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Herdsman In Egypt herdsmen were probably of the lowest caste. Some of Joseph's brethren were made rulers over Pharaoh's cattle (Gen 47:6, Gen 47:17). The Israelites were known in Egypt as "keepers of cattle;" and when they left it they took their flocks and herds with them (Exo 12:38). Both David and Saul came from "following the herd" to occupy the throne (1 Sam. 9; Sa1 11:5; Psa 78:70). David's herd-masters were among his chief officers of state. The daughters also of wealthy chiefs were wont to tend the flocks of the family (Gen 29:9; Exo 2:16). The "chief of the herdsmen" was in the time of the monarchy an officer of high rank (Sa1 21:7; compare Ch1 27:29). The herdsmen lived in tents (Isa 38:12; Jer 6:3); and there were folds for the cattle (Num 32:16), and watch-towers for the herdsmen, that he might therefrom observe any coming danger (Mic 4:8; Nah 3:8).

Heres Sun. (1.) "Mount Heres" (Jdg 1:35), Heb. Har-heres , i.e., "sun-mountain;" probably identical with Irshemesh in Jos 19:41. (2.) Isa 19:18, marg. (See On.)

Heresy From a Greek word signifying (1.) a choice, (2.) the opinion chosen, and (3.) the sect holding the opinion. In the Acts of the Apostles (Act 5:17; Act 15:5; Act 24:5, Act 24:14; Act 26:5) it denotes a sect, without reference to its character. Elsewhere, however, in the New Testament it has a different meaning attached to it. Paul ranks "heresies" with crimes and seditions (Gal 5:20). This word also denotes divisions or schisms in the church (Co1 11:19). In Tit 3:10 a "heretical person" is one who follows his own self-willed "questions," and who is to be avoided. Heresies thus came to signify self-chosen doctrines not emanating from God (Pe2 2:1).

Hermas Mercury, a Roman Christian to whom Paul sends greetings (Rom 16:14). Some suppose him to have been the author of the celebrated religious romance called The Shepherd, but it is very probable that that work is the production of a later generation.

Hermes Mercury, a Roman Christian (Rom 16:14).

Hermogenes Mercury-born, at one time Paul's fellow-labourer in Asia Minor, who, however, afterwards abandoned him, along with one Phygellus, probably on account of the perils by which they were beset (Ti2 1:15).

Hermon A peak, the eastern prolongation of the Anti-Lebanon range, reaching to the height of about 9,200 feet above the Mediterranean. It marks the north boundary of Palestine (Deu 3:8, Deu 4:48; Jos 11:3, Jos 11:17; Jos 13:11; Jos 12:1), and is seen from a great distance. It is about 40 miles north of the Sea of Galilee. It is called "the Hermonites" (Psa 42:6) because it has more than one summit. The Sidonians called it Sirion, and the Amorites Shenir (Deu 3:9; Sol 4:8). It is also called Baal-hermon (Jdg 3:3; Ch1 5:23) and Sion (Deu 4:48). There is every probability that one of its three summits was the scene of the transfiguration (q.v.). The "dew of Hermon" is referred to (Psa 89:12). Its modern name is Jebel-esh-Sheikh, "the chief mountain." It is one of the most conspicuous mountains in Palestine or Syria. "In whatever part of Palestine the Israelite turned his eye northward, Hermon was there, terminating the view. From the plain along the coast, from the Jordan valley, from the heights of Moab and Gilead, from the plateau of Bashan, the pale, blue, snow-capped cone forms the one feature in the northern horizon." Our Lord and his disciples climbed this "high mountain apart" one day, and remained on its summit all night, "weary after their long and toilsome ascent." During the night "he was transfigured before them; and his face did shine as the sun." The next day they descended to Caesarea Philippi.

Hermonites, The (Psa 42:6, Psa 42:7) = "the Hermons", i.e., the three peaks or summits of Hermon, which are about a quarter of a mile apart.

Herod the Great (Matt. 2:1-22; Luk 1:5; Act 23:35), the son of Antipater, an Idumaean, and Cypros, an Arabian of noble descent. In the year B.C. 47 Julius Caesar made Antipater, a "wily Idumaean," Procurator of Judea, who divided his territories between his four sons, Galilee falling to the lot of Herod, who was afterwards appointed tetrarch of Judea by Mark Antony (B.C. 40), and also king of Judea by the Roman senate. He was of a stern and cruel disposition. "He was brutish and a stranger to all humanity." Alarmed by the tidings of one "born King of the Jews," he sent forth and "slew all the children that were in Bethlehem, and in all the coasts thereof, from two years old and under" (Mat 2:16). He was fond of splendour, and lavished great sums in rebuilding and adorning the cities of his empire. He rebuilt the city of Caesarea (q.v.) on the coast, and also the city of Samaria (q.v.), which he called Sebaste, in honour of Augustus. He restored the ruined temple of Jerusalem, a work which was begun B.C. 20, but was not finished till after Herod's death, probably not till about A.D. 50 (Joh 2:20). After a troubled reign of thirty-seven years, he died at Jericho amid great agonies both of body and mind, B.C. 4, i.e., according to the common chronology, in the year in which Jesus was born. After his death his kingdom was divided among three of his sons. Of these, Philip had the land east of Jordan, between Caesarea Philippi and Bethabara, Antipas had Galilee and Peraea, while Archelaus had Judea and Samaria. See table of descendants: GENEALOGICAL TABLE OF THE HERODIAN FAMILY Herod the Great (Mat 2:1) Married Mariamne, the Asmonean, Grand-daughter of John Hyrcanus Mariamne, Daughter of Simon, the high priest Malthace, A Samaritan Cleopatra of Jerusalem Aristobulus Herod Philip I. (Mat 14:3) Herod Philip II., tetrarch (Mat 16:13; Luk 3:1) Salome by Herodias (Mat 14:6; Luk 3:19) Agrippa I. (Act 12:1) Herodias (Mat 14:3) Herod Antipas (Luk 3:1, Luk 3:19; Luk 9:7, etc.) Archelaus (Mat 2:22) Agrippa II. (Act 25:13) Bernice (Act 25:13) Drusilla (Act 24:24)

Herod Antipas Herod's son by Malthace (Mat 14:1; Luk 3:1, Luk 3:19; Luk 9:7; Act 13:1). (See ANTIPAS.)