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Famine The first mentioned in Scripture was so grievous as to compel Abraham to go down to the land of Egypt (Gen 26:1). Another is mentioned as having occurred in the days of Isaac, causing him to go to Gerar (Gen 26:1, Gen 26:17). But the most remarkable of all was that which arose in Egypt in the days of Joseph, which lasted for seven years (Gen. 41 - 45). Famines were sent as an effect of God's anger against a guilty people (Kg2 8:1, Kg2 8:2; Amo 8:11; Deut. 28:22-42; Sa2 21:1; Kg2 6:25; Kg2 25:3; Jer 14:15; Jer 19:9; Jer 42:17, etc.). A famine was predicted by Agabus (Act 11:28). Josephus makes mention of the famine which occurred A.D. 45. Helena, queen of Adiabene, being at Jerusalem at that time, procured corn from Alexandria and figs from Cyprus for its poor inhabitants.

Fan A winnowing shovel by which grain was thrown up against the wind that it might be cleansed from broken straw and chaff (Isa 30:24; Jer 15:7; Mat 3:12). (See AGRICULTURE.)

Farm (Mat 22:5). Every Hebrew had a certain portion of land assigned to him as a possession (Num. 26:33-56). In Egypt the lands all belonged to the king, and the husbandman were obliged to give him a fifth part of the produce; so in Palestine Jehovah was the sole possessor of the soil, and the people held it by direct tenure from him. By the enactment of Moses, the Hebrews paid a tithe of the produce to Jehovah, which was assigned to the priesthood. Military service when required was also to be rendered by every Hebrew at his own expense. The occupation of a husbandman was held in high honour (Sa1 11:5; Kg1 19:19; Ch2 26:10). (See TITHE.)

Farthing (1.) Mat 10:29; Luk 12:6. Greek assarion , i.e., a small as, which was a Roman coin equal to a tenth of a denarius or drachma , nearly equal to a half-penny of our money. (2.) Mat 5:26; Mar 12:42 (Gr. kodrantes ), the quadrant, the fourth of an as , equal to two lepta , mites. The lepton (mite) was the very smallest copper coin.

Fast The sole fast required by the law of Moses was that of the great Day of Atonement (q.v.), Lev 23:26. It is called "the fast" (Act 27:9). The only other mention of a periodical fast in the Old Testament is in Zac 7:1; Zac 8:19, from which it appears that during their captivity the Jews observed four annual fasts. (1.) The fast of the fourth month, kept on the seventeenth day of Tammuz, the anniversary of the capture of Jerusalem by the Chaldeans; to commemorate also the incident recorded Exo 32:19. (Compare Jer 52:6, Jer 52:7.) (2.) The fast of the fifth month, kept on the ninth of Ab (compare Num 14:27), to commemorate the burning of the city and temple (Jer 52:12, Jer 52:13). (3.) The fast of the seventh month, kept on the third of Tisri (compare 2 Kings 25), the anniversary of the murder of Gedaliah (Jer 41:1, Jer 41:2). (4.) The fast of the tenth month (compare Jer 52:4; Eze 33:21; Kg2 25:1), to commemorate the beginning of the siege of the holy city by Nebuchadnezzar. There was in addition to these the fast appointed by Esther (Est 4:16). Public national fasts on account of sin or to supplicate divine favour were sometimes held. (1.) Sa1 7:6; (2.) Ch2 20:3; (3.) Jer 36:6; 4.) Neh 9:1. There were also local fasts. (1.) Jdg 20:26; (2.) Sa2 1:12; (3.) Sa1 31:13; (4.) Kg1 21:9; (5.) Ezr 8:21; (6.) Jon 3:5. There are many instances of private occasional fasting (Sa1 1:7; Sa1 20:34; Sa2 3:35; Sa2 12:16; Kg1 21:27; Ezr 10:6; Neh 1:4; Dan 10:2, Dan 10:3). Moses fasted forty days (Exo 24:18; Exo 34:28), and so also did Elijah (Kg1 19:8). Our Lord fasted forty days in the wilderness (Mat 4:2). In the lapse of time the practice of fasting was lamentably abused (Isa 58:4; Jer 14:12; Zac 7:5). Our Lord rebuked the Pharisees for their hypocritical pretenses in fasting (Mat 6:16). He himself appointed no fast. The early Christians, however, observed the ordinary fasts according to the law of their fathers (Act 13:3; Act 14:23; Co2 6:5).

Fat (Heb. heleb ) denotes the richest part of the animal, or the fattest of the flock, in the account of Abel's sacrifice (Gen 4:4). It sometimes denotes the best of any production (Gen 45:18; Num 18:12; Psa 81:16; Psa 147:14). The fat of sacrifices was to be burned (Lev 3:9; Lev 4:8; Lev 7:3; Lev 8:25; Num 18:17. Compare Exo 29:13; Lev 3:3). It is used figuratively for dull, stupid. In Joe 2:24 the word is equivalent to "vat," a vessel. The hebrew word here thus rendered is elsewhere rendered "wine-fat" and "press-fat" (Hag 2:16; Isa 63:2).

Father A name applied (1.) to any ancestor (Deu 1:11; Kg1 15:11; Mat 3:9; Mat 23:30, etc.); and (2.) as a title of respect to a chief, ruler, or elder, etc. (Jdg 17:10; Jdg 18:19; Sa1 10:12; Kg2 2:12; Mat 23:9, etc.). (3.) The author or beginner of anything is also so called; e.g., Jabal and Jubal (Gen 4:20, Gen 4:21; compare Job 38:28). Applied to God (Exo 4:22; Deu 32:6; Sa2 7:14; Psa 89:27, Psa 89:28, etc.). (1.) As denoting his covenant relation to the Jews (Jer 31:9; Isa 63:16; Isa 64:8; Joh 8:41, etc.). (2.) Believers are called God's "sons" (Joh 1:12; Rom 8:16; Mat 6:4, Mat 6:8, Mat 6:15, Mat 6:18; Mat 10:20, Mat 10:29). They also call him "Father" (Rom 1:7; Co1 1:3; Co2 1:2; Gal 1:4)

Fathom Old A.S. faethm, "bosom," (or the outstretched arms), a span of six feet (Act 27:28). Gr. orguia (from orego , "I stretch"), the distance between the extremities of both arms fully stretched out.

Fatling (1.) A fatted animal for slaughter (Sa2 6:13; Isa 11:6; Eze 39:18. Compare Mat 22:4, where word used in the original, sitistos, means literally "corn-fed;" i.e., installed, fat). (2.) Psa 66:15 (Heb. meah , meaning "marrowy," "fat," a species of sheep). (3.) Sa1 15:9 (Heb. mishneh , meaning "the second," and hence probably "cattle of a second quality," or lambs of the second birth, i.e., autumnal lambs, and therefore of less value).

Fear of the Lord Is in the Old Testament used as a designation of true piety (Pro 1:7; Job 28:28; Psa 19:9). It is a fear conjoined with love and hope, and is therefore not a slavish dread, but rather filial reverence. (Compare Deu 32:6; Hos 11:1; Isa 1:2; Isa 63:16; Isa 64:8.) God is called "the Fear of Isaac" (Gen 31:42, Gen 31:53), i.e., the God whom Isaac feared. A holy fear is enjoined also in the New Testament as a preventive of carelessness in religion, and as an incentive to penitence (Mat 10:28; Co2 5:11; Co2 7:1; Phi 2:12; Eph 5:21; Heb 12:28, Heb 12:29).