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Adoption The giving to any one the name and place and privileges of a son who is not a son by birth. (1.) Natural. Thus Pharaoh's daughter adopted Moses (Exo 2:10), and Mordecai Esther (Est 2:7). (2.) National. God adopted Israel (Exo 4:22; Deu 7:6; Hos 11:1; Rom 9:4). (3.) Spiritual. An act of God's grace by which he brings men into the number of his redeemed family, and makes them partakers of all the blessings he has provided for them. Adoption represents the new relations into which the believer is introduced by justification, and the privileges connected therewith, viz., an interest in God's peculiar love (Joh 17:23; Rom 5:5), a spiritual nature (Pe2 1:4; Joh 1:13), the possession of a spirit becoming children of God (Pe1 1:14; Jo2 1:4; Rom 8:15; Gal 5:1; Heb 2:15), present protection, consolation, supplies (Luk 12:27; Joh 14:18; Co1 3:21; Co2 1:4), fatherly chastisements (Heb 12:5), and a future glorious inheritance (Rom 8:17, Rom 8:23; Jam 2:5; Phi 3:21).

Adoram See ADONIRAM.

Adore To worship; to express reverence and homage. The forms of adoration among the Jews were putting off the shoes (Exo 3:5; Jos 5:15), and prostration (Gen 17:3; Psa 95:6; Isa 44:15, Isa 44:17, Isa 44:19; Isa 46:6). To "kiss the Son" in Psa 2:12 is to adore and worship him. (See Dan 3:5, Dan 3:6.) The word itself does not occur in Scripture.

Adrammelech Adar the king. (1.) An idol; a form of the sun-god worshipped by the inhabitants of Sepharvaim (Kg2 17:31), and brought by the Sepharvite colonists into Samaria. (2.) A son of Sennacherib, king of Assyria (Kg2 19:37; Isa 37:38).

Adramyttium A city of Asia Minor on the coast of Mysia, which in early times was called Eolis. The ship in which Paul embarked at Caesarea belonged to this city (Act 27:2). He was conveyed in it only to Myra, in Lycia, whence he sailed in an Alexandrian ship to Italy. It was a rare thing for a ship to sail from any port of Palestine direct for Italy. It still bears the name Adramyti, and is a place of some traffic.

Adria (Act 27:27; R.V., "the sea of Adria"), the Adriatic Sea, including in Paul's time the whole of the Mediterranean lying between Crete and Sicily. It is the modern Gulf of Venice, the Mare Superum of the Romans, as distinguished from the Mare Inferum or Tyrrhenian Sea.

Adriel Flock of God, the son of Barzillai, the Meholathite, to whom Saul gave in marriage his daughter Merab (Sa1 18:19). The five sons that sprang from this union were put to death by the Gibeonites (Sa2 21:8, Sa2 21:9. Here it is said that Michal "brought up" [R.V., "bare"] these five sons, either that she treated them as if she had been their own mother, or that for "Michal" we should read "Merab," as in Sa1 18:19).

Adullam One of the royal cities of the Canaanites, now 'Aid-el-ma (Jos 12:15; Jos 15:35). It stood on the old Roman road in the valley of Elah (q.v.), which was the scene of David's memorable victory over Goliath (Sa1 17:2), and not far from Gath. It was one of the towns which Rehoboam fortified against Egypt (Ch2 11:7). It was called "the glory of Israel" (Mic 1:15). The Cave of Adullam has been discovered about 2 miles south of the scene of David's triumph, and about 13 miles west from Bethlehem. At this place is a hill some 500 feet high pierced with numerous caverns, in one of which David gathered together "every one that was in distress, and every one that was in debt, and every one that was discontented" (Sa1 22:2). Some of these caverns are large enough to hold 200 or 300 men. According to tradition this cave was at Wady Khureitun, between Bethlehem and the Dead Sea, but this view cannot be well maintained.

Adullamite An inhabitant of the city of Adullam (Gen 38:1, Gen 38:12, Gen 38:20).

Adultery Conjugal infidelity. An adulterer was a man who had illicit intercourse with a married or a betrothed woman, and such a woman was an adulteress. Intercourse between a married man and an unmarried woman was fornication. Adultery was regarded as a great social wrong, as well as a great sin. The Mosaic law (Num. 5:11-31) prescribed that the suspected wife should be tried by the ordeal of the "water of jealousy." There is, however, no recorded instance of the application of this law. In subsequent times the Rabbis made various regulations with the view of discovering the guilty party, and of bringing about a divorce. It has been inferred from Joh 8:1 that this sin became very common during the age preceding the destruction of Jerusalem. Idolatry, covetousness, and apostasy are spoken of as adultery spiritually (Jer 3:6, Jer 3:8, Jer 3:9; Eze 16:32; Hos 1:1, Hos 2:1, Hos 3:1 Rev 2:22). An apostate church is an adulteress (Isa 1:21; Eze 23:4, Eze 23:7, Eze 23:37), and the Jews are styled "an adulterous generation" (Mat 12:39). (Compare Rev. 12.)