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City The earliest mention of city-building is that of Enoch, which was built by Cain (Gen 4:17). After the confusion of tongues, the descendants of Nimrod founded several cities (Gen 10:10). Next, we have a record of the cities of the Canaanites, Sidon, Gaza, Sodom, etc. (Gen 10:12, Gen 10:19; Gen 11:3, Gen 11:9; Gen 36:31). The earliest description of a city is that of Sodom (Gen. 19:1-22). Damascus is said to be the oldest existing city in the world. Before the time of Abraham there were cities in Egypt (Num 13:22). The Israelites in Egypt were employed in building the "treasure cities" of Pithom and Raamses (Exo 1:11); but it does not seem that they had any cities of their own in Goshen (Gen 46:34; Gen 47:1). In the kingdom of Og in Bashan there were sixty "great cities with walls," and twenty-three cities in Gilead partly rebuilt by the tribes on the east of Jordan (Num 21:21, Num 21:32, Num 21:33, Num 21:35; Num 32:1, Num 32:34; Deu 3:4, Deu 3:5, Deu 3:14; Kg1 4:13). On the west of Jordan were thirty-one "royal cities" (Josh. 12), besides many others spoken of in the history of Israel. A fenced city was a city surrounded by fortifications and high walls, with watchtowers upon them (Ch2 11:11; Deu 3:5). There was also within the city generally a tower to which the citizens might flee when danger threatened them (Jdg 9:46). A city with suburbs was a city surrounded with open pasture-grounds, such as the forty-eight cities which were given to the Levites (Num 35:2). There were six cities of refuge, three on each side of Jordan, namely, Kadesh, Shechem, Hebron, on the west of Jordan; and on the east, Bezer, Ramoth-gilead, and Golan. The cities on each side of the river were nearly opposite each other. The regulations concerning these cities are given in Num. 35:9-34; Deu 19:1; Exo 21:12. When David reduced the fortress of the Jebusites which stood on Mount Zion, he built on the site of it a palace and a city, which he called by his own name (Ch1 11:5), the city of David. Bethlehem is also so called as being David's native town (Luk 2:4). Jerusalem is called the Holy City, the holiness of the temple being regarded as extending in some measure over the whole city (Neh 11:1). Pithom and Raamses, built by the Israelites as "treasure cities," were not places where royal treasures were kept, but were fortified towns where merchants might store their goods and transact their business in safety, or cities in which munitions of war were stored. (See PITHOM.)

Clauda A small island off the southwest coast of Crete, passed by Paul on his voyage to Rome (Act 27:16). It is about 7 miles long and 3 broad. It is now called Gozzo (R.V., "Cauda").

Claudia A female Christian mentioned in Ti2 4:21. It is a conjecture having some probability that she was a British maiden, the daughter of king Cogidunus, who was an ally of Rome, and assumed the name of the emperor, his patron, Tiberius Claudius, and that she was the wife of Pudens.

Claudius Lame. (1.) The fourth Roman emperor. He succeeded Caligula (A.D. 41). Though in general he treated the Jews, especially those in Asia and Egypt, with great indulgence, yet about the middle of his reign (A.D. 49) he banished them all from Rome (Act 18:2). In this edict the Christians were included, as being, as was supposed, a sect of Jews. The Jews, however soon again returned to Rome. During the reign of this emperor, several persecutions of the Christians by the Jews took place in the dominions of Herod Agrippa, in one of which the apostle James was "killed" (Act 12:2). He died A.D. 54. (2.) Claudius Lysias, a Greek who, having obtained by purchase the privilege of Roman citizenship, took the name of Claudius (Act 21:31; Act 22:28; Act 23:26).

Clay This word is used of sediment found in pits or in streets (Isa 57:20; Jer 38:6), of dust mixed with spittle (Joh 9:6), and of potter's clay (Isa 41:25; Nah 3:14; Jer 18:1; Rom 9:21). Clay was used for sealing (Job 38:14; Jer 32:14). Our Lord's tomb may have been thus sealed (Mat 27:66). The practice of sealing doors with clay is still common in the East. Clay was also in primitive times used for mortar (Gen 11:3). The "clay ground" in which the large vessels of the temple were cast (Kg1 7:46; Ch2 4:17) was a compact loam fitted for the purpose. The expression literally rendered is, "in the thickness of the ground,", meaning, "in stiff ground" or in clay.

Clean The various forms of uncleanness according to the Mosaic law are enumerated in Lev. 11-15; Num. 19. The division of animals into clean and unclean was probably founded on the practice of sacrifice. It existed before the Flood (Gen 7:2). The regulations regarding such animals are recorded in Lev. 11 and Deut. 14:1-21. The Hebrews were prohibited from using as food certain animal substances, such as (1.) blood; (2.) the fat covering the intestines, termed the caul; (3.) the fat on the intestines, called the mesentery; (4.) the fat of the kidneys; and (5.) the fat tail of certain sheep (Exo 29:13, Exo 29:22; Lev 3:4; Lev 9:19; Lev 17:10; Lev 19:26). The chief design of these regulations seems to have been to establish a system of regimen which would distinguish the Jews from all other nations. Regarding the design and the abolition of these regulations the reader will find all the details in Lev 20:24; Act 10:9; Act 11:1; Heb 9:9.

Clement Mild, a Christian of Philippi, Paul's "fellow-labourer," whose name he mentions as "in the book of life" (Phi 4:3). It was an opinion of ancient writers that he was the Clement of Rome whose name is well known in church history, and that he was the author of an Epistle to the Corinthians, the only known manuscript of which is appended to the Alexandrian Codex, now in the British Museum. It is of some historical interest, and has given rise to much discussion among critics. It makes distinct reference to Paul's First Epistle to the Corinthians.

Cleopas (abbreviation of Cleopatros), one of the two disciples with whom Jesus conversed on the way to Emmaus on the day of the resurrection (Luk 24:18). We know nothing definitely regarding him. It is not certain that he was the Clopas of Joh 19:25, or the Alphaeus of Mat 10:3, although he may have been so.

Cleophas (in the spelling of this word h is inserted by mistake from Latin MSS.), rather Cleopas, which is the Greek form of the word, while Clopas is the Aramaic form. In Joh 19:25 the Authorized Version reads, "Mary, the wife of Clopas." The word "wife" is conjecturally inserted here. If "wife" is rightly inserted, then Mary was the mother of James the Less, and Clopas is the same as Alphaeus (Mat 10:3; Mat 27:56).

Cloak An upper garment, "an exterior tunic, wide and long, reaching to the ankles, but without sleeves" (Isa 59:17). The word so rendered is elsewhere rendered "robe" or "mantle." It was worn by the high priest under the ephod (Exo 28:31), by kings and others of rank (Sa1 15:27; Job 1:20; Job 2:12), and by women (Sa2 13:18). The word translated "cloke", i.e., outer garment, in Mat 5:40 is in its plural form used of garments in general (Mat 17:2; Mat 26:65). The cloak mentioned here and in Luk 6:29 was the Greek himation , Latin pallium , and consisted of a large square piece of wollen cloth fastened round the shoulders, like the abba of the Arabs. This could be taken by a creditor (Exo 22:26, Exo 22:27), but the coat or tunic (Gr. chiton ) mentioned in Mat 5:40 could not. The cloak which Paul "left at Troas" (Ti2 4:13) was the Roman poenula, a thick upper garment used chiefly in travelling as a protection from the weather. Some, however, have supposed that what Paul meant was a travelling-bag. In the Syriac version the word used means a bookcase. (See DRESS.)