Sacred Texts  Bible  Index 

Beard The mode of wearing it was definitely prescribed to the Jews (Lev 19:27; Lev 21:5). Hence the import of Ezekiel's (Eze 5:1) description of the "razor" i.e., the agents of an angry providence being used against the guilty nation of the Jews. It was a part of a Jew's daily toilet to anoint his beard with oil and perfume (Psa 133:2). Beards were trimmed with the most fastidious care (Sa2 19:24), and their neglect was an indication of deep sorrow (Isa 15:2; Jer 41:5). The custom was to shave or pluck off the hair as a sign of mourning (Isa 50:6; Jer 48:37; Ezr 9:3). The beards of David's ambassadors were cut off by Hanun (Sa2 10:4) as a mark of indignity. On the other hand, the Egyptians carefully shaved the hair off their faces, and they compelled their slaves to do so also (Gen 41:14).

Beast This word is used of flocks or herds of grazing animals (Exo 22:5; Num 20:4, Num 20:8, Num 20:11; Psa 78:48); of beasts of burden (Gen 45:17); of eatable beasts (Pro 9:2); and of swift beasts or dromedaries (Isa 60:6). In the New Testament it is used of a domestic animal as property (Rev 18:13); as used for food (Co1 15:39), for service (Luk 10:34; Act 23:24), and for sacrifice (Act 7:42). When used in contradistinction to man (Psa 36:6), it denotes a brute creature generally, and when in contradistinction to creeping things (Lev 11:2; Lev 27:26), a four-footed animal. The Mosaic law required that beasts of labour should have rest on the Sabbath (Exo 20:10; Exo 23:12), and in the Sabbatical year all cattle were allowed to roam about freely, and eat whatever grew in the fields (Exo 23:11; Lev 25:7). No animal could be castrated (Lev 22:24). Animal of different kinds were to be always kept separate (Lev 19:19; Deu 22:10). Oxen when used in threshing were not to be prevented from eating what was within their reach (Deu 25:4; Co1 9:9). This word is used figuratively of an infuriated multitude (Co1 15:32; Act 19:29; compare Psa 22:12, Psa 22:16; Ecc 3:18; Isa 11:6), and of wicked men (Pe2 2:12). The four beasts of Dan 7:3, Dan 7:17, Dan 7:23 represent four kingdom or kings.

Beaten Gold In Num 8:4, means "turned" or rounded work in gold. The Greek Version, however, renders the word "sold gold;" the Revised Version, "beaten work of gold." In Kg1 10:16, Kg1 10:17, it probably means "mixed" gold, as the word ought to be rendered, i.e., not pure gold. Others render the word in these places "thin plates of gold."

Beaten Oil (Exo 27:20; Exo 29:40), obtained by pounding olives in a mortar, not by crushing them in a mill. It was reckoned the best. (See OLIVE)

Beautiful Gate The name of one of the gates of the temple (Act 3:2). It is supposed to have been the door which led from the court of the Gentiles to the court of the women. It was of massive structure, and covered with plates of Corinthian brass.

Becher First-born; a youth, the second son of Benjamin (Gen 46:21), who came down to Egypt with Jacob. It is probable that he married an Ephraimitish heiress, and that his descendants were consequently reckoned among the tribe of Ephraim (Num 26:35; Ch1 7:20, Ch1 7:21). They are not reckoned among the descendants of Benjamin (Num 26:38).

Bed (Heb. mittah ), for rest at night (Exo 8:3; Sa1 19:13, Sa1 19:15, Sa1 19:16, etc.); during sickness (Gen 47:31; Gen 48:2; Gen 49:33, etc.); as a sofa for rest (Sa1 28:23; Amo 3:12). Another Hebrew word ( er'es ) so rendered denotes a canopied bed, or a bed with curtains (Deu 3:11; Psa 132:3), for sickness (Psa 6:6; Psa 41:3). In the New Testament it denotes sometimes a litter with a coverlet (Mat 9:2, Mat 9:6; Luk 5:18; Act 5:15). The Jewish bedstead was frequently merely the divan or platform along the sides of the house, sometimes a very slight portable frame, sometimes only a mat or one or more quilts. The only material for bed-clothes is mentioned in Sa1 19:13. Sleeping in the open air was not uncommon, the sleeper wrapping himself in his outer garment (Exo 22:26, Exo 22:27; Deu 24:12, Deu 24:13).

Bedan One of the judges of Israel (Sa1 12:11). It is uncertain who he was. Some suppose that Barak is meant, others Samson, but most probably this is contracted form of Abdon (Jdg 12:13).

Bed-chamber An apartment in Eastern houses, furnished with a slightly elevated platform at the upper end and sometimes along the sides, on which were laid mattresses. This was the general arrangement of the public sleeping-room for the males of the family and for guests, but there were usually besides distinct bed-chambers of a more private character (Kg2 4:10; Exo 8:3; Kg2 6:12). In Kg2 11:2 this word denotes, as in the margin of the Revised Version, a store-room in which mattresses were kept.

Bedstead Used in Deu 3:11, but elsewhere rendered "couch," "bed." In Kg2 1:4; Kg2 16:2; Psa 132:3; Amo 3:12, the divan is meant by this word.