DAEMONOLATRIA

 

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Rahu

Rahu, also known as Abhra-pisacha, the 'demon of the sky,' was a great prince of the Daityas, a race of gigantic demons who warred against the gods. His father was Viprachitta who was king of the Daityas and his mother was Sinhika who was a flesh-eating fiend who could seize the shadow of the object she wanted to devour and so drag her prey into her jaws. Rahu had four arms, and sometimes the lower part of his body ended in a dragon's tail.

He is best known for his attempt to interrupt the regular gods and has the reputation of a cunning and mischievous demon. By churning the ocean, the gods had produced Amrita, the elixir of immortality. One day they were waiting in line for the beverage to be passed out. Rahu, wearing a disguise, insinuated himself among the gods and hid between Soma, the moon, and Surya, the sun. By the time these two gods discovered the fraud and called out to Vishnu, Rahu had already sipped the divine liquid. Vishnu turned towards the demon in rage, and with his discus cut Rahu's body in half. But the Amrita had already had time to take effect, and both parts of Rahu lived on. Rahu never forgave the sun and moon for informing Vishnu of him, and his bodiless head has been pursuing his enemies ever since, occasionally swallowing them. Lacking a body, he can't retain them, and they reappear for a short time. He is thus the source of eclipses.

Rahu is sometimes shown riding an owl or reclining on a divan. His name means 'to abandon' or 'void,' hence blackness or having no body, links him to the astronomers' 'umbra.' He is associated with a star in the northern sky, in the constellation of Draco, which is sometimes referred to as the Crooked Serpent.

Raiden

The Japanese god of thunder (rai) and lightning (den). He prevented the Mongols from invading Japan in 1274. Sitting on a cloud he sent forth a shower of lighting arrows upon the invading fleet. Only three men escaped. Raiden is portrayed as a red demon with sharp claws, carrying a large drum. He is fond of eating human navels. The only protection against him is to hide under a mosquito net. Also called Kaminari Sama.

Raiju

A Japanese demon whose name means "thunder animal". It is a demon of lightning in the shape of a cat, badger or weasel. During thunderstorms it becomes extremely agitated and leaps from tree to tree. If a tree shows the marks of lightning, people say that Raiju's claws have scratched it open. The demon likes hiding in human navels, so, if afraid, a person should sleep on his or her belly during thunderstorms.

Rakshasas

Along with Ravana, the Rakshasas, whose name means 'to guard,' were created by Brahma in order to protect the ocean from anyone who might try to obtain the elixir of immortality, which could be found on the ocean floor. Other sources have stated, though, that the Rakshasas, who frequently peopled the numerous epic poems of ancient India, were in fact the negroid race of barbarians inhabiting the southern part of India before the conquest of the country by the Aryans.

The Rakshasas were evil spirits and demons living on the island of Lanka, ruled over by Ravana. They were renown for haunting burial grounds, animating dead bodies, terrorizing priests and cannibalizing villages.

The Ramayana, one of the great Indian epics, tells how Hanuman, a demiurge in the form of a monkey, visited Lanka. He found that

'the Rakshasas sleeping in the houses were of every shape and form. Some of them

disgusted the eye, while others were beautiful to look upon. Some had long arms and

frightful shapes; some were fat and some very lean. Some had monstrous bellies,

sagging breasts, long projecting teeth and crooked thighs; whilst others were

exceedingly beautiful to behold and clothed in great splendour. Some had two legs,

some three legs, and some four legs. Some had heads of serpents, some had heads of

donkeys, some the heads of horses and some the heads of elephants.'

This huge array of differing appearances is mirrored in the multitude of names the Rakshasas were given: biters, cannibals, vampires, night-stalkers, assassins, dark faces - a list of titles as endless as the catalogue of their crimes.

Raktavija

The Hindu general of the demon army.

Raum

A great earl, appears in the form of a crow, but assumes human shape when bidden. He steals treasure and carries it where commanded; he destroys cities and dignities; he discerns past, present and future; he causes love between friends and foes. Finally he is of the Order of the Thrones. He commands thirty of the infernal legions.

Ravana

Ravana is probably the best known of all Indian demons. His power and the awe he inspired among the people puts him on equal footing with the European Satan.

He was lord and master of the Rakshasas, the most numerous and powerful demons of the Indian underworld. Visravas and Nikasha, his parents, were both descendants of the first demons created. Ravana's abode, and that of his legions, was the large island of Lanka which is now known as Ceylon. The main city of Lanka was originally built by Visva-Karma out of solid gold for Ravana's half-brother Kuvera, lord of the Indian elves, the Yakshas, who are guardians of the hidden treasure within the earth and sometimes will guard a city or district. The city is described in the Ramayana as being of great size and of greater beauty, surrounded by seven moats and seven huge walls of metal and gems. But Ravana ousted his half-brother from his idyllic palace, and he stole his magic chariot, Pushpaka, a self-propelled vehicle of such large dimensions that it could hold a palace inside its carriage. In this chariot Ravana often left Lanka to sow his malignant seeds of mischief and evil.

By spending many years in penance and worship of Brahma, Ravana forced the great god to repay him by making him invulnerable against all the gods, and allowing him to assume any form or shape he desired. Taking advantage of this boon, Ravana declared war on the gods, conquering them one after the other. He brought the captives back to Lanka where they were forced to work as his menial servants. For the time being the gods were unable to escape the archdemon's power, and they had to perform humiliating tasks: Vayu, the god of the winds, swept the house; Agni, god of fire, did the cooking; Varuna, lord of the ocean, supplied water; Kuvera, god of wealth, supplied money.

Eventually the gods escaped from their bondage, but they could do nothing to punish the fiend. But Ravana knew that in the end the gods would get their revenge, and he decided that the only weapon that could save him from a permanent downfall was immortality. Pretending humility, he went to Siva and began to do penance, hoping that eventually the god would grant him his wish. He stood on one of his ten heads, encircled by a ring of fires, for one thousand years. He then cut off that head and stood on another one, for another millennium. This went on until he was about to cut off his last head. Then Siva spoke, asking him what he desired. Three things, Ravana answered: Atmalingham, the sacred phallus, for his mother; and for himself immortality and the most beautiful woman in the universe. Siva had to grant him his wishes, but he outsmarted the fiend on his journey back to Lanka and forced him to give back the rewards.

This defeat filled Ravana with such rage that he decided to step up his war against the gods. In

desperation the gods, knowing that none among them was powerful enough to defeat the demon, called upon Vishnu the Heavenly Father. After great deliberation, Vishnu cut himself into quarters. Each separate part became a mortal, the strongest and purest of whom would be chosen to slay Ravana. The segment of Vishnu which developed into the purest being was Rama, whose life and adventures are portrayed in the oldest and most famous of the Sanskrit scriptures, the Ramayana.

The following description of Ravana, the archfiend, is taken from that book:

'Ravana had ten heads, twenty arms, and copper-coloured eyes, and bright teeth like

the young moon. His form was as thick as a cloud or a mountain, or the god of death

with open mouth. He had all the marks of royalty, but his body bore the impress of

wounds inflicted by all the divine arms in his warfare with the gods. He was scarred by

a thunderbolt of Indra, by the tusks of Indra's elephant Airavata, and by the discus of

Vishnu. His strength was so great that he could agitate the seas and split the tops of the

mountains. He was a breaker of all laws and a ravisher of other men's wives...Tall as a

mountain peak, he stopped with his arms the sun and moon on their course, and

prevented their rising. His presence creates a fear so paralyzing, that wherever he travels,

the sun does not give out its heat, the winds do not blow and the ocean becomes

motionless.'

Rama created a host of monkeys and bears to fight by his side against the archfiend. They began the battle by killing off large numbers of Rakshasas. At this Ravana became so incensed that he abducted Rama's beautiful wife, Sita, with whom the king of the demons had fallen in love. He hid Sita on his island abode, and threatened to eat her if she didn't become his wife. Sita refused persistently and managed to ward Ravana off long enough for Rama to build a bridge across to Lanka. Rama rescued Sita, and carried on the fight.

Numerous battles were waged on Lanka, where both adversaries were equal in strength. Rama finally vanquished Ravana by shooting an arrow, which Brahma had given him, through the demon's chest. The magic arrow pierced the demon, came out at the other side of his body, and returned to Rama's quiver.

'Ravana fell to the ground and expired, and the gods sounded celestial music in heaven

and assembled in the sky and praised Rama as Vishnu, in that he had slain Ravana who

would otherwise have been their destruction.'

Red Man

The demon of the tempests. He was supposed to be furious when the rash voyager intruded on his solitude, ad to show his anger in the winds and storms.

The French peasants believed that a mysterious little red man appeared to Napoleon to announce coming military reverses.

Rimmon

The demonic ambassador to Russia.

Ronobe

A great marquis and earl, appears in a monstrous form; he teaches rhetoric and the arts, gives a good understanding, the knowledge of tongues, and favour of friends and foes.

Ronwe

Marquis and Count of Hell. He appears in the shape of a monster. He provides his adepts with knowledge of languages and with the goodwill of everyone. Nineteen infernal cohorts are under his orders.

Rosier

The prince of the demonic Order of Dominations.

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Sabanack

A mighty marquis, appears in the form of an armed soldier, having a lion's head, and riding on a pale-coloured horse. He builds towers, camps and cities, fortifies the same, torments men with putrid sores swarming with worms; he gives good familiars.

Saleos

A great duke, who appears like a brave soldier, riding on a crocodile crowned. He promotes love between the sexes.

Sammael

For the Jews, Sammael is the prince of demons. In Rabbinical legend he is a storm demon, and his name is linked with Samiel or Simoon, which is the name of a desert wind.

According to tradition, Sammael was said to have been the highest throne-angel. He was said to have twelve wings, which was twice the number of wings of the Seraphim and other living creatures. According to the Debarim Rabbi (xi), Sammael is the wicked angel who is the chief of all the Satans.

It was Sammael (also associated with Satan) who, under the guise of the serpent, tempted Eve in paradise. According to chapters 13 and 14 of the Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer, Satanís fall was mainly out of jealousy and envy on the part of the angels. The angels were in opposition to the creation of man, and were jealous that man was allowed to give names to all creatures. They saw this act as proving that man was superior to themselves. Sammael, who was the first of all the angel princes, led a group of angels to earth in an attempt to conspire against Adam, so that by his fall, they might again gain supremacy over man. In the Bereshith Rabba (xix), the serpent was described as possessing hands and feet and it resembled a camel. It also could speak. Sammael took possession of the serpent and thus deceived Eve. Because of this act, the angels were cast out of heaven and the feet of the serpent were cut off.

3 Baruch makes reference to this event. The Greek version uses the name 'Samael' while the Slavic text replaces the name with 'Satanael.'

"And I said, 'I pray you, show me which is the tree which caused Adam to stray.' And

the angel said, 'It is the vine which the angel Samael planted by which the Lord God

became angered, and he cursed him and his planting. For this reason he did not permit

Adam to touch it. And because of this the devil became envious, and tricked him by

means of his vine.'" - 3 Baruch 4:8 (Greek)

"And during the transgression of the first Adam, she gave light to Samael when he took

the serpent as a garment, and did not hide, but on the contrary, waxed." - 3 Baruch 9:7

(Greek)

Sammael plays the role of the accuser, seducer, and destroyer (and is identified with Satan in some traditions). Another example of the deeds of Sammael is his role in the trial of Abraham. Sammael stood before God to accuse Abraham of selfish piety. God decided to test Abraham by asking him to sacrifice his son, Isaac. Sammael then tried to persuade Abraham not to sacrifice Isaac, and also to persuade Isaac to rebel against this trial. When he saw that Abraham would not disobey God, he revenged himself by telling Sarah that Isaac had been slain. She then died of her grief and terror.

Sammael is also a symbol of the 'venom of God.' This title refers to his role as executioner of the death sentences ordered by God, and links him to the Angel of Death. In T.B. Abuda Zarah, Sammael is represented as standing by a dying man with a drawn sword in his hand. The point of the sword has a drop of gall on it. When the dying man sees him, he is startled and opens his mouth. The drop of gall then falls into his mouth and the man dies. In this personification, Sammael is said to have brought about Moses' death. According to the T.B. Baba Metzia (86a), the Angel of Death did not fall but remains one of God's angels.

Sammael also, as an uncircumcised mate of Lilith , fathered a huge family of demons.

According to a fifteenth century story, a Spanish Kabbalist of that era tried to gain power over Sammael by summoning him in the name of God. When Sammael appeared in the form of a serpent, the conjurer bound the demon by placing on his head a crown inscribed with magic letters which spelled out: 'Thy Master's Name is upon Thee.' But Sammael was not to be duped that easily. He cunningly convinced the magician to burn incense to seal his victory. When the conjurer obeyed, the demon was instantly freed from the spell, as the burning of incense was an act of idolatry.

In the Kabbalistic tradition, Sammael is the chief of the ten evil Sephiroth. He is said to fly through the air like a bird. The dark blemishes on the moon's surface are supposed to be this archdemon's excrement.

Sargatanas

A brigadier general of the infernal legions.

Sarkany

A Hungarian demon, son of the witch Boszorkany. It is sadi she could turn a person into a horse.

Satanachia

A general of the infernal legions.

Scox

A Duke of Hell. He is depicted as a liar and a thief.

Seere

A mighty prince under Amaymon , King of the East, appearing in the form of a beautiful man on a strong winged horse. He brings all things to pass suddenly, transports to any place in the twinkling of an eye, and discovers all thefts. He is indifferently good or bad, and will do the will of the operator.

Seiktha

Burmese demons. They dwell in trees and groves. Their nature is usually malign, but occasionally we find them the tutelar or guardian of a village. In any case, they possess shrines where they may be propitiated by gifts of food and drink. Several of the demoniac figures have almost achieved godhead, so widespread did their cults become, and Hmin Nat , Chiton , and Winnein Nat, may be instanced as fiends of power, the dread of which spread across extensive district.

Separ

A great duke, who appears in red apparel and armed like a soldier. He enflames women with love for men and can transform them into other shapes till they have been enjoyed by their lovers.

Shax

A great marquis, comes in the form of a stockdove, speaking with a hoarse voice. He destroys the sight, hearing and understanding of any man or woman at the will of the exorcist, steals money from the king's exchequer and returns it in 1200 years. He will transport anything, but first must be commanded into the triangle; otherwise he will decieve the operator. He discovers all hidden things which are not in the keeping of wicked spirits, and gives good familiars.

Shiq

A type of demon appearing to travellers as half a man.

Shony

A death bringing demon reigned in the waters of the North Sea, and he was known to the ancient Scottish fishermen as Shony. Although this creature was not commonly seen, he appeared as a man of large stature, a thick shag of hair covering his head, and a ridge of fins adorning his spine. He was greatly dreaded by all those who had any dealings with the sea, be it fishermen or sailors on trade vessels. When seamen fell overboard, no one tried to save them for it was believed that Shony 'maun hae its nummer,' that is Shony must have his annual quota of souls. He kept them imprisoned in his castle made of jagged coral on the ocean floor. If by chance a drowning man was given help, Shony would take the rescuer's life and leave the drowning person to die on his own.

Yearly sacrifices were made to him. These consisted of selecting a person from the crew, slitting his throat and throwing the body overboard. Viking shipbuilders reddened the keels of their boats by binding a victim on the logs upon which the boat was rolled to the water. They hoped that Shony would be appeased by the sight.

In later times, Shony was given the new name of Shellycoat, and he was sighted mainly off the east coast of Scotland. He seemed by this time to have taken on a less crude nature and became more of a prankster, mimicking the shrieks of a drowning man. When anybody swam out to save him, he burst into gales of laughter and dove underwater. Sir Walter Scott wrote that when Shellycoat appeared on the shore

'he seemed to be decked with marine productions and, in particular, with shells whose

clattering announced his approach. From this circumstance he derived his name.'

Shui-Mu

Shui-mu Niang-niang was a Chinese water demon whose evil doings caused yearly floods, claiming numerous lives and bringing famine and desolation to the town of Ssu Chou and its surroundings. Her power was so great that her cunning tricks triumphed over the troops Yo Huang, the Lord of the Skies, had sent out against her.

The demoness, enraged by the repeated attempts to capture her, kicked and turned over one of the magic buckets containing the sources of the great lakes. The freed water engulfed the unfortunate town of Ssu Chou, burying it for ever under a great mass of water called the lake of Hung-tse.

Now Yo Huangís patience was exhausted, and he methodically organized her capture. Great heroes and large armies pursued her relentlessly. One day, having narrowly escaped after a furious race, Shui-mu stopped utterly exhausted and famished. She caught sight of an old hag selling bowls of freshly cooked noodles. Avidly she began to devour the food, unaware that she had fallen into a trap. The old woman was Kuan-yin Pusa, a good woman with great magical powers.

In Shui-muís stomach the noodles turned into iron chains, winding around her entrails. The chain's end, protruding from her mouth, welded itself to the noodles-turned-chains remaining in the dish. Bound and powerless, the demon was led away to be fastened securely at the bottom of a deep well, where she was to remain a prisoner for all times. The people of that province say that the end of the chain can be seen whenever the water level in the well drops particularly low.

Siho I Salo

A demon from the Solomon Islands.

Silcharde

One of the demons who may be summoned by necromancy.

Stolas

Grand Prince of Hell. He appears in the shape of an owl. When he assumes the shape of a man and appears before exorcists, he teaches astronomy, prophecy based on the study of plants, and the value of precious stones. He commands twenty-six legions.

Succubus

In medieval European folklore, a female demon (or evil spirit) who visits men in their sleep to lie with them in ghostly sexual intercourse. The man who falls victim to a succubus will not awaken, although may experience it in a dream. The male counterpart is the incubus .

Surgat

A demon who may be summoned and who will give a magic stone upon command.

Sytry

A great prince, who appears with a leopard's head, but assumes a human form at the Magician's command. He procures love between the two sexes, and causes women to show

themselves naked.

Szepasszony

In Hungarian folklore, the Szepasszony is a taboo word. It is the name of the Fair Lady, a beautiful woman with long hair and a white dress. She is a female demon who seduces young men and comes out to dance in storms and hail showers.

Noon is the hour when she is the most powerful. Several expressions are associated with her. To "step into the platter of the Fair Lady" means to fall under a spell or one can describe a sick child as being "suckled by the Fair Lady."

Water dripping from the eaves forming a puddle constitutes a platter by which the Fair Lady can cast a spell on someone. It is considered dangerous to step into a circle of short grass surrounded by taller grass or no grass at all, since it may be the circle where the Fair Lady dances.

T

T'an Mo

A Chinese devil of desire.

Tase

In Burma, the ghosts and spirits the villagers are most afraid of, are an army of death-fiends known as the Tase. They are disembodied souls of dead men and women who are both vampires and spreaders of disease.

There are several different orders of Tase, and each legion has its own way of torturing mortals. Thabet Tase are the malignant spirits of women who have died during childbirth, and these come back from the dead as succubi. The demons make their appearance around twilight, lurking near the dwellings of the villagers, and haunting men in particular.

The Thaye Tase are grotesque looking giants manifesting themselves most frequently during the epidemics of smallpox and cholera. They are the souls of those who died a violent death. Their greatest pleasure is to materialize by the bedside of a dying person, giggling and laughing hideously at their victim's agony.

Hminza Tase is the name of a third and lesser group of demons. These are able to enter the bodies of certain animals such as crocodiles, dogs, and tigers. Haunting the dwelling grounds of their past existence, they wreak vengeance on anyone that crosses their path for the misfortunes they themselves endured during life.

Great precautions are taken by the Burmese to ensure that the Tase do not come back to haunt them. Often no gravestones are erected in the hope that the dead, forgetting who they were in life, will now haunt the house that was formerly theirs. Sacrifices, death dances, and festivals are all attempted to appease the Tase. If they do appear, the people make a din by beating pans or sides of their houses, hoping that the loud noise will repel the fiends.

Tengu

The Tengu is a Japanese demon mentioned in written sources going as far back as the eighth century and in contemporary Japanese chronicles.

In early times the Tengu often manifested himself as a crow, or as a man with a crow's beak. In medieval times, haughty and insincere Buddhist monks were said to be reborn as Tengu. In the course of time the crow's beak of the demon gave way to a more human looking shape; namely a large, round, red nose. But beak or nose, the importance of this organ depends on its size, which is directly proportional to the demonís powers. This relationship allows any aware person to judge the strength of an attacking Tengu at first sight, so that appropriate precautions can be taken.

Although human in form, the Tengu is a winged creature, his fingers and toes ending in long and extremely sharp nails. Tengu has often been seen by mountain people who claim that he fells trees and flutters around cackling madly.

He appears at times clad in the shabby garb of a strolling monk, carrying a fan, a stick, and a sword. He does not seem to have any definite predilection for any particular evil deed, yet he appears to be quite an imaginative character who is able to use just about any given situation to commit his crimes. Some of his actions resemble the mischief of the European poltergeist. He has also been known, especially by the mountain people, to indulge in kidnappings. The first instance of someone abducted by a Tengu swooping down from the sky goes back to the fourteenth century. Even nowadays, when a child is lost, the village people assemble to beat drums, calling upon the Tengu to bring it back.

Th'uban

An Islamic demon that looks like a dragon.

Thamuz

The demonic ambassador to Spain.

Tonga-Hiti

A Polynesian head-ache demon, one of the two Ponaturi that managed to escape Urutonga's revenge for the death of her husband.

The wife of Hema and mother of Tawhaki and Karihi. The Ponaturi, semi-spirits, killed her husband but saved her, having her stay outside the house. She hid her sons until nightfall when they saw the Ponaturi arrive, flying in from the sea, thousands of them. They all piled up in the house and went to sleep there. When no more came, Urutonga told her sons to close every

opening and crack in the house. When they finished, dawn was approaching. The Ponaturi chief asked Urutonga if it was dawn yet, but she replied that it was not. This went on until the sun rose. Then the two brothers opened the door of the house, and all the Ponaturi died in the bright sun rays, except Kanae, who became a flying fish, and Tonga-Hiti, the head-ache demon.

Typhon

Typhon was a powerful Egyptian demon who stood in constant opposition to the beneficent Osiris. This was during the time when Osiris was a god of fertility (later he was brutally murdered, and his soul became the just lord of the underworld.) When Osiris brought water to an arid tract of Egypt, Typhon made the greatest effort to bring heat and drought. Typhon's consort, Nepthys, fought against Isis, Osiris' wife. As the land of Egypt, fertilized by the waters of the Nile, was the kingdom of Isis, so the desert which lay beyond the influence of the river, remained in the power of Nepthys.

Typhon was also associated with the wind that came up from the Sahara, the southern blast that destroyed everything that was vulnerable to its heat. Thus, a forceful wind became called a typhoon.

Typhon was often depicted as a monster of enormous bulk. He had several heads, wings sprouting from his shoulders, and his legs ended in a tangle of serpents. Having imprisoned Osiris in an ark, he drove Osiris' son, Horus, onto the island of Chemmis. There, he compelled all the other deities to flee and save their lives or to take refuge in the guise of various animals; these later became sacred to the Egyptians in memory of the gods' transformations. At the same time, all animals whose disposition was fierce or untameable, such as the crocodile and the hippopotamus, came to be known as Typhon's beasts. Typhon was finally conquered by Osiris, who chased the monster to Sicily, and hurled him onto Mount Etna which belches blood-red lava to this day.

U

Ukobach

A demon belonging to a lower order. He always appears with an inflamed body. He is said to be the inventor of fireworks and the art of frying foods. Beelzebub has assigned to him the task of keeping oil in the infernal cauldrons.

Ullikummi

An ancient Anatolian demon.

Uphir

The doctor of the infernal regions who is responsible for the health of the demons.

Ura

Babylonian spirit of disease.

A legend related that this demon once made up his mind to destroy all mankind. His counsellor, Ishun, however, prevailed upon him to change his mind, and he said, "Whoever will laud my name I will bless with plenty. No one will oppose the person who proclaims the glory of my valour. The worshipper who chants the hymn of praise to me will not be afflicted by disease, and he will find favour in the eyes of the King and his nobles."

Urian

In German mythology, another name for Satan as he presides over the Sabbat.

V

Valac

A great president, comes as a little boy with the wings of an angel and riding on a two headed dragon. He gives true answers concernig hidden treasures, tells where serpent's may be seen, and will deliver them helpless to the exorcist.

Valafar

Duke of Hell in charge of brigands and robbers. He is depicted as having the head of a thief and the body of a lion. He leads those with whom he is familiar into theft. He shows friendship till they are caught in the trap. Also called Valefor.

Vanth

The Etruscan female demon of death who lives in the underworld. With the eyes on her wings she sees all and is omni-present. She is a herald of death and can assist a sick person on his deathbed. Her attributes are a snake, torch and key.

Vapula

A strong duke, comes in the form of a lion with a griffin's wings. He gives skill not only in manual professions but also in philosophy and the sciences.

Vassago

A mighty prince, of the nature of Agares , who declares things past, present and future, and discovers what has been lost or hidden. He is good by nature.

Veltis

An evil spirit who assaulted St. Margaret of Cortona (died 1297), but was overcome by her. On being asked by St. Margaret who he was and whence he came, he replied: "My name is Veltis, and I am one of those whom Solomon by virtue of his spells, confined in a copper cauldron at Babylon, but when the Babylonians, in the hope of finding treasure dug up the cauldron and opened it, we all made our escape. Since that time our efforts have been directed to the destruction of righteous persons, and I have long been striving to turn thee from the course thou hast embraced."

Vepar

A great duke, appears as a mermaid. He guides the waters and battleships, and occasions storms at sea when so commanded by the Magician. He also causes the sea to seem full of ships, and occasions death in three days by means of putreyfying sores and worm-eaten wounds.

Verdelet

Said to be a demon of the second order and master of ceremonies in the house of the infernal princes. One of his responsibilities is the transportation of witches to the Sabbat. He is also called Master Persil or Sante-Buisson.

Vine

A great king and earl, appears in a monstrous form, but assumes human shape when commanded. He discerns things hidden, reveals witches, and makes known the past, present, and future. At the command of the exorcist he will build towers, demolish walls, and makes the waters stormy.

Vodnik

In Slavonic folklore, a Vodnik is a water demon who comes into existence when a child is drowned. He lures people into the water and hold them under until they suffocate. He appears as a fish or as a human with green hair. In Russia he is called Vodjanoj.

Vual

A great duke, comes first as an enormous dromedary, but afterwards assumes human form and speaks in the Egyptian tongue. He procures the love of women, discerns past, present, and future, and excites friendship even between foes. He was of the Order of Powers.

Vucub Caquix

A Mayan demon of the underworld. He was the father of the giant demons Kabrakan and Zipakna. He considered himself to be the sun, the moon, and the light. For this reckless thought, and for the part he played in the death or their father, the twins Hunahpu and Ixbalangue descended to the underworld and killed him.

X

Xaphan

When Satan and his angels revolted against God, Xaphan joined their ranks and was welcomed by them, for he had an inventive mind. He advised Satan to set fire to Heaven but was thrown down with the others. He is forever engaged in fanning the embers in the furnaces of Hell. His emblem is a pair of bellows.

Xezbeth

A demon of lies and legends.

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Yaksha

In Hindu myth, Yakshas are chthonic semi-divine beings, half god and half demon. They live under the earth in the Himalayas where they guard the wealth of the earth (gems, gold, silver, etc.). They are led by Kubera, the god of wealth. Like their leader, they have all fat bellies and plump legs. They have no special characteristics, are not violent, and are therefore called punyajana ("good beings"). Kubera's epithet is Punyajaneshvara.

Yama

Clad in the robes of a Chinese judge, Yama presides over his domain, Pitris, the Chinese hell. King over all the other demons of the Orient, Yama assigns the relevant legion of demons to torture either souls in hell or those on earth. He passes judgement on those who have committed one of the Ten Deadly Sins, while other secondary rulers in Pitris condemn souls of lesser importance.

He is flanked on either side of his throne by the bodiless heads of two demons. The female head is able to detect the most secret flaws in the sinners who are brought in front of Yama, while the male head is able to assess sins by smelling them. Around Yama are assembled his multitude of 'eyes' called Tevodas, who are the witnesses that testify to a person's sins.

In Hindu legend, Yama was the first mortal to die because he travelled down the road from whence there is no return. He dwells in Pitris with his wife Yami, who is his own sister. The souls of the departed are brought to Yama in crowds by Agni, the emanation of the funeral pyre. After rushing past the enormous dogs which guard the entrance to Pitris, the souls are relegated to the various levels of hell.

One Chinese legend says that, in the eyes of the celestial gods, Yama was too compassionate to the worst of the criminals brought in front of him, so he was demoted to govern over the fifth region of hell in which rapists, prostitutes and those who committed religious offences were punished. There the sinners' chests are ripped open, their hearts tugged out and chopped into morsels which the attendant demons quickly gobble.

Yauhahu

A spirit supposed to cause diseases amongst Indians of British Guiana.

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Zabulon

Name of a demon said to have possessed a lay sister of Loudon, France in 1633.

Zaebos

Grand Count of Hell. Depicted with a human head, crowned with a ducal coronet, and the body of a crocodile. He is supposedly of a gentle disposition.

Zagam

Grand King and President of the infernal regions. He appears under the form of a bull with the wings of a griffin. A demon of lies and deceit, he changes water into wine, blood into oil, the fool into a wiseman, lead into silver, and copper into gold. He commands thirty legions.

Zapan

One of the Kings of Hell

Zeernebooch

A dark god, monarch of the empire of the dead among the ancient Germans.

Zephar

A Grand Duke of Hell who tempts men to commit sexual sins with children. He has the form of a warrior. He commands twenty-eight legions.

Zimimar

The lordly monarch of the northern regions of Hell.

Zu

In Sumero-Akkadian mythology, Zu is a divine storm-bird and the personification of the southern wind and the thunder clouds. This demon, half man and half bird, stole the "Tablets of Destiny" from Enlil and hid them on a mountaintop. Anu ordered the other gods to retrieve those tables, but all were afraid of this demon. According to one text, Marduk killed the bird, but in another text it died through the arrows of the god Ninurta. The bird is also referred to as Imdugud or Anzu.