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Horseman Heb. ba'al parash , "master of a horse." The "horsemen" mentioned Exo 14:9 were "mounted men", i.e., men who rode in chariots. The army of Pharaoh consisted of a chariot and infantry force. We find that at a later period, however, the Egyptians had cavalry (Ch2 12:3). (See HORSE.)

Hosanna Save now! or Save, we beseech, (Mat 21:9). This was a customary form of acclamation at the feast of Tabernacles. (Compare Psa 118:25.)

Hose (Dan 3:21), a tunic or undergarment.

Hosea Salvation, the son of Beeri, and author of the book of prophecies bearing his name. He belonged to the kingdom of Israel. "His Israelitish origin is attested by the peculiar, rough, Aramaizing diction, pointing to the northern part of Palestine; by the intimate acquaintance he evinces with the localities of Ephraim (Hos 5:1; Hos 6:8, Hos 6:9; Hos 12:12; Hos 14:6, etc.); by passages like Hos 1:2, where the kingdom is styled the land, and Hos 7:5, where the Israelitish king is designated as our king." The period of his ministry (extending to some sixty years) is indicated in the superscription (Hos 1:1, Hos 1:2). He is the only prophet of Israel who has left any written prophecy.

Hosea, Prophecies of This book stands first in order among the "Minor Prophets." "The probable cause of the location of Hosea may be the thoroughly national character of his oracles, their length, their earnest tone, and vivid representations." This was the longest of the prophetic books written before the Captivity. Hosea prophesied in a dark and melancholy period of Israel's history, the period of Israel's decline and fall. Their sins had brought upon them great national disasters. "Their homicides and fornication, their perjury and theft, their idolatry and impiety, are censured and satirized with a faithful severity." He was a contemporary of Isaiah. The book may be divided into two parts, the first containing Hos. 1 - 3, and symbolically representing the idolatry of Israel under imagery borrowed from the matrimonial relation. The figures of marriage and adultery are common in the Old Testament writings to represent the spiritual relations between Jehovah and the people of Israel. Here we see the apostasy of Israel and their punishment, with their future repentance, forgiveness, and restoration. The second part, containing Hos. 4 - 14, is a summary of Hosea's discourses, filled with denunciations, threatenings, exhortations, promises, and revelations of mercy. Quotations from Hosea are found in Mat 2:15; Mat 9:15; Mat 12:7; Rom 9:25, Rom 9:26. There are, in addition, various allusions to it in other places (Luk 23:30; Rev 6:16, compare Hos 10:8; Rom 9:25, Rom 9:26; Pe1 2:10, compare Hos 1:10, etc.). As regards the style of this writer, it has been said that "each verse forms a whole for itself, like one heavy toll in a funeral knell." "Inversions (Hos 7:8; Hos 9:11, Hos 9:13; Hos 12:8), anacolutha (Hos 9:6; Hos 12:8, etc.), ellipses (Hos 9:4; Hos 13:9, etc.), paranomasias, and plays upon words, are very characteristic of Hosea (Hos 8:7; Hos 9:15; Hos 10:5; Hos 11:5; Hos 12:11)."

Hosah Refuge. (1.) A place on the border of the tribe of Asher (Jos 19:29), a little to the south of Zidon. (2.) A Levite of the family of Merari (Ch1 16:38).

Hoshea Salvation. (1.) The original name of the son of Nun, afterwards called Joshua (Num 13:8, Num 13:16; Deu 32:44). (2.) Ch1 27:20. The ruler of Ephraim in David's time. (3.) The last king of Israel. He conspired against and slew his predecessor, Pekah (Isa 7:16), but did not ascend the throne till after an interregnum of warfare of eight years (Kg2 17:1, Kg2 17:2). Soon after this he submitted to Shalmaneser, the Assyrian king, who a second time invaded the land to punish Hoshea, because of his withholding tribute which he had promised to pay. A second revolt brought back the Assyrian king Sargon, who besieged Samaria, and carried the ten tribes away beyond the Euphrates, 720 B.C. (Kg2 17:5, Kg2 17:6; Kg2 18:9). No more is heard of Hoshea. He disappeared like "foam upon the water" (Hos 10:7; Hos 13:11).

Host An entertainer (Rom 16:23); a tavern-keeper, the keeper of a caravansary (Luk 10:35). In warfare, a troop or military force. This consisted at first only of infantry. Solomon afterwards added cavalry (Kg1 4:26; Kg1 10:26). Every male Israelite from twenty to fifty years of age was bound by the law to bear arms when necessary (Num 1:3; Num 26:2; Ch2 25:5). Saul was the first to form a standing army (Sa1 13:2; Sa1 24:2). This example was followed by David (Ch1 27:1), and Solomon (Kg1 4:26), and by the kings of Israel and Judah (Ch2 17:14; Ch2 26:11; Kg2 11:4, etc.).

Host of Heaven The sun, moon, and stars are so designated (Gen 2:1). When the Jews fell into idolatry they worshipped these (Deu 4:19; Kg2 17:16; Kg2 21:3,

Hostage A person delivered into the hands of another as a security for the performance of some promise, etc. (Kg2 14:14; Ch2 25:24).