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Apharsachites A company of the colonists whom the Assyrian king planted in Samaria (Ezr 5:6; Ezr 6:6).

Apharsites Another of the tribes removed to Samaria (Ezr 4:9), or perhaps the same as the preceding.

Aphik (Jdg 1:31); Aphek (Jos 13:4; Jos 19:30), stronghold. (1.) A city of the tribe of Asher. It was the scene of the licentious worship of the Syrian Aphrodite. The ruins of the temple, "magnificent ruins" in a "spot of strange wildness and beauty", are still seen at Afka, on the north-west slopes of Lebanon, near the source of the river Adonis (now Nahr Ibrahim), 12 miles east of Gebal. (2.) A city of the tribe of Issachar, near to Jezreel (Sa1 4:1; Sa1 29:1; compare Sa1 28:4). (3.)A town on the road from Damascus to Palestine, in the level plain east of Jordan, near which Benhadad was defeated by the Israelites (Kg1 20:26, Kg1 20:30; Kg2 13:17). It has been identified with the modern Fik, 6 miles east of the Sea of Galilee, opposite Tiberias.

Apocalypse The Greek name of the Book of Revelation (q.v.).

Apocrypha Hidden, spurious, the name given to certain ancient books which found a place in the LXX. and Latin Vulgate versions of the Old Testament, and were appended to all the great translations made from them in the sixteenth century, but which have no claim to be regarded as in any sense parts of the inspired Word. (1.) They are not once quoted by the New Testament writers, who frequently quote from the LXX. Our Lord and his apostles confirmed by their authority the ordinary Jewish canon, which was the same in all respects as we now have it. (2.) These books were written not in Hebrew but in Greek, and during the "period of silence," from the time of Malachi, after which oracles and direct revelations from God ceased till the Christian era. (3.) The contents of the books themselves show that they were no part of Scripture. The Old Testament Apocrypha consists of fourteen books, the chief of which are the Books of the Maccabees (q.v.), the Books of Esdras, the Book of Wisdom, the Book of Baruch, the Book of Esther, Ecclesiasticus, Tobit, Judith, etc. The New Testament Apocrypha consists of a very extensive literature, which bears distinct evidences of its non-apostolic origin, and is utterly unworthy of regard.

Apollonia A city of Macedonia between Amphipolis and Thessalonica, from which it was distant about 36 miles. Paul and Silas passed through it on their way to Thessalonica (Act 17:1).

Apollos A Jew "born at Alexandria," a man well versed in the Scriptures and eloquent (Act 18:24; R.V., "learned"). He came to Ephesus (about A.D. 49), where he spake "boldly" in the synagogue (Act 18:26), although he did not know as yet that Jesus of Nazareth was the Messiah. Aquila and Priscilla instructed him more perfectly in "the way of God", i.e., in the knowledge of Christ. He then proceeded to Corinth, where he met Paul (Act 18:27; Act 19:1). He was there very useful in watering the good seed Paul had sown (Co1 1:12), and in gaining many to Christ. His disciples were much attached to him (Co1 3:4, Co1 3:22). He was with Paul at Ephesus when he wrote the First Epistle to the Corinthians; and Paul makes kindly reference to him in his letter to Titus (Tit 3:13). Some have supposed, although without sufficient ground, that he was the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews.

Apollyon Destroyer, the name given to the king of the hosts represented by the locusts (Rev 9:11). It is the Greek translation of the Hebrew Abaddon (q.v.).

Apostle A person sent by another; a messenger; envoy. This word is once used as a descriptive designation of Jesus Christ, the Sent of the Father (Heb 3:1; Joh 20:21). It is, however, generally used as designating the body of disciples to whom he entrusted the organization of his church and the dissemination of his gospel, "the twelve," as they are called (Mat 10:1; Mar 3:14; Mar 6:7; Luk 6:13; Luk 9:1). We have four lists of the apostles, one by each of the synoptic evangelists (Mat 10:2; Mar 3:16; Luk 6:14), and one in the Acts (Act 1:13). No two of these lists, however, perfectly coincide. Our Lord gave them the "keys of the kingdom," and by the gift of his Spirit fitted them to be the founders and governors of his church (Joh 14:16, Joh 14:17, Joh 14:26; Joh 15:26, Joh 15:27; Joh 16:7). To them, as representing his church, he gave the commission to "preach the gospel to every creature" (Mat 28:18). After his ascension he communicated to them, according to his promise, supernatural gifts to qualify them for the discharge of their duties (Act 2:4; Co1 2:16; Co1 2:7, Co1 2:10, Co1 2:13; Co2 5:20; Co1 11:2). Judas Iscariot, one of "the twelve," fell by transgression, and Matthias was substituted in his place (Act 1:21). Saul of Tarsus was afterwards added to their number (Acts 9:3-20; Act 20:4; Act 26:15; Ti1 1:12; Ti1 2:7; Ti2 1:11). Luke has given some account of Peter, John, and the two Jameses (Act 12:2, Act 12:17; Act 15:13; Act 21:18), but beyond this we know nothing from authentic history of the rest of the original twelve. After the martyrdom of James the Greater (Act 12:2), James the Less usually resided at Jerusalem, while Paul, "the apostle of the uncircumcision," usually traveled as a missionary among the Gentiles (Gal 2:8). It was characteristic of the apostles and necessary (1.) that they should have seen the Lord, and been able to testify of him and of his resurrection from personal knowledge (Joh 15:27; Act 1:21, Act 1:22; Co1 9:1; Act 22:14, Act 22:15). (2.) They must have been immediately called to that office by Christ (Luk 6:13; Gal 1:1). (3.) It was essential that they should be infallibly inspired, and thus secured against all error and mistake in their public teaching, whether by word or by writing (Joh 14:26; Joh 16:13; Th1 2:13). (4.) Another qualification was the power of working miracles (Mar 16:20; Act 2:43; Co1 12:8). The apostles therefore could have had no successors. They are the only authoritative teachers of the Christian doctrines. The office of an apostle ceased with its first holders. In Co2 8:23 and Phi 2:25 the word "messenger" is the rendering of the same Greek word, elsewhere rendered "apostle."

Apothecary Rendered in the margin and the Revised Version "perfumer," in Exo 30:25; Exo 37:29; Ecc 10:1. The holy oils and ointments were prepared by priests properly qualified for this office. The feminine plural form of the Hebrew word is rendered "confectioneries" in Sa1 8:13.