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Israel The name conferred on Jacob after the great prayer-struggle at Peniel (Gen 32:28), because "as a prince he had power with God and prevailed." (See JACOB.) This is the common name given to Jacob's descendants. The whole people of the twelve tribes are called "Israelites," the "children of Israel" (Jos 3:17; Jos 7:25; Jdg 8:27; Jer 3:21), and the "house of Israel" (Exo 16:31; Exo 40:38). This name Israel is sometimes used emphatically for the true Israel (Psa 73:1; Isa 45:17; Isa 49:3; Joh 1:47; Rom 9:6; Rom 11:26). After the death of Saul the ten tribes arrogated to themselves this name, as if they were the whole nation (Sa2 2:9, Sa2 2:10, Sa2 2:17, Sa2 2:28; Sa2 3:10, Sa2 3:17; Sa2 19:40), and the kings of the ten tribes were called "kings of Israel," while the kings of the two tribes were called "kings of Judah." After the Exile the name Israel was assumed as designating the entire nation.

Israel, Kingdom of (975-722 B.C.). Soon after the death of Solomon, Ahijah's prophecy (Kg1 11:31) was fulfilled, and the kingdom was rent in twain. See map, Kingdoms of Israel and Judah Rehoboam, the son and successor of Solomon, was scarcely seated on his throne when the old jealousies between Judah and the other tribes broke out anew, and Jeroboam was sent for from Egypt by the malcontents (Kg1 12:2, Kg1 12:3). Rehoboam insolently refused to lighten the burdensome taxation and services which his father had imposed on his subjects (Kg1 12:4), and the rebellion became complete. Ephraim and all Israel raised the old cry, "Every man to his tents, O Israel" (Sa2 20:1). Rehoboam fled to Jerusalem (1 Kings 12:1-18; 2 Chr. 10), and Jeroboam was proclaimed king over all Israel at Shechem, Judah and Benjamin remaining faithful to Solomon's son. War, with varying success, was carried on between the two kingdoms for about sixty years, till Jehoshaphat entered into an alliance with the house of Ahab. See table of Kingdoms: Kingdoms of Israel and Judah Dura-tion of Kings of Israel Commence-ment of Reign Kings of Judah Dura-tion of Reign Margin of A.V. Ussher Reign 22 Jeroboam (Kg1 12:20, Kg1 12:25; 13:1-34; 14:1-20) 975 976 Rehoboam (Kg1 12:21; Kg1 14:21; 2 Chr. 10:17-12:1 17 958 959 Abijah (Kg1 15:1; 2 Chr. 13) 3 955 956 Asa (1 Ki. 15:9-24; 2 Chr. 14:1-16:14) 41 2 Nadab (Kg1 15:25, Kg1 15:31) 954 955 24 Baasha (Kg1 15:28; Kg1 16:1) 953 954 2 Elah (Kg1 16:8) 930 930 0 Zimri (Kg1 16:11, Kg1 16:12, Kg1 16:15) 929 930 12 Omri (Kg1 16:21) 929 930 22 Ahab (Kg1 16:29 to Kg1 22:40) 918 919 914 915 Jehoshaphat (Kg1 22:41; 2 Chr. 17:1-21:1) 25 2 Ahaziah (Kg1 22:51; 2 Ki. 1) 898 896 12 Jehoram (2 Ki. 3:1-9:26) 896 895 892 891 Jehoram (Kg2 8:16; 2 Chr. 21) 8 885 884 Ahaziah (Kg2 8:25; Kg2 9:16; Ch2 22:1) 1 28 Jehu (2 Ki. 9:1-37; 10:1-36) 884 883 Athaliah (Kg2 11:1; Ch2 22:10) 6 878 877 Jehoash (2 Ki. 11:4-12:1; 2 Chr. 23-24) 40 17 Jehoahaz (Kg2 13:1) 856 855 16 Jehoash (2 Ki. 13:10-25; Kg2 14:8) 841 839 839 837 Amaziah (2 Ki. 14:1-20; 2 Chr. 25) 29 41 Jeroboam II. (Kg2 14:23) 825 823 810 808 Uzziah or Azariah (Kg2 14:21, Kg2 14:22; Kg2 15:1; 2 Chr 26) 52 11 Interregnum 0 Zachariah (Kg2 15:8) 773 771 0 Shallum (Kg2 15:13) 772 770 10 Menahem (Kg2 15:16) 772 770 2 Pekahiah (Kg2 15:23) 761 759 20 Pekah (Kg2 15:27; Kg2 16:5) 759 757 758 756 Jotham (Kg2 15:32; Ch2 27:1) 16 742 741 Ahaz (2 Ki. 16; 2 Chr. 28) 16 9 Second Interregnum 9 Hoshea (2 Kings 17:1-23) 730 730 726 726 Hezekiah (2 Ki. 18:1-20:21; 2 Chr. 29:1-32:33) 29 Samaria taken (2 Ki. 17-18 721 721 698 697 Manasseh (2 Ki. 21:1-18; 2 Chr. 33:1-20) 55 643 642 Amon (Kg2 21:19; Ch2 33:21) 2 641 640 Josiah (2 Ki. 22:1-20; 23:1-30; 2 Chr. 34-35) 31 610 609 Jehoahaz (Kg2 23:31; Ch2 36:1) 0 610 609 Jehoiachim (Kg2 23:34; Kg2 24:1; Ch2 36:5) 11 606 606 Captivity of two tribes (2 ki. 24) 599 599 Jehoiachin or Coniah (Kg2 24:8; Ch2 36:9 0 599 599 Zedekiah (Kg2 24:17; Kg2 25:1; Ch2 36:11) 11 588 588 Jerusalem destroyed (2 Ki. 25) Extent of the kingdom. In the time of Solomon the area of Palestine excluding the Phoenician territories on the shore of the Mediterranean did not much exceed 13000 square miles. The kingdom of Israel comprehended about 9375 square miles. Shechem was the first capital of this kingdom (Kg1 12:25) afterwards Tirza (Kg1 14:17). Samaria was subsequently chosen as the capital (Kg1 16:24) and continued to be so till the destruction of the kingdom by the Assyrians (Kg2 17:5). During the siege of Samaria (which lasted for three years) by the Assyrians Shalmaneser died and was succeeded by Sargon who himself thus records the capture of that city: "Samaria I looked at I captured; 27280 men who dwelt in it I carried away" (Kg2 17:6) into Assyria. Thus after a duration of two hundred and fifty-three years the kingdom of the ten tribes came to an end. They were scattered throughout the East. (See CAPTIVITY.) "Judah held its ground against Assyria for yet one hundred and twenty-three years and became the rallying-point of the dispersed of every tribe and eventually gave its name to the whole race. Those of the people who in the last struggle escaped into the territories of Judah or other neighbouring countries naturally looked to Judah as the head and home of their race. And when Judah itself was carried off to Babylon many of the exiled Israelites joined them from Assyria and swelled that immense population which made Babylonia a second Palestine." After the deportation of the ten tribes the deserted land was colonized by various eastern tribes whom the king of Assyria sent thither (Ezr 4:2 Ezr 4:10; Kg2 17:24). (See KINGS.) In contrast with the kingdom of Judah is that of Israel. (1.) "There was no fixed capital and no religious centre. (2.) The army was often insubordinate. (3.) The succession was constantly interrupted so that out of nineteen kings there were no less than nine dynasties each ushered in by a revolution. (4.) The authorized priests left the kingdom in a body and the priesthood established by Jeroboam had no divine sanction and no promise; it was corrupt at its very source." (Maclean's O. T. Hist.)

Issachar Hired (Gen 30:18). "God hath given me," said Leah, "my hire (Heb. sekhari )... and she called his name Issachar." He was Jacob's ninth son, and was born in Padan-aram (compare Gen 28:2). He had four sons at the going down into Egypt (Gen 46:13; Num 26:23, Num 26:25). Issachar, Tribe of, during the journey through the wilderness, along with Judah and Zebulun (Num 2:5), marched on the east of the tabernacle. This tribe contained 54,400 fighting men when the census was taken at Sinai. After the entrance into the Promised Land, this tribe was one of the six which stood on Gerizim during the ceremony of the blessing and cursing (Deu 27:12). The allotment of Issachar is described in Jos 19:17. It included the plain of Esdraelon (= Jezreel), which was and still is the richest portion of Palestine (Deu 33:18, Deu 33:19; Ch1 12:40). The prophetic blessing pronounced by Jacob on Issachar corresponds with that of Moses (Gen 49:14, Gen 49:15; compare Deu 33:18, Deu 33:19).

Italian band The name of the Roman cohort to which Cornelius belonged (Act 10:1), so called probably because it consisted of men recruited in Italy.

Italy Act 18:2; Act 27:1, Act 27:6; Heb 13:24), like most geographical names, was differently used at different periods of history. As the power of Rome advanced, nations were successively conquered and added to it till it came to designate the whole country to the south of the Alps. There was constant intercourse between Palestine and Italy in the time of the Romans.

Ithamar Palm isle, the fourth and youngest son of Aaron (Ch1 6:3). He was consecrated to the priesthood along with his brothers (Exo 6:23); and after the death of Nadab and Abihu, he and Eleazar alone discharged the functions of that office (Lev 10:6, Lev 10:12; Num 3:4). He and his family occupied the position of common priest till the high priesthood passed into his family in the person of Eli (Kg1 2:27), the reasons for which are not recorded. (See ZADOK.)

Ithrite Two of David's warriors so designated (Sa2 23:38; Ch1 11:40).

Ittai Near; timely; or, with the Lord. (1.) A Benjamite, one of David's thirty heroes (Sa2 23:29). (2.) A native of Gath, a Philistine, who had apparently the command of the six hundred heroes who formed David's band during his wanderings (Sa2 15:19; compare Sa1 23:13; Sa1 27:2; Sa1 30:9, Sa1 30:10). He is afterwards with David at Mahanaim, holding in the army equal rank with Joab and Abishai (Sa2 18:2, Sa2 18:5, Sa2 18:12). He then passes from view.

Ituraea A district in the north-east of Palestine, forming, along with the adjacent territory of Trachonitis, the tetrarchy of Philip (Luk 3:1). The present Jedur comprehends the chief part of Ituraea. It is bounded on the east by Trachonitis, on the south by Gaulanitis, on the west by Hermon, and on the north by the plain of Damascus.

Ivah Overturning, a city of the Assyrians, whence colonists were brought to Samaria (Kg2 18:34; Kg2 19:13). It lay on the Euphrates, between Sepharvaim and Henah, and is supposed by some to have been the Ahava of Ezra (Ezr 8:15).