Sacred Texts  Bible  Index 

Buckler (1.) A portable shield (Sa2 22:31; Ch1 5:18). (2.) A shield surrounding the person; the targe or round form; used once figuratively (Psa 91:4). (3.) A large shield protecting the whole body (Psa 35:2; Eze 23:24; Eze 26:8). (4.) A lance or spear; improperly rendered "buckler" in the Authorized Version (Ch1 12:8), but correctly in the Revised Version "spear." The leather of shields required oiling (Sa2 1:21; Isa 21:5), so as to prevent its being injured by moisture. Copper (= "brass") shields were also in use (Sa1 17:6; Kg1 14:27). Those spoken of in Kg1 10:16, etc.; Kg1 14:26, were probably of massive metal. The shields David had taken from his enemies were suspended in the temple as mementos (Kg2 11:10). (See ARMOUR, SHIELD.)

Building Among the Jews was suited to the climate and conditions of the country. They probably adopted the kind of architecture for their dwellings which they found already existing when they entered Canaan (Deu 6:10; Num 13:19). Phoenician artists (Sa2 5:11; Kg1 5:6, Kg1 5:18) assisted at the erection of the royal palace and the temple at Jerusalem. Foreigners also assisted at the restoration of the temple after the Exile (Ezr 3:7). In Gen 11:3, Gen 11:9, we have the first recorded instance of the erection of buildings. The cities of the plain of Shinar were founded by the descendants of Shem (Gen 10:11, Gen 10:12, Gen 10:22). The Israelites were by occupation shepherds and dwellers in tents (Gen 47:3); but from the time of their entering Canaan they became dwellers in towns, and in houses built of the native limestone of Palestine. Much building was carried on in Solomon's time. Besides the buildings he completed at Jerusalem, he also built Baalath and Tadmor (Kg1 9:15, Kg1 9:24). Many of the kings of Israel and Judah were engaged in erecting various buildings. Herod and his sons and successors restored the temple, and built fortifications and other structures of great magnificence in Jerusalem (Luk 21:5). The instruments used in building are mentioned as the plumb line (Amo 7:7), the measuring-reed (Eze 40:3), and the saw (Kg1 7:9). Believers are "God's building" (Co1 3:9); and heaven is called "a building of God" (Co2 5:1). Christ is the only foundation of his church (Co1 3:10), of which he also is the builder (Mat 16:18).

Bul Rainy, the eighth ecclesiastical month of the year (Kg1 6:38), and the second month of the civil year; later called Marchesvan (q.v.). (See MONTH.)

Bullock (1.) The translation of a word which is a generic name for horned cattle (Isa 65:25). It is also rendered "cow" (Eze 4:15), "ox" (Gen 12:16). (2.) The translation of a word always meaning an animal of the ox kind, without distinction of age or sex (Hos 12:11). It is rendered "cow" (Num 18:17) and "ox" (Lev 17:3). (3.) Another word is rendered in the same way (Jer 31:18). It is also translated "calf" (Lev 9:3; Mic 6:6). It is the same word used of the "molten calf" (Exo 32:4, Exo 32:8) and "the golden calf" (Kg1 12:28). (4.) In Jdg 6:25; Isa 34:7, the Hebrew word is different. It is the customary word for bulls offered in sacrifice. In Hos 14:2, the Authorized Version has "calves," the Revised Version "bullocks."

Bulrush (1.) In Isa 58:5 the rendering of a word which denotes "belonging to a marsh," from the nature of the soil in which it grows (Isa 18:2). It was sometimes platted into ropes (Job 41:2; A.V., "hook," R.V., "rope," lit. "cord of rushes"). (2.) In Exo 2:3, Isa 18:2 (R.V., "papyrus") this word is the translation of the Hebrew gome, which designates the plant as absorbing moisture. In Isa 35:7 and Job 8:11 it is rendered "rush." This was the Egyptian papyrus (papyrus Nilotica). It was anciently very abundant in Egypt. The Egyptians made garments and shoes and various utensils of it. It was used for the construction of the ark of Moses (Exo 2:3, Exo 2:5). The root portions of the stem were used for food. The inside bark was cut into strips, which were sewed together and dried in the sun, forming the papyrus used for writing. It is no longer found in Egypt, but grows luxuriantly in Palestine, in the marshes of the Huleh, and in the swamps at the north end of the Lake of Gennesaret. (See CANE.)

Bulwarks Mural towers, bastions, were introduced by king Uzziah (Ch2 26:15; Zep 1:16; Psa 48:13; Isa 26:1). There are five Hebrew words so rendered in the Authorized Version, but the same word is also variously rendered.

Bunch (1.) A bundle of twigs (Exo 12:22). (2.) Bunch or cake of raisins (Sa2 16:1). (3.) The "bunch of a camel" (Isa 30:6).

Burden (1.) A load of any kind (Exo 23:5). (2.) A severe task (Exo 2:11). (3.) A difficult duty, requiring effort (Exo 18:22). (4.) A prophecy of a calamitous or disastrous nature (Isa 13:1; Isa 17:1; Hab 1:1, etc.).

Burial The first burial we have an account of is that of Sarah (Gen. 23). The first commercial transaction recorded is that of the purchase of a burial-place, for which Abraham weighed to Ephron "four hundred shekels of silver current money with the merchants." Thus the patriarch became the owner of a part of the land of Canaan, the only part he ever possessed. When he himself died, "his sons Isaac and Ishmael buried him in the cave of Machpelah," beside Sarah his wife (Gen 25:9). Deborah, Rebekah's nurse, was buried under Allon-bachuth, "the oak of weeping" (Gen 35:8), near to Bethel. Rachel died, and was buried near Ephrath; "and Jacob set a pillar upon her grave" (Gen 35:16). Isaac was buried at Hebron, where he had died (Gen 35:27, Gen 35:29). Jacob, when charging his sons to bury him in the cave of Machpelah, said, "There they buried Abraham and Sarah his wife; there they buried Isaac and Rebekah his wife; and there I buried Leah" (Gen 49:31). In compliance with the oath which he made him swear unto him (Gen 47:29), Joseph, assisted by his brethren, buried Jacob in the cave of Machpelah (Gen 50:2, Gen 50:13). At the Exodus, Moses "took the bones of Joseph with him," and they were buried in the "parcel of ground" which Jacob had bought of the sons of Hamor (Jos 24:32), which became Joseph's inheritance (Gen 48:22; Ch1 5:1; Joh 4:5). Two burials are mentioned as having taken place in the wilderness. That of Miriam (Num 20:1), and that of Moses, "in the land of Moab" (Deu 34:5, Deu 34:6, Deu 34:8). There is no account of the actual burial of Aaron, which probably, however, took place on the summit of Mount Hor (Num 20:28, Num 20:29). Joshua was buried "in the border of his inheritance in Timnath-serah" (Jos 24:30). In Job we find a reference to burying-places, which were probably the Pyramids (Job 3:14, Job 3:15). The Hebrew word for "waste places" here resembles in sound the Egyptian word for "pyramids." Samuel, like Moses, was honoured with a national burial (Sa1 25:1). Joab (Kg1 2:34) "was buried in his own house in the wilderness." In connection with the burial of Saul and his three sons we meet for the first time with the practice of burning the dead (Sa1 31:11). The same practice is again referred to by Amos (Amo 6:10). Absalom was buried "in the wood" where he was slain (Sa2 18:17, Sa2 18:18). The raising of the heap of stones over his grave was intended to mark abhorrence of the person buried (compare Jos 7:26; Jos 8:29). There was no fixed royal burying-place for the Hebrew kings. We find several royal burials taking place, however, "in the city of David" (Kg1 2:10; Kg1 11:43; Kg1 15:8; Kg2 14:19, Kg2 14:20; Kg2 15:38; Kg1 14:31; Kg1 22:50; Ch2 21:19, Ch2 21:20; Ch2 24:25, etc.). Hezekiah was buried in the mount of the sepulchres of the sons of David; "and all Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem did him honour at his death" (Ch2 32:33). Little is said regarding the burial of the kings of Israel. Some of them were buried in Samaria, the capital of their kingdom (Kg2 10:35; Kg2 13:9; Kg2 14:16). Our Lord was buried in a new tomb, hewn out of the rock, which Joseph of Arimathea had prepared for himself (Mat 27:57; Mar 15:46; Joh 19:41, Joh 19:42). The grave of Lazarus was "a cave, and a stone lay on it" (Joh 11:38). Graves were frequently either natural caverns or artificial excavations formed in the sides of rocks (Gen 23:9; Mat 27:60); and coffins were seldom used, unless when the body was brought from a distance.

Burnt-offering Hebrew olah; i.e., "ascending," the whole being consumed by fire, and regarded as ascending to God while being consumed. Part of every offering was burnt in the sacred fire, but this was wholly burnt, a "whole burnt offering." It was the most frequent form of sacrifice, and apparently the only one mentioned in the book of Genesis. Such were the sacrifices offered by Abel (Gen 4:3, Gen 4:4, here called minhah; i.e., "a gift"), Noah (Gen 8:20), Abraham (Gen 22:2, Gen 22:7, Gen 22:8, Gen 22:13), and by the Hebrews in Egypt (Exo 10:25). The law of Moses afterwards prescribed the occasions and the manner in which burnt sacrifices were to be offered. There were "the continual burnt offering" (Exo 29:38; Lev 6:9), "the burnt offering of every sabbath," which was double the daily one (Num 28:9, Num 28:10), "the burnt offering of every month" (Num 28:11), the offerings at the Passover (Num 28:19), at Pentecost (Lev 23:16), the feast of Trumpets (Lev 23:23), and on the day of Atonement (Lev. 16). On other occasions special sacrifices were offered, as at the consecration of Aaron (Ex. 29) and the dedication of the temple (Kg1 8:5, Kg1 8:62). Free-will burnt offerings were also permitted (Lev 1:13), and were offered at the accession of Solomon to the throne (Ch1 29:21), and at the reformation brought about by Hezekiah (Ch2 29:31). These offerings signified the complete dedication of the offerers unto God. This is referred to in Rom 12:1. (See ALTAR, SACRIFICE.)