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Areopagite A member of the court of Areopagus (Act 17:34).

Areopagus The Latin form of the Greek word rendered "Mars' hill." But it denotes also the council or court of justice which met in the open air on the hill. It was a rocky height to the west of the Acropolis at Athens, on the south-east summit of which the council was held which was constituted by Solon, and consisted of nine archons or chief magistrates who were then in office, and the ex-archons of blameless life. On this hill of Mars (Gr. Ares ) Paul delivered his memorable address to the "men of Athens" (Act 17:22).

Aretas The father-in-law of Herod Antipas, and king of Arabia Petraea. His daughter returned to him on the occasion of her husband's entering into an adulterous alliance with Herodias, the wife of Herod-Philip, his half-brother (Luk 3:19, Luk 3:20; Mar 6:17; Mat 14:3). This led to a war between Aretas and Herod Antipas. Herod's army was wholly destroyed (A.D. 36). Aretas, taking advantage of the complications of the times on account of the death of the Emperor Tiberius (A.D. 37), took possession of Damascus (Co2 11:32; compare Act 9:25). At this time Paul returned to Damascus from Arabia.

Argob Stony heap, an "island," as it has been called, of rock about 30 miles by 20, rising 20 or 30 feet above the table-land of Bashan; a region of crags and chasms wild and rugged in the extreme. On this "island" stood sixty walled cities, ruled over by Og. It is called Trachonitis ("the rugged region") in the New Testament (Luk 3:1). These cities were conquered by the Israelites (Deu 3:4; Kg1 4:13). It is now called the Lejah. Here "sixty walled cities are still traceable in a space of 308 square miles. The architecture is ponderous and massive. Solid walls 4 feet thick, and stones on one another without cement; the roofs enormous slabs of basaltic rock, like iron; the doors and gates are of stone 18 inches thick, secured by ponderous bars. The land bears still the appearance of having been called the 'land of giants' under the giant Og." "I have more than once entered a deserted city in the evening, taken possession of a comfortable house, and spent the night in peace. Many of the houses in the ancient cities of Bashan are perfect, as if only finished yesterday. The walls are sound, the roofs unbroken, and even the window - shutters in their places. These ancient cities of Bashan probably contain the very oldest specimens of domestic architecture in the world" (Porter's Giant Cities). (See BASHAN.)

Arieh The lion, the name of one of the body-guard slain with Pekahiah at Samaria (Kg2 15:25) by the conspirator Pekah.

Ariel The lion of God. (1.) One of the chief men sent by Ezra to procure Levites for the sanctuary (Ezr 8:16). (2.) A symbolic name for Jerusalem (Isa 29:1, Isa 29:2, Isa 29:7) as "victorious under God," and in Eze 43:15, Eze 43:16, for the altar (marg., Heb. 'ariel ) of burnt offerings, the secret of Israel's lion-like strength.

Arimathea A "city of the Jews" (Luk 23:51), the birth-place of Joseph in whose sepulchre our Lord was laid (Mat 27:57, Mat 27:60; Joh 19:38). It is probably the same place as Ramathaim in Ephraim, and the birth-place of Samuel (Sa1 1:1, Sa1 1:19). Others identify it with Ramleh in Dan, or Rama (q.v.) in Benjamin (Mat 2:18).

Arioch Lion-like, venerable. (1.) A king of Ellasar who was confederate with Chedorlamer (Gen 14:1, Gen 14:9). The tablets recently discovered by Mr. Pinches (see CHALDEA) show the true reading is Eri-Aku of Larsa. This Elamite name meant "servant of the moon-god." It was afterwards changed into Rimsin, "Have mercy, O moon-god." (2.) Dan 2:14.

Aristarchus Best ruler, native of Thessalonica (Act 20:4), a companion of Paul (Act 19:29; Act 27:2). He was Paul's "fellow-prisoner" at Rome (Col 4:10; Plm 1:24).

Aristobulus A Roman mentioned in Paul's Epistle to the Romans (Rom 16:10), whose "household" is greeted.