A Duke of Hell, commander of twenty-six legions. He is the demon of fire and holocausts. Depicted as a three-headed monster - a cat, a man and a snake - sitting astride a viper and brandishing a torch.
A great president, appears in the shape of a gigantic bull with the wings of a griffin, but will duly put on human form. He gives wisdom, transmutes metals into gold, and turns wine into water.
A great earl, appears in the form of a stockdove, speaking with a hoarse voice. He 'burns towns,' visits the wicked with the sword, and can send men to fields of war or to other places.
According to Norwegian legend, Ham was a storm-fiend in the shape of an eagle with black wings, sent by Helgi to engulf Frithjof as he sailed for the island of Yarl Angantyr. This story is told in the Saga Grettir.
The Malayan vampire.
A Malay demon.
A monstrous demon from India, who abducted little children and devoured them, until the Great Buddha converted her. She then became Kishimo-jin, the patron goddess of little children.
The Greeks often called Hecate, Agriope, which means 'savage face.' She is said to have three faces, which symbolized her powers over the underworld, earth, and air. She is known as the lady of the underworld, of chthonic rites, and of black magic. Her Hebrew name was Sheol, and the Egyptians knew her as Nepthys. She was the daughter of the titan Perses and of Asteria, although sometimes it is said that Zeus himself fathered her. The Thracians were the first people to worship her in the moon-goddess aspect, though soon her worship spread to the Greeks, who linked her with the moon-goddesses Artemis and Selene. She was also associated with Lucina and Diana. At times she was benign and motherly and would act as midwife, wet-nurse, and foster-mother, while keeping an eye on flocks and crops. Greek kings asked for her help in administering justice, knowing that with Hecate on their side they would attain victory and glory in battle.
But the other side of her nature, most apparent when the moon was dark, gradually superseded her kinder side. Although Homer did not mention her in his poems, by the time Hesiod was chronicling the events of his world, her powers were already very great. She had become an infernal deity, a snake goddess with three heads: a dog's, a horse's, and a lion's. She was portrayed with her three bodies, back to back, carrying a spear, a sacrificial cup, and a torch.
Having witnessed the rape of Persephone, torch-bearing Hecate was sent by Zeus to help Demeter find her. When they found Persephone in Hades, Hecate remained there as her companion. During her stay in the underworld, Hecate wore a single brazen sandal, and she was the protector and teacher of sorceresses and enchanters. Her high priestess was Medea, who was worthy of her mistress, and cruelly murdered her own two children after her husband left her for another woman.
Hecate's influence was long lasting, and the medieval witches worshipped the willow tree which was sacred to her. The same root word which gave 'willow' and 'wicker,' also gave 'witch' and 'wicked.'
Thus Hecate became key-holder of hell and queen of the departed, dispatching phantoms from the underworld. At night she left Hades and would roam on earth, bringing terror to the hearts of those who heard her approach. She was accompanied by her hounds and by the bleak souls of the dead. She appeared as a gigantic woman bearing a sword and a torch, her feet and hair bristling with snakes, her voice like that of a howling dog. Her favourite nocturnal retreat was near a lake called Amarantiam Phasis, 'the lake of murders.'
To placate her, the people erected statues at crossroads. There, under the full moon, feasts called 'Hecate's suppers' were served. Dogs, eggs, honey, milk, and particularly black ewes were sacrificed at that time. The most powerful magic incantations of antiquity were connected with Hecate, and her rites were described at length by Apollonius Rhodus in his Argonautica:
'...and he kindled the logs, placing the fire beneath, and poured over them the mingled
libations, calling on Hecate Brimo to aid him in the contest, And when he had called on
her he drew back: and she heard him, the dreaded goddess, from the uttermost depths
and came to the sacrifice of Aeson's son; and round her horrible serpents twined
themselves among the oak boughs; and there was the gleam of countless torches; and
sharply howled around her the hounds of hell. All the meadows trembled at her step,
and the nymphs that haunt the marsh and the river shrieked, all who dance round that
meadow of Amarantiam Phasis.'
In one of her incarnations she was Hecuba, the wife of Priam, King of Troy, and mother of
Cassandra, Hector, Helenus, and Paris. While pregnant with Paris, she had a dream in which she gave birth to a flaming torch which consumed Troy. Understanding the awesome foreboding of this omen, she left the infant exposed on Mount Ida. But the Fates had ordained differently, and years later Paris returned to Troy, bringing with him the war that was to be the end of that great city.
When Polymnestor, a Thracian king, murdered her son Polydorus, her vengeance was terrible: she slew Polymnestor's two children and gouged his eyes out. Although acquitted by the Greeks, she was changed into a dog at which the Thracians threw stones. Trying to escape her punishment, she jumped into the sea at Cynossema, which in translation means 'tomb of the dog.'
Hecate, powerful in heaven, earth and hell, possessed all the great dark knowledges, and is rightfully called the mother of witches. She was the great goddess of magic, and she outstripped Circe, her daughter, in importance. Yet another of her daughters also achieved hellish fame:
'...and let them not fall in their helplessness into Charybdis lest she swallow them at one
gulp, or approach the hideous lair of Scylla, Ausonian Scylla, Scylla the deadly, whom
night-wandering Hecate, who is called Crataeis, bare to Phorcys...'
The extent of her powers can be judged by the great numbers of animals, plants and emblems that were sacred to her. Weasels were her attendants. So were owls in their silent flight, with the carrion-smell of their nests and their eyes shining in the dark. Hound, knife, lotus, rope, and sword are other emblems of Hecate. Shakespeare knew that hemlock and the yew tree were sacred to her. In Macbeth, 'slips of yew sliver'd in the Moon's eclipse' were contained in the witches' cauldron. The yew, sacred to the goddess of the underworld, still grows in cemeteries.
A Hurrian snake-like demon which lives in the sea. The creature is insatiable.
A Norwegian sea-witch or storm-fiend in the shape of a white bear, alluded to in the Frithjof Saga. With the other storm-fiend Ham, she was sent by Helgi to engulf Frithjof as he sailed for the island of Yarl Angantyr.
Finnish mythology abounds with limitless classes of evil spirits and demons which bring troubles and miseries upon mankind. In the icy polar regions, bordering the South of Lapland, lay the Pohjola, where the dead found their home. It was governed by the severe Tuoni, the chief deity of the underworld.
The Pohjola was a region 'which devours men and swallows heroes,' as one ancient Finnish poem says.
There, the most wicked sorcerers loved to dwell and lay in ambush to watch men. It was the cradle of all demons. Born in eternal darkness and cold, they would scatter over the whole universe to mislead hunters, cause diseases and disturb the silence of the night.
Chief among these demons was Hiisi, a fearful giant who seems to have originally been a
personification of the icy and fatal North wind. Hiisi had a wife and children, horses, dogs, cars, and servants; all as hideous and wicked as he himself. An evil tribal chief, he was followed at all times by his complete household.
With the help of his large family, he extended his influence everywhere. His servant,
Hiisi-hejmolainen, reigned over the mountains, while another servant, Wesi-Hiisi, was the lord of the waters. His bird, Hiiden-Lintu, carried evil through the air, and Hiisi's horse, Hiiden-Ruuna, sped across the plains and the deserts, spreading illness and death. The sound of its hooves, hammering the frozen steppes at night, was a sign of imminent disaster which struck every Finn's heart with terror. Hiiden-kissa, as Hiisi's cat was called, was also fearsome, though at times she forced thieves to confess and so turned her wicked actions to a good purpose.
A Burmese evil spirit of ague.
The strange tale of this demon, well documented in the ample chronicles of the ancient Chinese empire, was told in the Tang dynasty period, during the reign of emperor Ming Huang.
While leading a military expedition to Mount Li in Shensi, the emperor fell prey to a malignant fever. Semi-delirious and unable to get any refreshing sleep, he tossed all night on his cot. Ming Huang suddenly caught a glimpse of a small figure, darting around his palace. The creature was dressed in red trousers, and wore no shoes. Ming Huang grew angry and asked him who he was. 'Your humble servant' replied the demon, 'I am called Hsu Hao. Hsu means 'to desire emptiness,' because in emptiness one can fly as one wishes, while Hao means 'desolation' and changes people's joy to sadness.'
The emperor, enraged by the demon's insolence, was about to call his guard, when suddenly a larger creature appeared; a genii wearing a tattered hat and robe, a horn clasp on his belt, and an official's boots on his feet. He grabbed the small demon, tore out one of his eyes and ate it. Ming Huang, startled by these wondrous proceedings, questioned the newcomer. 'Your humble servant,' this one replied, 'is Chung Kuei, physician of Chung-nan Shan in Shensi. In the reign of emperor Kao Tsu, I committed suicide on the steps of his palace, because I was unjustly denied a public office I was seeking. The emperor took pity and buried me in the robe of his own clan. Out of gratitude, I swore to protect the sovereign for ever against the demon Hsu Hao.'
At these words the emperor sat up and found that the fever had left him. Chung Kuei became known as the 'protector against evil spirits,' and is still honoured as such.
The demonic ambassador to Italy.
According to Arabian writers, Iblis is the name of an Islamic devil, derived from the word 'despair.' He is also referred to as Sheitan, the generic name for devils, and is often called 'father of the Sheitans.' He is able to assume any shape or form he desires, though he is often represented as vain and stupid, adorned with the feathers of the peacock and the head of an ass.
In the beginning, Iblis was one of the mightiest of angels. When God created Adam, he told the angels to bow down before the first man and worship him. But Iblis refused, arguing that it was beneath his dignity, as a being created of fire, to pay homage to a being made of mere dust. Allah cursed him and banished him from heaven. Iblis begged Allah to postpone further punishment until the Day of Judgement. He was granted this wish, and given the power to roam about the earth leading astray all those who are not true servants of God. This is very similar to Jewish apocalyptic stories of the fall of Satan.
In Arabic legend, it was Iblis who tempted Eve. Trying to gain access to paradise, he asked all the animals to smuggle him in, but they refused. He then asked the peacock who also refused. The bird told the serpent about Iblis' wish, saying that he had promised the animal who would help him, the knowledge of three sacred words that would make it immortal. The serpent carried Iblis hidden in his mouth into paradise, and it is from that hideout that Iblis spoke to Eve. This is also similar to the story in the Apocalypsis Mosis where Satan used the serpent as a vessel to tempt Eve.
It is said that Iblis is both male and female, and by impregnating himself, he can perpetuate the race of evildoers on his own. Another version says that every time he rejoices over the rebelliousness of the children of Adam, he lays two eggs from which young demons are hatched.
In medieval European folklore, the incubus is a male demon (or evil spirit) who visits women in their sleep to lie with them in ghostly sexual intercourse. The woman who falls victim to an incubus will not awaken, although may experience it in a dream. Should she get pregnant the child will grow inside her as any normal child, except that it will possess supernatural capabilities. Usually the child grows into a person of evil intent or a powerful wizard. Legend has it that the magician Merlin was the result of the union of an incubus and a nun. A
succubus is the female variety, and she concentrates herself on men. According to one legend, the incubus and the succubus were fallen angels. The word incubus is Latin for "nightmare". These demons associated with an individual witch or sorcerer are known as familiars.
A mighty earl and prince appearing as an angel with a lion's head, the webbed feet of a goose, and a hare's tail. He knows the past and future, and imparts wit and courage.
A demon of falsehoods.
An Indonesian sea demon. In Javanese mythology, a servant of the goddess of the southern ocean, who can kill a person by sitting on his chest.
The usual Arabic term for demon is 'Jinn.' They are referred to as the 'dark ones' or the 'concealed ones.' They are usually regarded as the descendants or ghostly shadows of nations who have passed away. They live in desolate places that were formerly populated, and also in burial grounds and places of filth or refuse. It was believed that they loved darkness and feared the approach of day.
Another story of the Jinn tells of several thousand years before the creation of Adam, a class of beings called Jinn inhabited the earth. They were made of fire, which circulated in their veins instead of blood. When a Jinn was mortally wounded, fire burst forth from his body and consumed him until he was but a heap of ashes. In the Koran, this fire is called 'smokeless fire,' and it is associated with the scorching heat of the desert wind Simoon, as opposed to the life substance of the heavenly angels whose blood is linked with the pure light substance emanating from Allah. The Jinn were a powerful race, governed over by a succession of seventy-two kings or Suleyman. The last Suleyman, Jan-Ibn-Jan, is said to have built the pyramids.
They were a vain and hot-headed race and Allah often sent angels, in the guise of prophets, down to earth to admonish them. When they refused to better their ways or be true servants of God, an army of angels was dispatched to earth, defeating them after several battles and taking many prisoners.
Among the prisoners was a young Jinn, named El-Harith, whom the angels took with them to
heaven. There he grew up under their guidance and finally became their leader. El-Harith was no other than Iblis, 'the evil one,' as he was to be called when he lead the angels' revolt against Allah.
When the children of Adam had peopled the earth, the vindictive Jinn lead by Iblis, distributed
themselves among them and perpetrated all kinds of malicious deeds. They later began to resemble men in that they ate and drank, and propagated their own species. At times they united with human beings, and the offspring of such a union took on the nature of both parents, making them very cunning and dangerous mortals indeed.
The Jinn take on any number of animal or human shapes, according to their whim. They also have the ability to be visible or invisible at their choosing. The Jinn usually take the form of snakes, lizards, scorpions, and other creeping things, but they can also take the form of larger animals. One legend tells of a family of Mecca that was so plagued by the Jinn that its members went out into the desert and began to systematically kill all insects and reptiles. After a while the Jinn were so depleted in number that they decided to call a truce. The family then returned home and was never again plagued or haunted by the demons. Sometimes they take on the form of hybrid animals, such as a combination of a wolf, a hyena, etc.
The Jinn are not pure spirits because if one is killed, a solid carcass remains. An example of this is the story of how a Ghul ('the daughter of the Jinn') came one night to the fire which a man had kindled. The man cut off her head, which resembled a cat with a forked tongue.
King Solomon, when he first saw the Jinn, was horrified by their ugly appearance. But with the help of incantations and spells given to him by one of Allah's archangels he managed to gain power over them and could command then at will. He confined them in a brazen vessel which he hid in a deep well.
The Jinn are usually divided into five classes, the least powerful being the Jann. These demons create minor nuisances, and steal animals from farmers. The Jann are usually demons who have been demoted from the second and more powerful category of the Jinn. The third class is called the Afrits. These are considered to be the embodiment of cleverness, so much so, that to call a Mohammedan an Afrit is the highest compliment one can pay to his intelligence. Next in rank come the powerful Marids and Sheitans, the most evil ones, and the favourite troops of Iblis, who bestowed upon them great gifts of extraordinary strength and knowledge.
Besides the five classes of these fiends, there are a number of Jinn who are obedient to Allah and believe in the Prophet. These good Jinn often assume the form of household serpents, still common among certain East African and Ethiopian tribes. Frequently they appear in the shape of a toad. In Morocco, toads are therefore not killed, but respectfully requested to leave the house.
At times the evil Jinn ascend to the confines of the lower heaven, where they eavesdrop on the
conversations of angels. Men versed in the arts of conjuring and binding demons can make the Jinn reveal what they overheard, and so gain some knowledge of future events.
The Jinn are said to be responsible for everything that appears contrary. For example, if cattle refuse to drink when driven to water, the Jinn are responsible. They are also said to be responsible if a woman is unfruitful or has a miscarriage. They are said to be the cause of all sickness and disease, and can also possess people.
Throughout Persian and Arabic civilizations, encounters with the Jinn have been a favourite topic for the narratives and comments of eminent historians and religious leaders. An example are the famous tales of the Thousand and One Nights. Here is one small story, as told by the historian Ibn Athir.
"In the year six hundred of the Hegira (the usual Islamic time-reckoning, based on the
date of Mohammed's flight from Mecca to Medina in A.D. six hundred and
twenty-two), Ibn Athir resided in the city of Mosul on the Tigris River. It was then that
an epidemic disease of the throat ravaged the country. The source of the epidemic was
traced to a woman who was of the Jinn race. This woman had just lost her favourite
son, Ankood, and was angry at Allah for what she called an unjust treatment. When
she was in mourning, no one came to console her, so to avenge herself and her son's
death, she used her evil powers to spread the fatal disease. As soon as it was known
that she was a Jinn, all the people assembled and surrounded her house. They yelled
with all their strength: 'O mother of Ankood, excuse us! Ankood is dead, and we did
not mind it!' The Jinn, thus pacified, left the region never to return or to be heard of
again, and in a few days time, the epidemic subsided."
Prince of the demonic angels.
A giant demon in Mayan myth who causes earthquakes. He makes mountains disappear, while his brother Zipakna makes mountains rise, also through earthquakes. They are the children of Vucub Caquix .
The Hindu demon which tried to attack Brahma.
Kali is an emanation or aspect of Devi, one of the Asuras, whose name means 'black.' She was often called 'Kali Ma' meaning the black mother. She has a dark complexion; long, loose hair; a blood-smeared tusked face; and three eyes. She has four arms: one handling a sword; another holding the severed head of a giant; and with the other two, she encourages worshippers. She is naked except for a belt made of rows of severed hands and a garland around her neck made of human skulls and of snakes. She is usually shown standing over her husband, Siva.
Her first deed was her battle with Raktavira. Unfortunately, each drop of blood Raktavira shed gave birth to a thousand giants as powerful as himself. She finally overcame him by holding him up, piercing him with her spear and drinking all his blood (which is why she is often shown with her tongue lolling out and dripping with blood.)
After the fight, Kali danced a victory dance that shook the entire earth. Siva begged her to stop, but Kali did not see him and he was trampled underfoot.
From that time on, the gods would bribe or beg her to slay their foes. She gladly did this to satisfy her lust for blood.
Once, she was sent out to kill the buffalo demon Mahisha, who by practice of austerities, had gained enough strength to threaten the gods in their celestial kingdom. For this fight, the gods gave Kali ten hands and lent her their own weapons. Siva gave her a trident. Varuna, a conch shell. Agni, a flaming dart. Vishnu, a discus. Surya, a quiver and arrows. Indra, a thunderbolt. Kubera, a club. Shesha, a garland of snakes, and Himalayas, a tiger. With these weapons, Kali had no problems destroying Mahisha.
On another occasion, she was called upon to rid the world of the demon, Durga, who had overcome three worlds and driven the lesser gods into the jungle. The demon was mismanaging the land and courting disaster by forcing the earth to yield more crops than it could bear. Kali created Kalaratri (Dark Night), a heavily armed monster, but Durga defeated it. Kali then defeated Durga by grabbing the demon with her thousand arms, pinning him to the ground, and piercing him through the chest with an arrow.
Two demon brothers, Sumbha and Nisumba, had achieved immunity from any harm by the gods, so Kali was the only one who could defeat them. She took the shape of a beautiful woman and let herself be seen by the spies of the demons. Sumbha sent a proposal of marriage to Kali, but she replied she would only marry a man who could defeat her in a single battle. Sumbha and Nisumba sent three armies against her, which she defeated. The brothers finally attacked her themselves, but Kali had created a powerful army of her own and destroyed the demons.
In another incarnation, Kali took on the form of a male demon, attended by Dwapara, a flesh-eating fiend. This tale is known as The Story of Nala. Kali learned that the demi-goddess, Damayanti, with whom he (the male Kali) was in love, had married a mortal king called Nala. Kali swore revenge. For twelve years, Nala and Damayanti lived in happiness, but one night Nala committed a minor sacrilege of not washing his feet before going to bed. Kali could only possess the king's soul after Nala had committed a sin: 'Lo! I shall be avenged, for I shall enter his body, and he will be bereft of his kingdom and his bride. Thou, Dwapara, shall enter the dice and give me thine aid.'
Kali then beset the King with a craving desire to gamble. Nala challenged his brother Pushkara to a game of chance. During the game, Dwapara interfered. Prodded by Kali, Nala gambled away his fortune and kingdom until he was only left with his wife, whom he could not gamble away. Nala then left his kingdom to roam through the jungle, abandoning his beloved wife.
Kali then assumed the form of a wandering hunter and approached Damayanti, who was roaming through the forest in search of her demented husband. She told the hunter her story and he appeared moved by her great beauty. Perceiving his evil intent, she spoke a powerful curse which banished the hunter instantly. Unwittingly, she had exercised Kali from her and Nala's life. They returned to their kingdom, where, in a final match, Nala won back his estate from his brother.
Kali is waited upon by a great number of demons called Dakinis, who feed upon flesh and are also known as Asra-pas or blood drinkers. Her worship includes orgiastic rites and human sacrifices. According to Indian calculations, the world is now in the fourth age of the cosmos. This age is called Kali Yuga or Kali's Age: the Age of Destruction.
The Kappas are Japan’s most infamous water demons. Even the onrush of the twentieth century has been unable to stem these demons’ evil deeds. In Japanese villages, a modern traveller can easily find natives who have seen a Kappa, and who are willing to talk about their experiences.
These ugly, monkey-like creatures are about the size of a ten year old child. At first glance they may appear ridiculous rather than demonic. They have saucer-shaped heads, yellowish-green skin, long noses, crazily staring round eyes, and a strange mixture of animal limbs. But beneath the childish and foppish appearance, these demons are very lethal.
They live in rivers, ponds, lakes, and the sea, from which they emerge at night to steal cucumbers and melons. The Kappas’ truly evil natures show in their lust for wrestling matches, ending invariable in the death of their opponents. They also enjoy raping women who are careless enough to venture close to their habitat at nightfall.
Individual Kappas may have their personal predilections for certain mischievous deeds. All of them, however, are known to drag men, women, and livestock into the water and then to suck the blood and pluck out the liver through the anus.
A certain very cunning Kappa used to appear as a child sitting on a rock by a pond. He would talk passers-by into a friendly game of pull-finger. Those who stopped and played were pulled into the water and drowned.
But the Kappas have one weakness. Their concave, saucer-shaped heads are filled with water. It is this water which gives them their strength. If one is able to jostle a Kappa so as to make him spill the water, the demon loses his power and can easily be subdued.
A demon who disturbs the prayers of Muslims, thus causing doubt in their minds.
In Eskimo myth, a fanged demon and the enemy of priests.
The demon in Mesopotamian myth who became the second consort of the goddess Tiamat, after her first consort Apsu had been slain. She gave him the Tablets of Destiny and intended to make him lord of the gods. He was killed by the young god Marduk who took the Tablets and fastened them on his chest. He killed Kingu and created mankind from his blood. Kingu plays an important part in the creation epic Enuma Elish.
The Japanese Buddhist patron goddess of little children. Her name means 'mother goddess of the demons' and she was originally a monstrous demon from India (called Hariti). She abducted little children and devoured them, until the great Buddha converted her. Now she represents the Buddha's appeal to compassion, and his devotion to the welfare of the weak. Kishimojin is portrayed as a mother suckling her baby, and holding a pomegranate in her
hand (the symbol of love and feminine fertility). She is also called Karitei-mo.
Burmese evil spirits inhabiting trees.
Koschei the Deathless
A demon of Russian folklore. This horrid monster is described as having a death's head and fleshless skeleton, "through which is seen the black hood flowing and the yellow heart beating."
He is armed with an iron club, with which he knocks down all who come in his path. In spite of his ugliness, he is said to be a great admirer of young girls and women. He is avaricious, hates old and young alike, and particularly those who are fortunate.
His dwelling is amongst the mountains of the Koskels and the Caucasus, where his treasure is concealed.
A wicked forest demon of the Bangala of the Southern Congo.
The Greeks knew Lamia as the beautiful daughter of Belus, the king of Libya. She was loved by Zeus, who thanked her for her favours by giving her the power of plucking out and replacing eyes at will. She bore Zeus several children, but they were all killed by Hera, in a fit of jealous rage at her husband's shamelessly public amorous adventures. Embittered, Lamia became a demoness who took her revenge by snatching and destroying the children of others, and she joined a group of demons known as the Empusae.
The Empusae were children of Hecate, the witch-goddess of the underworld, and were known for their incredibly filthy habits. Sometimes they were described as being ass-haunched and wearing brazen slippers, though usually they were represented as having one leg of brass while the other was an ass's leg. The Empusae, whose name means the 'forcers in,' disguised themselves in the forms of bitches, cows, or beautiful maidens. In the latter shape these greedy demons would lie with men at night or at the time of midday sleep.
Lamia gave birth to a whole family of female demons, known as Lamiae, who were sorceresses with the face and breasts of a beautiful woman, and the body of a serpent. They enervated, seduced, and sucked the blood of youths.
In Canaan, Lamia was known as Alukah, which means horse-leech. The horse-leech is a small fresh-water animal, with thirty teeth in its jaws. When a beast goes to drink, the leech swims into its mouth and fastens on the soft flesh at the back of the throat, sucking blood until it becomes completely distended. The same kind of relentless greed is attributed to Lamia.
The guardian demon of crossroads
A first order demon, Inspector General of black magic and sorcery, Master of the Sabbats. He presided over these as a great black goat with three horns and the head of a fox.
A great marquis of Hell. He commands thirty of the infernal legions. He comes in the likeness of an archer, clad in green, and bearing bow and quiver. He occasions battles and causes arrow wounds to putrefy. Also Larajie.
The Apocryphal Book of Enoch gives the following description of this monster's origins:
'And that day will two monsters be parted, one monster, a female named Leviathan in
order to dwell in the abyss of the ocean over the fountains of water; and (the other), a
male called Behemoth , which holds his chest in an invisible desert whose name is
Dundayin, east of the garden of Eden.' - 1 Enoch 60:7-8
Leviathan was the enormous whale who appeared throughout the legends of the Hebrews. He was the demon master of the ocean, and reigned also as king of beasts, feared by God and men alike. No man-made weapons could hurt him. It is thought that he is derived from the Canaanite Lotan, and that he is related to the Babylonian Tiamat and the Greek Hydra. Descriptions of him say he had seven heads. According to the medieval hierarchies he was the Grand Admiral of the maritime regions of Hell.
He is perhaps best known from the Biblical tale in the Book of Jonah. Jonah had fled in fear of God towards the city of Tarshish which lay across the sea. But during the sea journey, God created a mighty tempest. The ship's crew found out that Jonah was the cause of the story; they threw him overboard, and he was swallowed by Leviathan. The monster kept Jonah captive in his belly for three days, until God commanded him to vomit 'out Jonah upon dry land.'
In Paradise Lost, Milton depicted Leviathan as 'the Arch-Fiend' inhabiting the waters around
Scandinavia. The beast permitted sailors, who thought the dark mass sticking out of the ocean was an island, to anchor their boats on his back. When all was dark, Leviathan would plunge into the depths, dragging the ship and its crew after him.
In the Book of Job, Leviathan is described as an invulnerable demon connected with the primeval waters of the ocean:
'His back is made of rows of shields,
Shut up closely as with a seal...
His sneezings flash forth light,
And his eyes are like the eyelids of the dawn.
Out of the mouth go flaming torches;
Sparks of fire leap forth...
In his neck abides strength,
And terror dances before him.'
Also, according to Isaiah 27:1, on the Day of Judgement the Lord will slay Leviathan:
"In that day the Lord will punish,
With His great, cruel, mighty sword
Leviathan the Elusive Serpent--
Leviathan the Twisting Serpent;
He will slay the Dragon of the sea.
According to a passage in the T.B. Baba Bathra (75a), at the time of the resurrection, Gabriel will fight against Leviathan and overcome.
Of course, in Psalms 74:26 God is praised as having crushed the heads of Leviathan:
'it was You who crushed the heads of Leviathan,
who left him as food for the denizens of the desert'
In Tibetan Bon religion, she was originally a female demon. Later she became the patron goddess of Lamaism.
In the Babylonian tradition, there is a triad of demons that Lilith is associated with. The male is called Lilu, and the two females are called Lilitu and Ardat Lili, the 'maid of desolation.' Lilitu was a frigid, barren, husbandless demon who roamed the night searching for men as a succubus for she would drink their blood.
Lilith is thought be the demon of waste places who originally lived in the garden of the Sumerian goddess, Innana, queen of heaven. She is mentioned only briefly in the Hebrew Bible in Isaiah 34:14.
In Jewish traditions, God gave Lilith to Adam as his first wife to banish his loneliness. Like him, she had been created from the dust of the earth. She insisted upon enjoying full equality with her husband, deriving her right from their identical origin. Rather than acknowledging Adam as her superior and becoming his servant, she left him and was turned out of paradise. Ever since, Lilith has been roaming the world, making the air and all desolate places her home, howling her hatred of mankind through the night, vowing vengeance for the unjust treatment she received. She is called the 'howling one' and her name means 'screech owl.' It is mistakenly thought that Lilith's name was derived from the Hebrew word lailah, which means 'night.' This was probably derived from the similarity of the two words, and the idea that Lilith was mostly active at night.
Before creating Eve, God dispatched three angels to induce Lilith to return to Adam. When she refused, God put a curse on her that made one hundred of her offspring die every day. Lilith became the mistress of Sammael,, the archdemon or the serpent who tempted Eve, and thus a queen of demons. But after the expulsion, she slept one more time with Adam, and from that union were born the Shedim, Linin, and Ruchin.
Lilith is usually portrayed with long flowing hair, and she also possesses wings. She is the queen of the class of demons known as Lilin or Lilim, who were monsters with human bodies, the hindquarters of an ass, and wings.
In the Zohar, the first important book of Jewish Kabbalah, is found the following description of how Lilith takes vengeance:
'She adorns herself with many ornaments like a despicable harlot, and takes up her
position at the crossroads to seduce the sons of man. When a fool approaches her, she
grabs him, kisses him, and pours him win of dregs of vipers' gall. When she sees that he
is gone astray after her from the path of truth, she divests herself of all ornaments which
she put on for that fool. Her ornaments are: her hair is long and red like a rose, her
cheeks are white and red, from her ears hang six ornaments, Egyptian cords and all the
ornaments from the land of the East hang from her nape. Her mouth is set like a narrow
door comely in its decor, her tongue is sharp like a sword, her words are smooth like
oil, her lips are red like a rose and sweetened by all the sweetness of the world. She is
dressed in scarlet and adorned with forty ornaments less one. Yon fool drinks from the
cup and commits with her fornications. She leaves him asleep on the couch, flies up to
heaven, denounces him, and descends. That fool awakes and deems he can make
sport with her as before, but she removes her ornaments and stands before him in
garments of flaming fire, inspiring terror and making body and soul tremble, full of
frightening eyes, in her hand a drawn sword dripping bitter drops. And she kills that fool
and casts him into Gehenna.'
No wonder that the Zohar calls Lilith 'Serpent, Woman of Harlotry, End of All Flesh, End of Days.' Eternally furious at the cruel punishment inflicted upon her, Lilith stalked through the night, stealing children from their cribs, unless prevented by specific charms. Infants, especially girls, were most susceptible during the first two to three weeks of their lives. The charms that warded off her evil influence were amulets inscribed with the name of the angels sent to bring her back to Adam - Samvi, Sansavi, Semangelaf. Or else they invoke the names of Adam and Eve, and the phrase 'Lilith be gone.' These charms had to be distributed around the room according to special magical patterns. Even today, among the Jews of Palestine, Lilith - succubus, childstealer and evil eye - is averted from the bed by hanging over it a charm in Hebrew. It is made of special Kabbalistic paper and tied together with a piece of rue, garlic, and a fragment of a mirror. On the first possible sabbath all the relations assemble in the room and make a hideous noise to drive away the evil spirit.
Although unproved, there is a strong possibility that the English word 'lullaby' is nothing more than a corruption of 'Lilla-bi' - Lilith be gone!
Furthermore, in medieval times, Lilith was considered the cause of nocturnal emissions and was believed to be a dangerous presence in the marital chamber. On this, another Kabbalistic text comments as follows:
'And behold, that hard shell (embodiment of evil), Lilith is always present in the bed
linen of man and wife when they copulate, in order to take hold of the drops of semen
which are lost - because it is impossible to perform the marital act without such a loss
of sparks - and she created out of them demons, spirits and Lilin...But there is an
incantation for this, to chase Lilith away from the bed and to bring forth pure souls...in
that moment, when a man copulates with his wife, let him direct his heart to the holiness
of his Master, and say:
In the name of God
O you are wrapped in velvet
You have appeared!
Neither come nor go!
The seed is not yours,
Nor is your inheritance.
Go back, go back!
The sea rages,
Its waves call you.
I hold on to the Holy One,
Wrap myself into the King's holiness!'
Name given to Lucifer before The Fall.
"How art thou fallen from heaven
O day-star, son of the morning! (Helel ben Shahar)
How art thou cast down to the ground,
That didst cast lots over the nations!
And thou saidst in thy heart:
'I will ascend into heaven,
Above the stars of God (El)
Will I exalt my throne;
And I will sit upon the mount of meeting,
In the uttermost parts of the north;
I will ascend above the heights of the clouds;
I will be like the Most High (Elyon).'
Yet thou shalt be brought down to the nether-world,
To the uttermost parts of the pit."
- Isaiah 14:12-15
In Christian tradition, this passage is proof for the fall of Lucifer. However, it may be that this
passage is an allusion to a Canaanite or Phoenician myth about Helel, who is the son of the god Shahar. Helel sought the throne of the chief god and was cast down into the abyss because of this. El, Elyon, and Shahar are members of the Canaanite pantheon, while the "mount of meeting" is the abode of the gods, which corresponds to Mount Olympus in Greek mythology. There is an Ugaritic poem about two divine children, Shachar (dawn) and Shalim (dusk), who were born as a result of the intercourse of the god El with mortal women. There are, however, no Canaanite sources that tell about Helel ben Shahar or a revolt against Elyon.
Many Apocalyptic writers interpreted this passage as referring to Lucifer, and wrote about the fall of the angels. 1 Enoch refers to the falling angels as stars (see the watchers ) and may be the beginning of the overlap between the story of the watchers and Isaiah.
The name 'Lucifer' means light-bearer, and is not used in the New Testament, where the "bearer of light" is Christ. He was once one of the Seraphim (sometimes called the fiery, flying serpents).
Later authors, such as St. Jerome, associate Ezekial 28:13-15 with Lucifer, the greatest of the fallen angels. It has been argued that this passage was actually addressed to Nebuchadnezzar.
"You were in Eden, the garden of God;
Every precious stone was your adornment:
Carnelian, chrysolite, and amethyst;
Beryl, lapis lazuli, and jasper;
Sapphire, turquoise, and emerald;
And gold beautifully wrought for you,
Mined for you, prepared the day you were created.
I created you as a cherub
With outstretched shielding wings;
And you resided on God's holy mountain;
You walked among stones of fire.
You were blameless in your ways,
From the day you were created
Until wrongdoing was found in you
By your far-flung commerce
You were filled with lawlessness
And you sinned.
So I have struck you down
From the mountain of God,
And I have destroyed you, O shielding cherub,
From among the stones of fire."
Later interpretations of the fall tell that Lucifer was upset because God the Father made Lucifer's brother, Jesual, the Son. From his head, he gave birth to Sin, and by copulating with her, fathered Death. He was then cast out of heaven.
According to the hierarchies he was the Emperor of the Infernal legions.
There are characters similar to Lucifer in other mythologies. In Egypt, there is a serpent god, Sata, who is father of lightning and who likewise fell to earth. A Babylonian god, Zu, was also a lightning god who fell as a fiery flying serpent.
Prime Minister of the demons of Hell. He is served by Baal , Aguares and Marbas and has power over all the treasures of the world. He avoids light and can only assume a body at night.
Grand President of Hell, commander of forty legions. He builds impregnable citadels and towers, overthrows the Temples and Towers of his enemies, finds good workmen, gives familiar spirits, receives sacrifices and deceives the sacrificers. He is depicted as a crow with a hoarse voice, though will assume human form if commanded.
Familiar demons who appear in the figures of little men without beards. The name is also applied to the plant popularly known as mandrake, whose roots resemble human form and were believed to be inhabited by demons.
A Buddhist demon who attempts to trick people into damning their souls.
A president, who appears as a mighty lion, and then in human shape. He answers truly
concerning all things hidden or secret, causes and cures diseases, imparts skill in mechanics, and changes men into various shapes. One of the three demons in service to Lucifuge.
A mighty marquis, appears in the form of a wolf with the wings of a griffin, a serpent's tail, and fire issuing from his mouth. At the command of the operator he assumes a human form. He is strong in battle, gives true answers to all questions, and is extremely faithful to the exorcist. He belongs to the Order of Dominations.
The demonic ambassador to Switzerland.
Among the major classes of Sumerian demons, the seven Maskim were the most powerful ones. Their name is usually interpreted as meaning 'ensnarers' or 'layers of ambushes.' Their dwelling place was said to have been the bowels of the earth, or the heights of the mountains. Ancient Sumerian tablets say that
'they are neither male nor female, those who stretch themselves out like chaind; they do
not take wives, they do not make children; they are strangers to benevolence and listen
neither to prayers nor to wishes'
These formidable demons had a cosmic character, that is, their actions affected the general order of the universe:
'They, the seven, proceeding from the Western Mountains,
They, the seven, increasing the Eastern Mountain.'
This inscription attributes to the Maskim the power to go against the normal course of nature. By causing the earth to tremble, they were nicknamed the 'terror of the earth's mass.' They could even interrupt the movements of the stars in the sky.
But besides these elemental concerns, the Maskim were also known to attack men; harming them with spells, conjuring
'the evil command which issues from the midst of heaven; the evil fate which springs
from the depth of the abyss.'
Another tablet sums up their fearful actions as follows:
"From the four corners the thrust of their advance burns like fire,
They violently invade the dwellings of man,
They lay bare the town as well as the country,
They stomp the free man and the slave.'
Mastema is mentioned only in The Book of Jubilees and in the Fragments of a Zadokite Work.
In the Book of Jubilees, Mastema seems to be identified with Satan. He asked the Lord that some of the spirits might be allowed to remain with him to do his will. God granted his request and allowed one tenth of the spirits to remain with Mastema, while the other nine parts would be condemned. He seems to be of a different nature than those evil spirits he is pleading for. He has no concern that he will be bound with the others.
"When Mastema, the leader of the spirits, came, he said: 'Lord creator, leave some of
them before me; let them listen to me and do everything that I tell them, because if none
of them is left for me I shall not be able to exercise the authority of my will among
mankind. For they are meant for (the purposes of) destroying and misleading before my
punishment because the evil of mankind is great.' Then he said that a tenth of them
should be left before him, while he would make nine parts descend to the place of
judgment." - Jubilees 10:8-9
The name Mastema is probable derived from the Hebrew, Mastim, the Hiphil participle of Satam, and it means 'one who is adverse' or 'inimical.' The word is equivalent to Satan (adversary). The term is sometimes used in the plural, which indicates that there was a class of 'the Mastema' as well as one prince, Mastema. This is similar to the chief Satan and his class of Satans (see 1 Enoch 40:7).
Jubilees implies that Mastema is subservient to God. His task is simply to tempt men to sin and if they do, he accuses them before the Throne of God. He does not initiate the process of sin, but Mastema and his spirits then lead them on to greater wrongdoing. This is related to the Biblical function of Satan, where men can achieve righteousness if they are tempted and resist.
"And they made for themselves molten images, and they worshipped each the idol, the
molten image which they had made for themselves, and they began to make graven
images and unclean simulacra, and malignant spirits assisted and seduced (them) into
committing transgression and uncleanness. And the prince Mastema exerted himself to
do all this, and he sent forth other spirits, those which were put under his hand, to do all
manner of wrong and sin, and all manner of transgression, to corrupt and destroy and
to shed blood upon the earth. For this reason he called the name of Seroh, Serug, for
every one turned to do all manner of sin and transgression. - Jubilees 11:4-6
This portrayal of Mastema is not always consistent because sometimes he also is also presented as the incarnate of evil. He is seen as a destroyer and as one who hates Israel.
According to Jubilees, it was Mastema (not Sammael ) who urged God to test the piety of Abraham (as Satan did with Job) by demanding Isaac as a sacrifice.
"Then Prince Mastema came and said before God: 'Abraham does indeed love his son
Isaac and finds him more pleasing than anyone else. Tell him to offer him as a sacrifice
on an altar. Than you will see whether he performs this order and will know whether he
is faithful in everything through which you test him.'" - Jubilees 17:16
Mastema is also attributed with certain actions that are ascribed to God, Himself. In Jubilees, it is Mastema who made an attack on Moses' life, not God (Exodus 4:24). This is similar 1 Chronicles 21:1 and 2 Samuel 24:1 where Satan is attributed to asking David to take a census, as opposed to God.
"You know who spoke to you at Mt. Sinai and what the prince of Mastema wanted to
do to you while you were returning to Egypt - on the way at the shady fir tree. Did he
not wish with all his strength to kill you and to save the Egyptians from your power
because he saw that you were sent to carry out punishment and revenge on the
Egyptians?" - Jubilees 48:2-3
Mastema is also attributed to opposing Moses in Egypt. He is said to have helped the Egyptian sorcerers achieve their wonders and urged the Egyptians to pursue after the children of Israel. Mastema was even bound and imprisoned so that he might not accuse them, re-released so that he might help the Egyptians, and finally bound again. (48:15-19)
"And the prince Mastema stood up against thee, and sought to cast thee into the hands
of Pharaoh, and he helped the Egyptian sorcerers, and they stood up and wrought
before thee the evils indeed we permitted them to work, but the remedies we did not
allow to be wrought by their hands." - Jubilees 48:9-10
"And notwithstanding all (these) signs and wonders the prince Mastema was not put to
shame because he took courage and cried to the Egyptians to pursue after thee with all
the powers of the Egyptians, with their chariots, and with their horses, and with all the
hosts of the peoples of Egypt." - Jubilees 48:12
Also, Mastema is attributed with slaying the first-born in the land of Egypt, which is attributed to the Lord in Exodus 12:29.
"For on this night -the beginning of the festival and the beginning of the joy- ye were
eating the passover in Egypt, when all the powers of Mastema had been let loose to
slay all the first-born in the land of Egypt, from the first-born of Pharaoh to the
first-born of the captive maid-servant in the mill, and to the cattle." - Jubilees 49:2
The Fragments briefly mention that if a penitent sinner vows to improve and then lives accordingly, the angel of Mastema departs from him.
Because of these similarities with the traditional role of Satan as portrayed in the Old Testament, it is probable that Mastema is just an apocalyptic name for Satan.
The name given to the prince of demons in an apocryphal book entitled Little Genesis, which was quoted by the Greek monk and historian Cedrenus (11th century).
A Central African demon considered to regard good living with aversion.
A type of demon in the Marshall Islands. These demons are almost exclusively female. When a woman was pregnant, often her husband would sail off to go and collect gifts or special food, etc. for his wife. However, if he was gone for too long a period of time, the pregnant woman would turn into a mejenkwaad. Very often this would mean she'd eat her newborn child. When the husband arrived, she'd go after him as well. The story of Lokokelok tells of a man who evades being eaten by a mejenkwaad through a series of tricks he plays on her.
A demon worshipped by the Ammonites and described as the treasurer of the house of infernal princes.
One of the seven chief devils.
A demon prince whose chief power lies in pestilence.
Ancient peoples frequently made mention of certain demons who became visible especially towards midday to those with whom they had a pact. They appeared in the form of men or of beasts, and let themselves be enclosed in a symbolic character, a figure, a vial, or in the interior of a hollow ring.
In the Old Testament, Moloch was an evil deity called the 'abomination of the Ammonites.'
Worshipped as a sun god, Moloch embodied the savage and devastating aspects of the sun's heat. He was also thought to be the bringer of plagues.
The Ammonites erected huge bronze statues in his honour, depicting him as a bull-headed colossus with extremely long arms, sitting on a throne of brass. His rites included human sacrifices, especially the immolation of firstborn infants. This sacrifice was said to be the most powerful way to avert disaster and death from the community at large.
The Greeks, who identified him with a Carthaginian deity of male principle, compared Moloch to Cronos. This titan usurped his father's throne and killed him. To make sure that the same fate should not befall him, Cronos devoured his own children. In time the name Moloch came to be applied to any number of cruel doctrines and evil practices.
Moloch (or Saturn-Moloch) is also identified with Baal Hammon in Carthaginian religion, in which human sacrifice was performed to appease the god. An example of a religious tablet reads as such:
"To the Goddess to Tanath the countenance of Baal ;
To the Lord to Baal Hammon, a man vowed,
Even Abshamban, a votary of Ashtarte and a filial
Devotee of Ashmon: as thou hearest the supplication,
Do Thou Bless!"
Infants were not the only ones sacrificed in Carthage. Justin writes:
"they used as a remedy a bloody piece of religion and a horrid abomination. For they
sacrificed men as victims, and brought to the altars children..., begging the favour of the
gods by shedding the blood..."
Ancient descriptions of the sacrificial sites were described.
"Unlike the houses of the other idols, that of Moloch was set outside the city. It was
gigantic in form and had the head of what appeared to be an ox, the hands stretched
out as if to receive something, the body was hollow inside. Before the idol, there were
seven temples, the first six of which were employed for the sacrifice of various fowl and
animals, the seventh reserved for a human sacrifice."
Diodorus described the ritualistic sacrifice. First, the devotee would kiss the image of Moloch. He would then make a fire under the idol, which would quickly cause the hands of the statue to become red-hot. A victim would then be placed in the hands to suffer an agonizing death. His cries would be muffled by the drums. While this was taking place, the prophets would dance around an altar,
"with violent gesticulations, and, having excited themselves to a pitch of frenzy by it, as
well as by their fearful vociferations they began to cut their bodies with knives and
lancets. In this unnatural state they began to prophesy, or rather rave, as if possessed
by some invisible power."
It was mentioned in the Old Testament that Jezebel sacrificed to Moloch, and supported 450 of these prophets.
The exact location of these sacrifices is called Topheth, a name which, according to some, was derived from the Hebrew 'toph,' meaning 'drum;' because drums were supposedly used to drown out the cries of the victims. The place was also called Hinnom in the Old Testament, because of the cries of children. Hinnom is derived from naham, which means to roar. Because of this, Moloch is often referred to as the 'prince of the valley of tears.'
According to the medieval hierarchies he was a prince of the infernal regions who receives a mother's tears with joy.
In the Kabbalistic tradition, Moloch, together with Satan, was the first of the ten evil Sephiroth. He represented the negative aspect of the first Sephiroth, Kether, also known as the 'crown of knowledge.'
Several Biblical References include:
- Leviticus 18:21
And thou shalt not let any of thy seed pass through the fire to Molech, neither shalt thou profane the name of thy God: I am the LORD.
- Leviticus 20:2
Again, thou shalt say to the children of Israel, Whosoever he be of the children of Israel, or of the strangers that sojourn in Israel, that giveth any of his seed unto Molech; he shall surely be put to death: the people of the land shall stone him with stones.
- Leviticus 20:3
And I will set my face against that man, and will cut him off from among his people; because he hath given of his seed unto Molech, to defile my sanctuary, and to profane my holy name.
- Leviticus 20:4
And if the people of the land do any ways hide their eyes from the man, when he giveth of his seed unto Molech, and kill him not:
- Leviticus 20:5
Then I will set my face against that man, and against his family, and will cut him off, and all that go a whoring after him, to commit whoredom with Molech, from among their people.
- 1 Kings 11:7
Then did Solomon build an high place for Chemosh, the abomination of Moab, in the hill that is before Jerusalem, and for Molech, the abomination of the children of Ammon.
- 2 Kings 23:10
And he defiled Topheth, which is in the valley of the children of Hinnom, that no man might make his son or his daughter to pass through the fire to Molech.
- Jeremiah 32:35
And they built the high places of Baal , which are in the valley of the son of Hinnom, to cause their sons and their daughters to pass through the fire unto Molech; which I commanded them not, neither came it into my mind, that they should do this abomination, to cause Judah to sin.
- Amos 5:26
But ye have borne the tabernacle of your Moloch and Chiun your images, the star of your god, which ye made to yourselves.
- Acts 7:43
Yea, ye took up the tabernacle of Moloch, and the star of your god Remphan, figures which ye made to worship them: and I will carry you away beyond Babylon.
A great earl and a president of Hell, who appears like a human-headed bull, and gives skill in astronomy and the liberal sciences, with good familiars. He knows the virtues of all herbs and precious stones.He has command of thirty-six of the infernal legions.
A Japanese demon who lives in the forests. Woodcutters describe him as very strong and resembling a hairy ape. To pacify him they offer him rice.
The chief lieutenant to Leonard.
A great duke and earl, appears in the form of a soldier riding on a griffin, and having a duke's crown on his head. He is preceded by two ministers sounding trumpets. He teaches philosophy perfectly, and constrains the souls of the dead to appear and to answer questions. He was partly of the Order of Thrones and partly of Angels.
A Marquis of Hell. He is depicted as a crow with a hoarse voice who gives skill in arts and sciences, especially rhetoric, and restores lost dignities and honours.
The Nagas of Indian mythology were a race of serpent demons. Their name means 'those who do not walk, who creep.' Most often they manifested themselves as beasts with bodies that were half-man, half-serpent, although sometimes they assumed the shape of a dragon, or simply appeared in the guise of a cobra. A precious gem was embedded in their throats or skulls, and this endowed them with great magical powers.
They haunted lakes and rivers, but their true domain was a vast, idyllic region below the sea. In Patala, their underwater habitat, they hoarded great amounts of jewels and precious metals. Here the demons dwelt with their seductive mates, the Naginis who, like mermaids, seduced mortals into the briny depths.
The Nagas were greatly feared for their venom, which they used to lethally wound all those wealthy enough to be enticing prey. The Nagas once fatally wounded a king renowned for his riches, and famous for his benevolence. The king's son obtained revenge by slaughtering thousands of serpents with a powerful incantation. The Nagas finally hired a wise man who, with a counterspell, put a stop to the mass execution of the demons.
A good example of the Nagas' greed is the story of how they got their forked tongues. When the elixir of immortality was being rationed by the gods, the Nagas grabbed the cup containing the sacred potion. The gods reclaimed the cup but, during the struggle, a few drops were spilled onto the ground. The Nagas eagerly licked them up, but the cutting grass, covering the earth, split their tongues which from then on remained forked.
A minor god of the underworld in Sumerian mythology, Namtar was regarded as the bringer of disease and pestilence. It is fate, destiny in its evil aspect, pictured as a demon of the underworld. In addition to spreading disease, Namtar acted as the herald or messenger and chief minister of Ereshkigal, the queen of the Sumerian underworld, and the god Nergal. Nergal in his guise as the god Irra, and Namtar were believed to cause all diseases in mortals.
A field marshal of the infernal regions who has the power to inflict harm and predict future events.
A second order demon who is an associate of Beelzebub . Nergal was originally a Sumerian deity before being demonized by the Europeans theologians.
An inferior demon in charge of pleasures in the infernal regions.
A second order demon, chef in the house of the infernal princes.
Prince of the demonic archangels.
One of the two demons said to have been successfully exorcised from Elisabeth Allier in 1639 by Francois Faconnet.
The two demons who had possessed her for twenty years admitted that they had entered her body by means of a crust of bread they had put into her mouth when she was seven years old. They fled from her body in the presence of the Holy Sacrament. The name of the other demon was Bonifarce .
A great marquis, appears in the form of a lion bestriding a strong horse; he has a serpent's tail, and holds two enormous hissing snakes in his right hand. He teaches the virtues of the planets and the mansions thereof; he transforms men, gives dignities, prelates, and confirmations, with the favour of friends and foes. He is also the demon of divination.
A Guyana demon, master of the eclipse.
A great prince, appears first like a horse, but when commanded, in human form. He discovers past, present, and future; he gives good dignities and advancements, with the favour of friends and foes; he will reply concerning the creation of the world and Divinity; he is very faithful to the exorcist, and defends him from temptation by any spirit.
A great president, appears at first like a leopard, and then in human form. He gives skill in all liberal sciences, and true answers concerning divine and secret things. He can change men into any shape that the exorcist may desire, and he that is changed will not know it.
Demon in charge of ceremony in the infernal regions. a great king, very obedient to Lucifer. He appears like a crowned man seated upon a dromedary, proceeded by all manner of musicians. He speaks with a roaring voice, teaches all arts, sciences and secrets, gives and confirms dignities, makes men subject to the will of the Magician, provides good familiars. He is observed towards the North-West, and is of the Order of Dominions.
A winged demon, feared by the people of ancient Mesopotamia. It is a creature with a deformed head, the wings of an eagle, the sharp claws of a lion on its hands and feet, and the tail of a scorpion. This demon is the personification of the south-east storm wind, which brings diseases. The Mesopotamians believed that Pazuzu lived in the desert.
The demonic prince of the Principalities.
A second order demon, assistant of Belial . He tempts mortals to engage in sodomy and pederasty.
A great marquis, appears like the bird of that name, singing dulcet tones in a childs voice. When he assumes human shape at the will of the Magician, he speaks marvellously of all sciences, proves an excellent poet, and fulfills orders admirably. He hopes to return to the Seventh Throne in 1200 years.
A demon in Maori myth.
These Hindu demons are evil, ghostlike spirits who animate dead bodies and are prone to residing in cemeteries. They are moderately tall and feed only on filth and excrement without ever being satisfied. Some wear pigs' masks for faces, while others vomit fire that burns them away, or cut and slash their flesh with their fingernails. Popular belief has it that avaricious people often became Pretas. Some Pretas assume the shape of formidable giants and are known as Yeaks. All in all there are thirty-six classes of Pretas, some of them appearing only as animated skeletons.
The Indian Buddhist tradition depicts them with huge bellies, large mouths and tiny, contracted throats. Some sources disagree with this description, giving the Pretas 'mouths as small as the eye of a needle,' enabling them 'to emit but the weakest and eeriest of whistling sounds.' In any event, they are unable to take in sufficient quantities of food and drink, and are condemned to suffer perpetual thirst and starvation.
A number of Pretas reside in hell as servants of Yama , the king of the underworld. Their infernal quarters are 'a hell of deep night, intense cold, absolute silence and continuing hunger.' Others roam the earth, reside in the air, and mix with mankind, although they are visible only at night.
Sakyamuni, a great religious leader, instituted the ceremony of feeding the Pretas. He told one of his disciples to make offerings for the benefit of his mother, who had had the misfortune of being reborn as a Preta. Ever since, Hindu Bodhisattvas have taken pride in charitable acts of food offerings to console the famished demons, whom they see as afflicted souls condemned to err eternally.
Appears in the form of an angel, and is a great strong duke. He speaks mystically of hidden things, teaches geometry and the liberal sciences, and at the command of the operator will make a great commotion like that of running waters; he also warms waters and tempers baths. He was of the Order of the Powers before his fall.
Grand Prince and Grand Duke of the infernal empire. He reigned in Babylonia where he had the head of an owl. He stirs up strife, starts wars, initiates quarrels and reduces people to mendacity. He gives lengthy answers to all questions. Commander of twenty-six legions.
Pua Tu Tahi
A dangerous demon living under the sea in Tahitian cosmology. His name means 'Coral Rock Standing Alone'.
A great king, who appears like a lion-headed man carrying a viper in his hand, and riding on a bear, preceded by many trumpeters. He conceals and discovers treasures, discerns past, present and future, gives true answers concerning things human and divine, and provides good familiars.One of the demons in service to Fleuretty .
A type of demon, similar to a ghul .