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Christ Anointed, the Greek translation of the Hebrew word rendered "Messiah" (q.v.), the official title of our Lord, occurring five hundred and fourteen times in the New Testament. It denotes that he was anointed or consecrated to his great redemptive work as Prophet, Priest, and King of his people. He is Jesus the Christ (Act 17:3; Act 18:5; Mat 22:42), the Anointed One. He is thus spoken of by Isaiah (Isa 61:1), and by Daniel (Dan 9:24), who styles him "Messiah the Prince." The Messiah is the same person as "the seed of the woman" (Gen 3:15), "the seed of Abraham" (Gen 22:18), the "Prophet like unto Moses" (Deu 18:15), "the priest after the order of Melchizedek" (Psa 110:4), "the rod out of the stem of Jesse" (Isa 11:1, Isa 11:10), the "Immanuel," the virgin's son (Isa 7:14), "the branch of Jehovah" (Isa 4:2), and "the messenger of the covenant" (Mal 3:1). This is he "of whom Moses in the law and the prophets did write." The Old Testament Scripture is full of prophetic declarations regarding the Great Deliverer and the work he was to accomplish. Jesus the Christ is Jesus the Great Deliverer, the Anointed One, the Saviour of men. This name denotes that Jesus was divinely appointed, commissioned, and accredited as the Saviour of men (Heb 5:4; Isa 11:2; Isa 49:6; Joh 5:37; Act 2:22). To believe that "Jesus is the Christ" is to believe that he is the Anointed, the Messiah of the prophets, the Saviour sent of God, that he was, in a word, what he claimed to be. This is to believe the gospel, by the faith of which alone men can be brought unto God. That Jesus is the Christ is the testimony of God, and the faith of this constitutes a Christian (Co1 12:3; Jo1 5:1).

Christs, False Our Lord warned his disciples that they would arise (Mat 24:24). It is said that no fewer than twenty-four persons have at different times appeared (the last in 1682) pretending to be the Messiah of the prophets.

Christian The name given by the Greeks or Romans, probably in reproach, to the followers of Jesus. It was first used at Antioch. The names by which the disciples were known among themselves were "brethren," "the faithful," "elect," "saints," "believers." But as distinguishing them from the multitude without, the name "Christian" came into use, and was universally accepted. This name occurs but three times in the New Testament (Act 11:26; Act 26:28; Pe1 4:16).

Chronicles The words of the days, (Kg1 14:19; Ch1 27:24), the daily or yearly records of the transactions of the kingdom; events recorded in the order of time.

Chronicles, Books of The two books were originally one. They bore the title in the Massoretic Hebrew Dibre hayyamim, i.e., "Acts of the Days." This title was rendered by Jerome in his Latin version "Chronicon," and hence "Chronicles." In the Septuagint version the book is divided into two, and bears the title Paraleipomena, i.e., "things omitted," or "supplements", because containing many things omitted in the Books of Kings. The contents of these books are comprehended under four heads. (1.)The first nine chapters of Book I. contain little more than a list of genealogies in the line of Israel down to the time of David. (2.) The remainder of the first book contains a history of the reign of David. (3.) The first nine chapters of Book II. contain the history of the reign of Solomon. (4.) The remaining chapters of the second book contain the history of the separate kingdom of Judah to the time of the return from Babylonian Exile. The time of the composition of the Chronicles was, there is every ground to conclude, subsequent to the Babylonian Exile, probably between 450 and 435 B.C. The contents of this twofold book, both as to matter and form, correspond closely with this idea. The close of the book records the proclamation of Cyrus permitting the Jews to return to their own land, and this forms the opening passage of the Book of Ezra, which must be viewed as a continuation of the Chronicles. The peculiar form of the language, being Aramaean in its general character, harmonizes also with that of the books which were written after the Exile. The author was certainly contemporary with Zerubbabel, details of whose family history are given (Ch1 3:19). The time of the composition being determined, the question of the authorship may be more easily decided. According to Jewish tradition, which was universally received down to the middle of the seventeenth century, Ezra was regarded as the author of the Chronicles. There are many points of resemblance and of contact between the Chronicles and the Book of Ezra which seem to confirm this opinion. The conclusion of the one and the beginning of the other are almost identical in expression. In their spirit and characteristics they are the same, showing thus also an identity of authorship. In their general scope and design these books are not so much historical as didactic. The principal aim of the writer appears to be to present moral and religious truth. He does not give prominence to political occurences, as is done in Samuel and Kings, but to ecclesiastical institutions. "The genealogies, so uninteresting to most modern readers, were really an important part of the public records of the Hebrew state. They were the basis on which not only the land was distributed and held, but the public services of the temple were arranged and conducted, the Levites and their descendants alone, as is well known, being entitled and first fruits set apart for that purpose." The "Chronicles" are an epitome of the sacred history from the days of Adam down to the return from Babylonian Exile, a period of about 3,500 years. The writer gathers up "the threads of the old national life broken by the Captivity." The sources whence the chronicler compiled his work were public records, registers, and genealogical tables belonging to the Jews. These are referred to in the course of the book (Ch1 27:24; Ch1 29:29; Ch2 9:29; Ch2 12:15; Ch2 13:22; Ch2 20:34; Ch2 24:27; Ch2 26:22; Ch2 32:32; Ch2 33:18, Ch2 33:19; Ch2 27:7; Ch2 35:25). There are in Chronicles, and the books of Samuel and Kings, forty parallels, often verbal, proving that the writer both knew and used these records (Ch1 17:18; compare Sa2 7:18; 1 Chr. 19; compare 2 Sam. 10, etc.). As compared with Samuel and Kings, the Book of Chronicles omits many particulars there recorded (Sa2 6:20; Sa2 9:1; 11; 14-19, etc.), and includes many things peculiar to itself (1 Chr. 12; 22; 23-26; 27; 28; 29, etc.). Twenty whole chapters, and twenty-four parts of chapters, are occupied with matter not found elsewhere. It also records many things in fuller detail, as (e.g.) the list of David's heroes (1 Chr. 12:1-37), the removal of the ark from Kirjath-jearim to Mount Zion (Ch1 13:1; 15:2-24; 16:4-43; compare 2 Sam. 6), Uzziah's leprosy and its cause (Ch2 26:16; compare Kg2 15:5), etc. It has also been observed that another peculiarity of the book is that it substitutes modern and more common expressions for those that had then become unusual or obsolete. This is seen particularly in the substitution of modern names of places, such as were in use in the writer's day, for the old names; thus Gezer (Ch1 20:4) is used instead of Gob (Sa2 21:18), etc. The Books of Chronicles are ranked among the khethubim or hagiographa. They are alluded to, though not directly quoted, in the New Testament (Heb 5:4; Mat 12:42; Mat 23:35; Luk 1:5; Luk 11:31, Luk 11:51).

Chronicles of King David (Ch1 27:24) were statistical state records; one of the public sources from which the compiler of the Books of Chronicles derived information on various public matters.

Chronology Is the arrangement of facts and events in the order of time. The writers of the Bible themselves do not adopt any standard era according to which they date events. Sometimes the years are reckoned, e.g., from the time of the Exodus (Num 1:1; Num 33:38; Kg1 6:1), and sometimes from the accession of kings (Kg1 15:1, Kg1 15:9, Kg1 15:25, Kg1 15:33, etc.), and sometimes again from the return from Exile (Ezr 3:8). Hence in constructing a system of Biblical chronology, the plan has been adopted of reckoning the years from the ages of the patriarchs before the birth of their firstborn sons for the period from the Creation to Abraham. After this period other data are to be taken into account in determining the relative sequence of events. See table, as to the patriarchal period, there are three principal systems of chronology: (1) that of the Hebrew text, (2) that of the Septuagint version, and (3) that of the Samaritan Pentateuch. Hebrew Text Septuagint Version Samaritan Pentateuch Patriarch Lived years before birth of first son Lived after birth of first son Total life Lived years before birth of first son Lived after birth of first son Total life Lived years before birth of first son Lived after birth of first son Total life Adam 130 800 930 230 700 930 130 800 930 Seth 105 807 912 205 707 912 105 807 912 Enos 90 815 905 190 715 905 90 815 905 Cainan 70 840 910 170 740 910 70 840 910 Mahalaleel 65 830 895 165 730 895 65 830 895 Jared 162 800 962 162 800 962 62 785 947 Enoch 65 300 365 165 200 365 65 300 365 Methuselah 187 782 969 187 782 969 67 653 720 Lamech 182 595 777 188 565 753 53 600 653 From Adam to the birth of Noah 1056 1662 707 From birth of Noah to the Flood 600 600 600 From Adam to the Flood 1656 2262 1307 The Samaritan and the Septuagint have considerably modified the Hebrew chronology. This modification some regard as having been wilfully made, and to be rejected. The same system of variations is observed in the chronology of the period between the Flood and Abraham. See table following: Hebrew Septuagint Samaritan From the birth of Arphaxad, 2 years after the flood, to the birth of Terah. 220 1000 870 From the birth of Terah to the birth of Abraham 130 70 72 The Septuagint fixes on seventy years as the age of Terah at the birth of Abraham, from Gen 11:26; but a comparison of Gen 11:32 and Act 7:4 with Gen 12:4 shows that when Terah died, at the age of two hundred and five years, Abraham was seventy-five years, and hence Terah must have been one hundred and thirty years when Abraham was born. Thus, including the two years from the Flood to the birth of Arphaxad, the period from the Flood to the birth of Abraham was three hundred and fifty-two years. The next period is from the birth of Abraham to the Exodus. This, according to the Hebrew, extends to five hundred and five years. The difficulty here is as to the four hundred and thirty years mentioned Exo 12:40, Exo 12:41; Gal 3:17. These years are regarded by some as dating from the covenant with Abraham (Gen. 15), which was entered into soon after his sojourn in Egypt; others, with more probability, reckon these years from Jacob's going down into Egypt. (See EXODUS.) In modern times the systems of Biblical chronology that have been adopted are chiefly those of Ussher and Hales. The former follows the Hebrew, and the latter the Septuagint mainly. Archbishop Ussher's (died 1656) system is called the short chronology. It is that given on the margin of the Authorized Version, but is really of no authority, and is quite uncertain. See table: System of Biblical Chronology Ussher B.C. Hales B.C. Creation 4004 5411 Flood 2348 3155 Abram leaves Haran 1921 2078 Exodus 1491 1648 Destruction of the Temple 588 586 See Chronological Tables - The Old Testament to the Death of Solomon - 4004 B.C.-976 B.C. See Chronological Tables - The Kingdoms of Judah and Israel - 976 B.C.-918 B.C. See Chronological Tables - The Kingdoms of Judah and Israel - 918 B.C.-883 B.C. See Chronological Tables - The Kingdoms of Judah and Israel - 883 B.C.-705 B.C. See Chronological Tables - The Kingdoms of Judah and Israel - 697 B.C.-588 B.C. See Chronological Tables - The Kingdoms of Judah and Israel - 562 B.C.-332 B.C. See Chronological Tables - Chronology According to the Assyrian Inscriptions - 858 B.C.-606 B.C. See Chronological Tables - Between the Testaments - 331 B.C.-4 B.C. See Chronological Tables - The New Testament History - 4 B.C.-A.D. 98 To show at a glance the different ideas of the date of the creation, it may be interesting to note the following: From Creation to 1894. According to Ussher, 5,898; Hales, 7,305; Zunz (Hebrew reckoning), 5,882; Septuagint (Perowne), 7,305; Rabbinical, 5,654; Panodorus, 7,387; Anianus, 7,395; Constantinopolitan, 7,403; Eusebius, 7,093; Scaliger, 5,844; Dionysius (from whom we take our Christian era), 7,388; Maximus, 7,395; Syncellus and Theophanes, 7,395; Julius Africanus, 7,395; Jackson, 7,320.

Chrysoprasus Golden leek, a precious stone of the colour of leek's juice, a greenish-golden colour (Rev 21:20).

Chub The name of a people in alliance with Egypt in the time of Nebuchadnezzar. The word is found only in Eze 30:5. They were probably a people of Northern Africa, or of the lands near Egypt in the south.

Chun One of the cities of Hadarezer, king of Syria. David procured brass (i.e., bronze or copper) from it for the temple (Ch1 18:8). It is called Berothai in Sa2 8:8; probably the same as Berothah in Eze 47:16.