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Dwell Tents were in primitive times the common dwellings of men. Houses were afterwards built, the walls of which were frequently of mud (Job 24:16; Mat 6:19, Mat 6:20) or of sun-dried bricks. God "dwells in light" (Ti1 6:16; Jo1 1:7), in heaven (Psa 123:1), in his church (Psa 9:11; Jo1 4:12). Christ dwelt on earth in the days of his humiliation (Joh 1:14). He now dwells in the hearts of his people (Eph 3:17). The Holy Spirit dwells in believers (Co1 3:16; Ti2 1:14). We are exhorted to "let the word of God dwell in us richly" (Col 3:16; Psa 119:11). Dwell deep occurs only in Jer 49:8, and refers to the custom of seeking refuge from impending danger, in retiring to the recesses of rocks and caverns, or to remote places in the desert.

Dwellings The materials used in buildings were commonly bricks, sometimes also stones (Lev 14:40, Lev 14:42), which were held together by cement (Jer 43:9) or bitumen (Gen 11:3). The exterior was usually whitewashed (Lev 14:41; Eze 13:10; Mat 23:27). The beams were of sycamore (Isa 9:10), or olive-wood, or cedar (Kg1 7:2; Isa 9:10). The form of Eastern dwellings differed in many respects from that of dwellings in Western lands. The larger houses were built in a quadrangle enclosing a court-yard (Luk 5:19; Sa2 17:18; Neh 8:16) surrounded by galleries, which formed the guest-chamber or reception-room for visitors. The flat roof, surrounded by a low parapet, was used for many domestic and social purposes. It was reached by steps from the court. In connection with it (Kg2 23:12) was an upper room, used as a private chamber (Sa2 18:33; Dan 6:11), also as a bedroom (Kg2 23:12), a sleeping apartment for guests (Kg2 4:10), and as a sick-chamber (Kg1 17:19). The doors, sometimes of stone, swung on mortised pivots, and were generally fastened by wooden bolts. The houses of the more wealthy had a doorkeeper or a female porter (Joh 18:16; Act 12:13). The windows generally opened into the courtyard, and were closed by a lattice (Jdg 5:28). The interior rooms were set apart for the female portion of the household. The furniture of the room (Kg2 4:10) consisted of a couch furnished with pillows (Amo 6:4; Eze 13:20); and besides this, chairs, a table and lanterns or lamp-stands (Kg2 4:10).

Dye The art of dyeing is one of great antiquity, although no special mention is made of it in the Old Testament. The Hebrews probably learned it from the Egyptians (see Exo 26:1; Exo 28:5), who brought it to great perfection. In New Testament times Thyatira was famed for its dyers (Act 16:14). (See COLOURS.)

Eagle (Heb. nesher ; properly the griffon vulture or great vulture, so called from its tearing its prey with its beak), referred to for its swiftness of flight (Deu 28:49; Sa2 1:23), its mounting high in the air (Job 39:27), its strength (Psa 103:5), its setting its nest in high places (Jer 49:16), and its power of vision (Job 39:27). This "ravenous bird" is a symbol of those nations whom God employs and sends forth to do a work of destruction, sweeping away whatever is decaying and putrescent (Mat 24:28; Isa 46:11; Eze 39:4; Deu 28:49; Jer 4:13; Jer 48:40). It is said that the eagle sheds his feathers in the beginning of spring, and with fresh plumage assumes the appearance of youth. To this, allusion is made in Psa 103:5 and Isa 40:31. God's care over his people is likened to that of the eagle in training its young to fly (Exo 19:4; Deu 32:11, Deu 32:12). An interesting illustration is thus recorded by Sir Humphry Davy: "I once saw a very interesting sight above the crags of Ben Nevis. Two parent eagles were teaching their offspring, two young birds, the maneuvers of flight. They began by rising from the top of the mountain in the eye of the sun. It was about mid-day, and bright for the climate. They at first made small circles, and the young birds imitated them. They paused on their wings, waiting till they had made their flight, and then took a second and larger gyration, always rising toward the sun, and enlarging their circle of flight so as to make a gradually ascending spiral. The young ones still and slowly followed, apparently flying better as they mounted; and they continued this sublime exercise, always rising till they became mere points in the air, and the young ones were lost, and afterwards their parents, to our aching sight." (See Isa 40:31.) There have been observed in Palestine four distinct species of eagles, (1.) the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos); (2.) the spotted eagle (Aquila naevia); (3.) the common species, the imperial eagle (Aquila heliaca); and (4.) the Circaetos gallicus, which preys on reptiles. The eagle was unclean by the Levitical law (Lev 11:13; Deu 14:12).

Ear Used frequently in a figurative sense (Psa 34:15). To "uncover the ear" is to show respect to a person (Sa1 20:2 marg.). To have the "ear heavy", or to have "uncircumcised ears" (Isa 6:10), is to be inattentive and disobedient. To have the ear "bored" through with an awl was a sign of perpetual servitude (Exo 21:6).

Earing An Old English word (from the Latin aro , I plough), meaning "ploughing." It is used in the Authorized Version in Gen 45:6; Exo 34:21; Sa1 8:12; Deu 21:4; Isa 30:24; but the Revised Version has rendered the original in these places by the ordinary word to plough or till.

Earnest The Spirit is the earnest of the believer's destined inheritance (Co2 1:22; Co2 5:5; Eph 1:14). The word thus rendered is the same as that rendered "pledge" in Gen 38:17; "indeed, the Hebrew word has simply passed into the Greek and Latin languages, probably through commercial dealings with the Phoenicians, the great trading people of ancient days. Originally it meant no more than a pledge; but in common usage it came to denote that particular kind of pledge which is a part of the full price of an article paid in advance; and as it is joined with the figure of a seal when applied to the Spirit, it seems to be used by Paul in this specific sense." The Spirit's gracious presence and working in believers is a foretaste to them of the blessedness of heaven. God is graciously pleased to give not only pledges but foretastes of future blessedness.

Earrings Rings properly for the ear (Gen 35:4; Num 31:50; Eze 16:12). In Gen 24:47 the word means a nose-jewel, and is so rendered in the Revised Version. In Isa 3:20 the Authorized Version has "ear-rings," and the Revised Version "amulets," which more correctly represents the original word (lehashim), which means incantations; charms, thus remedies against enchantment, worn either suspended from the neck or in the ears of females. Ear-rings were ornaments used by both sexes (Exo 32:2).

Earth (1.) In the sense of soil or ground, the translation of the word adamah' . In Gen 9:20 "husbandman" is literally "man of the ground or earth." Altars were to be built of earth (Exo 20:24). Naaman asked for two mules' burden of earth (Kg2 5:17), under the superstitious notion that Jehovah, like the gods of the heathen, could be acceptably worshipped only on his own soil. (2.) As the rendering of 'erets , it means the whole world (Gen 1:2); the land as opposed to the sea (Gen 1:10). 'Erets also denotes a country (Gen 21:32); a plot of ground (Gen 23:15); the ground on which a man stands (Gen 33:3); the inhabitants of the earth (Gen 6:1; Gen 11:1); all the world except Israel (Ch2 13:9). In the New Testament "the earth" denotes the land of Judea (Mat 23:35); also things carnal in contrast with things heavenly (Joh 3:31; Col 3:1, Col 3:2).

Earthquake Mentioned among the extraordinary phenomena of Palestine (Psa 18:7; compare Hab 3:6; Nah 1:5; Isa 5:25). The first earthquake in Palestine of which we have any record happened in the reign of Ahab (Kg1 19:11, Kg1 19:12). Another took place in the days of Uzziah, King of Judah (Zac 14:5). The most memorable earthquake taking place in New Testament times happened at the crucifixion of our Lord (Mat 27:54). An earthquake at Philippi shook the prison in which Paul and Silas were imprisoned (Act 16:26). It is used figuratively as a token of the presence of the Lord (Jdg 5:4; Sa2 22:8; Psa 77:18; Psa 97:4; Psa 104:32).