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Flood An event recorded in Gen. 7 and 8. (See DELUGE.) In Jos 24:2, Jos 24:3, Jos 24:14, Jos 24:15, the word "flood" (R.V., "river") means the river Euphrates. In Psa 66:6, this word refers to the river Jordan.

Flour Grain reduced to the form of meal is spoken of in the time of Abraham (Gen 18:6). As baking was a daily necessity, grain was also ground daily at the mills (Jer 25:10). The flour mingled with water was kneaded in kneading-troughs, and sometimes leaven (Exo 12:34) was added and sometimes omitted (Gen 19:3). The dough was then formed into thin cakes nine or ten inches in diameter and baked in the oven. Fine flour was offered by the poor as a sin-offering (Lev 5:11), and also in connection with other sacrifices (Num 15:3; 28:7-29).

Flowers Very few species of flowers are mentioned in the Bible although they abounded in Palestine. It has been calculated that in Western Syria and Palestine from two thousand to two thousand five hundred plants are found, of which about five hundred probably are British wild-flowers. Their beauty is often alluded to (Sol 2:12; Mat 6:28). They are referred to as affording an emblem of the transitory nature of human life (Job 14:2; Psa 103:15; Isa 28:1; Isa 40:6; Jam 1:10). Gardens containing flowers and fragrant herbs are spoken of (Sol 4:16; Sol 6:2).

Flute A musical instrument, probably composed of a number of pipes, mentioned Dan 3:5, Dan 3:7, Dan 3:10, Dan 3:15. In Mat 9:23, Mat 9:24, notice is taken of players on the flute, here called "minstrels" (but in R.V. "flute-players"). Flutes were in common use among the ancient Egyptians.

Fly Heb. zebub , (Ecc 10:1; Isa 7:18). This fly was so grievous a pest that the Phoenicians invoked against it the aid of their god Baal-zebub (q.v.). The prophet Isaiah (Isa 7:18) alludes to some poisonous fly which was believed to be found on the confines of Egypt, and which would be called by the Lord. Poisonous flies exist in many parts of Africa, for instance, the different kinds of tsetse. Heb. 'arob , the name given to the insects sent as a plague on the land of Egypt (Exo 8:21; Psa 78:45; Psa 105:31). The LXX. render this by a word which means the "dog-fly," the cynomuia. The Jewish commentators regarded the Hebrew word here as connected with the word 'arab , which means "mingled;" and they accordingly supposed the plague to consist of a mixed multitude of animals, beasts, reptiles, and insects. But there is no doubt that "the 'arab " denotes a single definite species. Some interpreters regard it as the Blatta orientalis, the cockroach, a species of beetle. These insects "inflict very painful bites with their jaws; gnaw and destroy clothes, household furniture, leather, and articles of every kind, and either consume or render unavailable all eatables."

Foam (Hos 10:7), the rendering of ketseph, which properly means twigs or splinters (as rendered in the LXX. and marg. R.V.). The expression in Hosea may therefore be read, "as a chip on the face of the water," denoting the helplessness of the piece of wood as compared with the irresistible current.

Fodder Heb. belil , (Job 6:5), meaning properly a mixture or medley (Lat. farrago ), "made up of various kinds of grain, as wheat, barley, vetches, and the like, all mixed together, and then sown or given to cattle" (Job 24:6, A.V. "corn," R.V. "provender;" Isa 30:24, provender").

Fold An enclosure for flocks to rest together (Isa 13:20). Sheep-folds are mentioned Num 32:16, Num 32:24, Num 32:36; Sa2 7:8; Zep 2:6; Joh 10:1, etc. It was prophesied of the cities of Ammon (Eze 25:5), Aroer (Isa 17:2), and Judea, that they would be folds or couching-places for flocks. "Among the pots," of the Authorized Version (Psa 68:13), is rightly in the Revised Version, "among the sheepfolds."

Food Originally the Creator granted the use of the vegetable world for food to man (Gen 1:29), with the exception mentioned (Gen 2:17). The use of animal food was probably not unknown to the antediluvians. There is, however, a distinct law on the subject given to Noah after the Deluge (Gen 9:2). Various articles of food used in the patriarchal age are mentioned in Gen 18:6; Gen 25:34; Gen 27:3, Gen 27:4; Gen 43:11. Regarding the food of the Israelites in Egypt, see Exo 16:3; Num 11:5. In the wilderness their ordinary food was miraculously supplied in the manna. They had also quails (Exo 16:11; Num 11:31). In the law of Moses there are special regulations as to the animals to be used for food (Lev. 11; Deut. 14:3-21). The Jews were also forbidden to use as food anything that had been consecrated to idols (Exo 34:15), or animals that had died of disease or had been torn by wild beasts (Exo 22:31; Lev 22:8). (See also for other restrictions Exo 23:19; Exo 29:13; Lev 3:4; Lev 9:18, Lev 9:19; Lev 22:8; Deu 14:21.) But beyond these restrictions they had a large grant from God (Deu 14:26; Deu 32:13, Deu 32:14). Food was prepared for use in various ways. The cereals were sometimes eaten without any preparation (Lev 23:14; Deu 23:25; Kg2 4:42). Vegetables were cooked by boiling (Gen 25:30, Gen 25:34; Kg2 4:38, Kg2 4:39), and thus also other articles of food were prepared for use (Gen 27:4; Pro 23:3; Eze 24:10; Luk 24:42; Joh 21:9). Food was also prepared by roasting (Exo 12:8; Lev 2:14). (See COOK.)

Footstool Connected with a throne (Ch2 9:18). Jehovah symbolically dwelt in the holy place between the cherubim above the ark of the covenant. The ark was his footstool (Ch1 28:2; Psa 99:5; Psa 132:7). And as heaven is God's throne, so the earth is his footstool (Psa 110:1; Isa 66:1; Mat 5:35).