's Spring specimens of Amorite or pre-Israelitish pottery precisely identical with what he had discovered on the site of ancient Lachish. He also traced in this place for a short distance a mud brick wall in situ, which he supposes to be the very wall that fell before the trumpets of Joshua. The wall is not far from the foot of the great precipice of Quarantania and its numerous caverns, and the spies of Joshua could easily have fled from the city and been speedily hidden in these vastnesses.

Jerimoth Heights. (1.) One of the sons of Bela (Ch1 7:7). (2.) Ch1 24:30, a Merarite Levite. (3.) A Benjamite slinger who joined David at Ziklag (Ch1 12:5). (4.) A Levitical musician under Heman his father (Ch1 25:4). (5.) Ch1 27:19, ruler of Naphtali. (6.) One of David's sons (Ch2 11:18). (7.) A Levite, one of the overseers of the temple offerings (Ch2 31:13) in the reign of Hezekiah.