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Calah One of the most ancient cities of Assyria. "Out of that land he [i.e., Nimrod] went forth into Assyria, and builded Nineveh, Rehoboth-Ir, and Calah, and Resen" (Gen 10:11, R.V.). Its site is now marked probably by the Nimrud ruins on the left bank of the Tigris. These cover an area of about 1,000 acres, and are second only in size and importance to the mass of ruins opposite Mosul. This city was at one time the capital of the empire, and was the residence of Sardanapalus and his successors down to the time of Sargon, who built a new capital, the modern Khorsabad. It has been conjectured that these four cities mentioned in Gen 10:11 were afterwards all united into one and called Nineveh (q.v.).

Calamus The Latin for cane, Hebrew Kaneh , mentioned (Exo 30:23) as one of the ingredients in the holy anointing oil, one of the sweet scents (Sol 4:14), and among the articles sold in the markets of Tyre (Eze 27:19). The word designates an Oriental plant called the "sweet flag," the Acorus calamus of Linnaeus. It is elsewhere called "sweet cane" (Isa 43:24; Jer 6:20). It has an aromatic smell, and when its knotted stalk is cut and dried and reduced to powder, it forms an ingredient in the most precious perfumes. It was not a native of Palestine, but was imported from Arabia Felix or from India. It was probably that which is now known in India by the name of "lemon grass" or "ginger grass," the Andropogon schoenanthus. (See CANE.)

Calcol (Ch1 2:6), sustenance, the same probably as Chalcol (Kg1 4:31), one of the four sages whom Solomon excelled in wisdom; for "he was wiser than all men."

Caleb A dog. (1.) One of the three sons of Hezron of the tribe of Judah. He is also called Chelubai (Ch1 2:9). His descendants are enumerated (Ch1 2:18, Ch1 2:42). (2.) A "son of Hur, the firstborn of Ephratah" (Ch1 2:50). Some would read the whole passage thus: "These [i.e., the list in Ch1 2:42] were the sons of Caleb. The sons of Hur, the firstborn of Ephratah, were Shobal, etc." Thus Hur would be the name of the son and not the father of Caleb (Ch1 2:19). (3.) The son of Jephunneh (Num 13:6; Num 32:12; Jos 14:6, Jos 14:14). He was one of those whom Moses sent to search the land in the second year after the Exodus. He was one of the family chiefs of the tribe of Judah. He and Joshua the son of Nun were the only two of the whole number who encouraged the people to go up and possess the land, and they alone were spared when a plague broke out in which the other ten spies perished (Num. 13; 14). All the people that had been numbered, from twenty years old and upward, perished in the wilderness except these two. The last notice we have of Caleb is when (being then eighty-five years of age) he came to Joshua at the camp at Gilgal, after the people had gained possession of the land, and reminded him of the promise Moses had made to him, by virtue of which he claimed a certain portion of the land of Kirjatharba as his inheritance (Jos 14:6; Jos 15:13; Jos 21:10; Sa1 25:2, Sa1 25:3; Sa1 30:14). He is called a "Kenezite" in Jos 14:6, Jos 14:14. This may simply mean "son of Kenez" (Num 32:12). Some, however, read "Jephunneh, the son of Kenez," who was a descendant of Hezron, the son of Pharez, a grandson of Judah (Ch1 2:5). This Caleb may possibly be identical with (2). (4.) Caleb gave his name apparently to a part of the south country (Sa1 30:14) of Judah, the district between Hebron and Carmel, which had been assigned to him. When he gave up the city of Hebron to the priests as a city of refuge, he retained possession of the surrounding country (Jos 21:11, Jos 21:12; compare Sa1 25:3).

Calf Calves were commonly made use of in sacrifices, and are therefore frequently mentioned in Scripture. The "fatted calf" was regarded as the choicest of animal food; it was frequently also offered as a special sacrifice (Sa1 28:24; Amo 6:4; Luk 15:23). The words used in Jer 34:18, Jer 34:19, "cut the calf in twain," allude to the custom of dividing a sacrifice into two parts, between which the parties ratifying a covenant passed (Gen 15:9, Gen 15:10, Gen 15:17, Gen 15:18). The sacrifice of the lips, i.e., priase, is called "the calves of our lips" (Hos 14:2, R.V., "as bullocks the offering of our lips." Compare Heb 13:15; Psa 116:7; Jer 33:11). The golden calf which Aaron made (Exo 32:4) was probably a copy of the god Moloch rather than of the god Apis, the sacred ox or calf of Egypt. The Jews showed all through their history a tendency toward the Babylonian and Canaanitish idolatry rather than toward that of Egypt. Ages after this, Jeroboam, king of Israel, set up two idol calves, one at Dan, and the other at Bethel, that he might thus prevent the ten tribes from resorting to Jerusalem for worship (Kg1 12:28). These calves continued to be a snare to the people till teh time of their captivity. The calf at Dan was carried away in the reign of Pekah by Tiglath-pileser, and that at Bethel ten years later, in the reign of Hoshea, by Shalmaneser (Kg2 15:29; Kg2 17:33). This sin of Jeroboam is almost always mentioned along with his name (Kg2 15:28 etc.).

Calkers Workmen skilled in stopping the seams of the deck or sides of vessels. The inhabitants of Gebel were employed in such work on Tyrian vessels (Eze 27:9, Eze 27:27; marg., "strengtheners" or "stoppers of chinks").

Call (1.) To cry for help, hence to pray (Gen 4:26). Thus men are said to "call upon the name of the Lord" (Act 2:21; Act 7:59; Act 9:14; Rom 10:12; Co1 1:2). (2.) God calls with respect to men when he designates them to some special office (Exo 31:2; Isa 22:20; Act 13:2), and when he invites them to accept his offered grace (Mat 9:13; Mat 11:28; Mat 22:4). In the message of the gospel his call is addressed to all men, to Jews and Gentiles alike (Mat 28:19; Mar 16:15; Rom 9:24, Rom 9:25). But this universal call is not inseparably connected with salvation, although it leaves all to whom it comes inexcusable if they reject it (Joh 3:14; Mat 22:14). An effectual call is something more than the outward message of the Word of God to men. It is internal, and is the result of the enlightening and sanctifying influence of the Holy Spirit (Joh 16:14; Act 26:18; Joh 6:44), effectually drawing men to Christ, and disposing and enabling them to receive the truth (Joh 6:45; Act 16:14; Eph 1:17).

Calling A profession, or as we usually say, a vocation (Co1 7:20). The "hope of your calling" in Eph 4:4 is the hope resulting from your being called into the kingdom of God.

Calneh Fort, one of the four cities founded by Nimrod (Gen 10:10). It is the modern Niffer, a lofty mound of earth and rubbish situated in the marshes on the left, i.e., the east, bank of the Euphrates, but 30 miles distant from its present course, and about 60 miles south-south-east from Babylon. It is mentioned as one of the towns with which Tyre carried on trade. It was finally taken and probably destroyed by one of the Assyrian kings (Amo 6:2). It is called Calno (Isa 10:9) and Canneh (Eze 27:23).

Calvary Only in Luk 23:33, the Latin name Calvaria , which was used as a translation of the Greek word Kranion , by which the Hebrew word Gulgoleth was interpreted, "the place of a skull." It probably took this name from its shape, being a hillock or low, rounded, bare elevation somewhat in the form of a human skull. It is nowhere in Scripture called a "hill." The crucifixion of our Lord took place outside the city walls (Heb 13:11) and near the public thoroughfare. "This thing was not done in a corner." (See GOLGOTHA.)