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Caterpillar The consumer. Used in the Old Testament (Kg1 8:37; Ch2 6:28; Psa 78:46; Isa 33:4) as the translation of a word (hasil) the root of which means "to devour" or "consume," and which is used also with reference to the locust in Deu 28:38. It may have been a species of locust, or the name of one of the transformations through which the locust passes, locust-grub. It is also found (Psa 105:34; Jer 51:14, Jer 51:27; R.V., "cankerworm") as the rendering of a different Hebrew word, yelek, a word elsewhere rendered "cankerworm" (q.v.), Joe 1:4; Joe 2:25. (See LOCUST.)

Catholic Epistles The epistles of James, Peter, John, and Jude; so called because they are addressed to Christians in general, and not to any church or person in particular.

Cattle Abounded in the Holy Land. To the rearing and management of them the inhabitants chiefly devoted themselves (Deu 8:13; Deu 12:21; Sa1 11:5; Sa1 12:3; Psa 144:14; Jer 3:24). They may be classified as (1.) Neat cattle. Many hundreds of these were yearly consumed in sacrifices or used for food. The finest herds were found in Bashan, beyond Jordan (Num 32:4). Large herds also pastured on the wide fertile plains of Sharon. They were yoked to the plough (Kg1 19:19), and were employed for carrying burdens (Ch1 12:40). They were driven with a pointed rod (Jdg 3:31) or goad (q.v.). According to the Mosaic law, the mouths of cattle employed for the threshing-floor were not to be muzzled, so as to prevent them from eating of the provender over which they trampled (Deu 25:4). Whosoever stole and sold or slaughtered an ox must give five in satisfaction (Exo 22:1); but if it was found alive in the possession of him who stole it, he was required to make double restitution only (Exo 22:4). If an ox went astray, whoever found it was required to bring it back to its owner (Exo 23:4; Deu 22:1, Deu 22:4). An ox and an ass could not be yoked together in the plough (Deu 22:10). (2.) Small cattle. Next to herds of neat cattle, sheep formed the most important of the possessions of the inhabitants of Palestine (Gen 12:16; Gen 13:5; Gen 26:14; Gen 21:27; Gen 29:2, Gen 29:3). They are frequently mentioned among the booty taken in war (Num 31:32; Jos 6:21; Sa1 14:32; Sa1 15:3). There were many who were owners of large flocks (Sa1 25:2; Sa2 12:2, compare Job 1:3). Kings also had shepherds "over their flocks" (Ch1 27:31), from which they derived a large portion of their revenue (Sa2 17:29; Ch1 12:40). The districts most famous for their flocks of sheep were the plain of Sharon (Isa 65:10), Mount Carmel (Mic 7:14), Bashan and Gilead (Mic 7:14). In patriarchal times the flocks of sheep were sometimes tended by the daughters of the owners. Thus Rachel, the daughter of Laban, kept her father's sheep (Gen 29:9); as also Zipporah and her six sisters had charge of their father Jethro's flocks (Exo 2:16). Sometimes they were kept by hired shepherds (Joh 10:12), and sometimes by the sons of the family (Sa1 16:11; Sa1 17:15). The keepers so familiarized their sheep with their voices that they knew them, and followed them at their call. Sheep, but more especially rams and lambs, were frequently offered in sacrifice. The shearing of sheep was a great festive occasion (Sa1 25:4; Sa2 13:23). They were folded at night, and guarded by their keepers against the attacks of the lion (Mic 5:8), the bear (Sa1 17:34), and the wolf (Mat 10:16; Joh 10:12). They were liable to wander over the wide pastures and go astray (Psa 119:176; Isa 53:6; Hos 4:16; Mat 18:12). Goats also formed a part of the pastoral wealth of Palestine (Gen 15:9; Gen 32:14; Gen 37:31). They were used both for sacrifice and for food (Deu 14:4), especially the young males (Gen 27:9, Gen 27:14, Gen 27:17; Jdg 6:19; Jdg 13:15; Sa1 16:20). Goat's hair was used for making tent cloth (Exo 26:7; Exo 36:14), and for mattresses and bedding (Sa1 19:13, Sa1 19:16). (See GOAT.)

Caul (Heb. yothe'reth ; i.e., "something redundant"), the membrane which covers the upper part of the liver (Exo 29:13, Exo 29:22; Lev 3:4, Lev 3:10, Lev 3:15; Lev 4:9; Lev 7:4; marg., "midriff"). In Hos 13:8 (Heb. seghor ; i.e., "an enclosure") the pericardium, or parts about the heart, is meant.

Cauls In Isa 3:18 this word (Heb. shebisim ), in the marg. "networks," denotes network caps to contain the hair, worn by females. Others explain it as meaning "wreaths worn round the forehead, reaching from one ear to the other."

Causeway A raised way, an ascent by steps, or a raised slope between Zion and the temple (Ch1 26:16, Ch1 26:18). In Ch2 9:11 the same word is translated "terrace."

Cave There are numerous natural caves among the limestone rocks of Syria, many of which have been artificially enlarged for various purposes. The first notice of a cave occurs in the history of Lot (Gen 19:30). The next we read of is the cave of Machpelah (q.v.), which Abraham purchased from the sons of Heth (Gen 25:9, Gen 25:10). It was the burying-place of Sarah and of Abraham himself, also of Isaac, Rebekah, Leah, and Jacob (Gen 49:31; Gen 50:13). The cave of Makkedah, into which the five Amorite kings retired after their defeat by Joshua (Jos 10:16, Jos 10:27). The cave of Adullam (q.v.), an immense natural cavern, where David hid himself from Saul (Sa1 22:1, Sa1 22:2). The cave of Engedi (q.v.), now called 'Ain Jidy , i.e., the "Fountain of the Kid", where David cut off the skirt of Saul's robe (Sa1 24:4). Here he also found a shelter for himself and his followers to the number of 600 (Sa1 23:29; Sa1 24:1). "On all sides the country is full of caverns which might serve as lurking-places for David and his men, as they do for outlaws at the present day." The cave in which Obadiah hid the prophets (Kg1 18:4) was probably in the north, but it cannot be identified. The cave of Elijah (Kg1 19:9), and the "cleft" of Moses on Horeb (Exo 33:22), cannot be determined. In the time of Gideon the Israelites took refuge from the Midianites in dens and caves, such as abounded in the mountain regions of Manasseh (Jdg 6:2). Caves were frequently used as dwelling-places (Num 24:21; Sol 2:14; Jer 49:16; Oba 1:3). "The excavations at Deir Dubban, on the south side of the wady leading to Santa Hanneh, are probably the dwellings of the Horites," the ancient inhabitants of Idumea Proper. The pits or cavities in rocks were also sometimes used as prisons (Isa 24:22; Isa 51:14; Zac 9:11). Those which had niches in their sides were occupied as burying-places (Eze 32:23; Joh 11:38).

Cedar (Heb. e'rez , Gr. kedros , Lat. cedrus ), a tree very frequently mentioned in Scripture. It was stately (Eze 31:3), long-branched (Psa 80:10; Psa 92:12; Eze 31:6), odoriferous (Sol 4:11; Hos 14:6), durable, and therefore much used for boards, pillars, and ceilings (Kg1 6:9, Kg1 6:10; Kg1 7:2; Jer 22:14), for masts (Eze 27:5), and for carved images (Isa 44:14). It grew very abundantly in Palestine, and particularly on Lebanon, of which it was "the glory" (Isa 35:2; Isa 60:13). Hiram supplied Solomon with cedar trees from Lebanon for various purposes connected with the construction of the temple and the king's palace (Sa2 5:11; Sa2 7:2, Sa2 7:7; Kg1 5:6, Kg1 5:8, Kg1 5:10; Kg1 6:9, Kg1 6:10, Kg1 6:15, Kg1 6:16, Kg1 6:18, Kg1 6:20; Kg1 7:2, Kg1 7:3, Kg1 7:7, Kg1 7:11, Kg1 7:12; Kg1 9:11, etc.). Cedars were used also in the building of the second temple under Zerubbabel (Ezr 3:7). Of the ancient cedars of Lebanon there remain now only some seven or eight. They are not standing together. But beside them there are found between three hundred and four hundred of younger growth. They stand in an amphitheatre fronting the west, about 6,400 feet above the level of the sea. The cedar is often figuratively alluded to in the sacred Scriptures. "The mighty conquerors of olden days, the despots of Assyria and the Pharaohs of Egypt, the proud and idolatrous monarchs of Judah, the Hebrew commonwealth itself, the warlike Ammonites of patriarchal times, and the moral majesty of the Messianic age, are all compared to the towering cedar, in its royal loftiness and supremacy (Isa 2:13; Eze 17:3, Eze 17:22, Eze 17:23, Eze 31:3; Amo 2:9; Zac 11:1, Zac 11:2; Job 40:17; Psa 29:5; Psa 80:10; Psa 92:12, etc).", Groser's Scrip. Nat. Hist. (See BOX-TREE.)

Cedron The black torrent, the brook flowing through the ravine below the eastern wall of Jerusalem (Joh 18:1). (See KIDRON.)

Ceiling The covering (Kg1 7:3, Kg1 7:7) of the inside roof and walls of a house with planks of wood (Ch2 3:5; Jer 22:14). Ceilings were sometimes adorned with various ornaments in stucco, gold, silver, gems, and ivory. The ceilings of the temple and of Solomon's palace are described Kg1 6:9, Kg1 6:15; Kg1 7:3; Ch2 3:5, Ch2 3:9.