A high order demon, identified as the Grand President of Hell. He is figured in the shape of a god with the wings of a griffon. He is supposed to inspire knowledge of the liberal arts and to incite homicide. This fiend is said to be able to render people invisible. He commands thirty-six legions. He is also called Caasimolar or Glasya or Glasyalabolas.


Ancient deities of inferior rank, one of whom it was believed was attached to each mortal from his birth as a constant companion, capable of giving impulses and acting as a sort of messenger between the gods and men.

The cacodaemons were of a hostile nature, as opposed to the agathodaemons who were friendly. It is said that one of the cacodaemons who appeared to Cassius was a man of large stature, and of a black hue.

The belief in these daemons is probably traditional, and it is said that they were rebellious angels who were expelled from heaven for their crimes. They tried in vain to obtain a settlement in various parts of the universe and their final abode was believed to be all the space between the earth and the stars. There they abide, hated by all the elements, and finding their pleasure in revenge and injury. Their king was called Hades by the Greeks, Typhon by the Egyptians, and Ahrimanes by the Persians and Chaldeans.

Early astrologers named the twelfth house of the sun "Cacodaemon" as its influence was regarded as evil.


Originally a pre-Roman god of fire, who gradually became a fire-breathing demon. Cacus lived in a cave in the Aventine Hill from where he terrorized the countryside. When Heracles returned with the cattle of Geryon, he passed Cacus' cave and lay down to sleep in the vicinity. At night Cacus dragged some of the cattle to his cave backward by their tails, so that their tracks would point in the opposite direction. However, the lowing of the animals betrayed their presence in the cave to Heracles and he retrieved them and slew Cacus. Other

sources claim that Cacus' sister told Heracles the location of his cave. On the place were Heracles slew Cacus he erected an altar, where later the Forum Boarium, the cattle market, was held.


According to Bodin and De Lancre, the offspring of incubus and succubus . Some of these demons are said to be more kindly disposed to the human race than others. Luther said of them in his Colloquies that they show no sign of life before seven years of age. He stated that he saw one which cried when he touched it.

In his Discours des Sorciers (Lyon, 1608), Henri Boguet quotes a story that a Galician mendicant was in the habit of exciting public pity by carrying about a Cambion. One day, a horseman observing him to be much hampered by the seeming infant in crossing a river, took the supposed child before him on his horse. But he was so heavy that the animal sank under the weight. Sometime afterwards the mendicant was taken and admitted that the child he habitually carried was a little demon whom he had trained so carefully that no one refused him alms whilst carrying it.


Demonic prince of the Powers.


Demons who bore men away, killed them, and had the power to break and crush them. The sixteenth century theologian L. Campester described how these demons treated their agents, the magicians and sorcerers.


Grand Master of Hell, commander of thirty legions. He is said to be the cleverest sophist in Hell , and can, through astuteness of his arguments, make the most skilled logician despair. He understands the songs of birds, the bellowing of Oxen, the barking of dogs and the sound of the waves. He knows the future and was once numbered among the Order of Angels. He is depicted as an elegant man with the head and wings of a blackbird.


(or Cagrino). An evil spirit believed in by European gypsies. It was said to have the form of a hedgehog, yellow in colour, about a foot and a half in length and a span in breadth. Heinrich von Wlislocki stated: "I am certain, that this creature is none other than the equally demoniac being called Harginn, still believed in by the inhabitants of Northwestern India. Horses were the special prey of the Chagrin, who rode them into a state of exhaustion, like the Guecubu of Chile."

The next day they appear sick and weary, with tangled manes and bathed in sweat. When this is observed they are tethered to a stake which has been rubbed with garlic juice, then a red thread is laid on the ground in the form of a cross, or else some of the hair of the animal is mixed with salt, meal and the blood of a bat and cooked to bread, with which the hoof of the horse is smeared. The empty vessel which contained the mixture is put in the trunk of a high tree while these words are uttered:

"Tarry, pipkin, in this tree,

Till such time as full ye be."


The Etruscan demon of death who torments the souls of the deceased in the underworld. He also guards the entrance to the underworld. He is similar to the Greek Charon. Charun is portrayed with the nose of a vulture, pointed ears and is usually winged. His attribute is the hammer, with which he finished off his victims.


A Moabite demon.

Chevaliers de l'Enfer

These demons are more powerful than those of no rank, but less powerful than titled demons. They may be evoked from dawn to sunrise and from sunset to dark.


A Burmese demon.


A powerful marquis, he appears like a valiant soldier on a black horse. He rules the spirits in the parts of Africa; he teaches grammar, logic, and rhetoric, discovers hidden treasures and things lost and hidden; he can make a man appear like a soldier of his own kind.


Vampire demons of ancient Mexico.


A demon said to be able to change day to night and night to day.



The Daevas were a class of demons in Zoroastrianism. They were the spirits that chose to follow Angra Mainya . The Gathas mentions three daevas, Aka Manah, Druj, and Aeshma .

Aka Manah ('Evil Mind') was created by Angra Mainya to oppose Vohu Manah ('Good Mind.') He is second in command, next to his father, Angra Mainya , in the host of demons. Aka Manah was said to have supported the demon Buiti when he attacked Zarathustra. In the final conflict of this present cycle, he will be overcome by Vohu Manah, and Angra Mainya will become powerless and flee away.

Druj ('liar' or 'deceiver') is the female personification of wickedness, and who is the great opponent of Asha. She appears in both the Gothic and in the later period. In the later period, the idea is pluralized, and the Druj becomes the embodiment of the Evil Spirit through whom Ahriman works. In later Avestan texts, the term refers to a class of female demons, and the name is also applied to later demons or even wicked people. The demon Buiti is called a Druj. In the Vendidad, uncleanness of body is also personified as Druj Nasu and is said to spread corruption in the world. Druj Nasu dwells in the mountain, Aresura, in the northern region. As soon as a soul leaves a body, she flies down from the mountain in the shape of a fly, and seizes the corpse. This demon can be driven away by specific holy spells, or the gaze of 'a yellow dog with four eyes, or the white dog with yellow ears.' (Vend. viii.16-18)

Aeshma is known as the 'fiend of the wounding spear,' (Yasht xi.15) and is the demon of wrath and fury. Sraosha is his greatest opponent. According to Darmesteter, he was originally the leader of the Dryvants, or 'storm-fiends,' but was later converted into the principle of 'the demon of rage and anger,' and became an expression for all moral wickedness. It is thought that Aeshma became Asmodeus ('the evil demon') in the Book of Tobit.

Azi Dahaka ('fiendish snake') is conceived of as partly demonic and partly human. He was probably originally the 'snake' of the storm-cloud who was a counterpart of the Vedic Ahi or Vrita. In the Yasht, he is described as struggling for the Hvareno, or Kingly Glory, against Atar (Fire). In the Shah Namah, he appears as a man with two snakes springing from his shoulders. These snakes were have said to have grown from a kiss bestowed by Ahriman . At the renovation, Azi Dahaka will be put in chains on Mount Demavand; but in the end, he will break loose from the bonds and return to disturb creation.


An ancient Persian god of death and demon of deceit and mendacity. He loves destroying life. Dahaka is usually depicted with three heads, while scorpions and lizards crawl all over his body.


The Daityas were a race of giants and demons, descendants of Diiti by Kasyapa, who were gods involved with the creation of the world, according to Hindu mythology. The Danavas were a very similar race of demons, associated so closely with the Daityas that for all practical reasons they have become indistinguishable.

During the Krita Yuga, that is the first age of the cosmos, these demons had become so powerful, and were so well armed, that the gods could no longer defeat them. With the enormous dragon-serpent, Vritra, on their side acting as their commander-in-chief, the Daityas battled against the gods and overcame them. The gods, horrified at being homeless and scattered all over the universe, knew that the only way to regain their celestial territory was to kill Vritra. In anguish and desperation they turned to Brahma, the Supreme Being, for advice. He told them that the only way to conquer the Daityas was to obtain a 'demon-slaying weapon' from the sage Rishi. When the gods approached Rishi, the sage said:

'O ye gods, I will renounce my body for your benefit'

and out of Rishi's bones the gods built a weapon called Vajra. Carrying this new weapon, Indra lead the gods into battle, and soon they came face to face with the serpent Vritra, surrounded by hordes of titanic demons. A mighty battle ensued, the gods finally slayed Vritra, and the terrorized Daityas were chased down into the depths of the ocean where Varuna, king of the sea, was given the task of keeping a watchful eye on them.

They were condemned to live in the watery kingdom of Patala, side by side with the

serpent-demons, the Nagas . There, according to the Mahabharata the great epic poem of the Hindus, the Daityas are to remain massed together, forever plotting their revenge on the gods.

During that first age the gods made a temporary peace with the Daityas. They needed the demons' co-operation in churning the ocean, so as to eventually bring up everything solid out of the water, especially the cup containing the sacred potion Amrita, which bestowed immortality on all who tasted it. The gods wrenched a large mountain from the earth and threw it into the ocean. They asked the gigantic snake, Vasuki, to twine around the mountain and act as a churning cord. The gods were to pull one side of the serpent, while the demons were to pull the other. Just as everybody was ready to begin the labour, the Daityas who were at the tail end of the snake, refused to help. They considered that part of the snake's body as ignoble. The gods, grumbling, gave in to their demands and after some difficulty, the task was accomplished.

Another incident in which the demons, who once again had obtained temporary ascendancy over the gods but were in the end outsmarted, is the story of Bali , one of the most dreaded titans, and of his pact with Vishnu, the Heavenly Father.

During Treta Yuga, the second age of the cosmos, after the demon hordes regained control over the universe, Vishnu set out to remedy this situation. He appeared in Patala, disguised as a dwarf, acting as if in quest of a place to live. He approached Bali , a leader among demons, and asked him if he could have as much territory as he could cover in three paces. Smirking, Bali consented to the dwarf's desire, at which point Vishnu transformed himself into a giant whose three steps covered the ocean, the earth and the heavens. Because a demon was bound to his word as much as a god was, the gods once more won back the universe from the forces of evil.

The Daityas were renowned for their refusal to offer sacrifices to the gods, and for their habit of interfering with everybody who did so. This characteristic earned them the name of Kratu-dvishas, 'enemies of sacrifices.' The Bhagavad-Gita related the following incident as an example illustrating this habit, which was in ancient times considered one of the most heinous crimes.

A renowned Daitya, Hiranya-Kasipu, desired to be worshipped as a god. He tried to prevent his own son from making sacrifices to Vishnu, but the son refused to comply with his father's wish, saying that: "worship was due only to Hari, the omniscient and omnipresent god." The enraged Hiranya-Kasipu struck a pillar saying: "Let him come forth from this pillar if he is everywhere!"

Hari promptly appeared in the form of a half-man and half-lion with eyes ablaze, and "red as gold burnished in the fire, his face whose size was increased by a thick and bristling mane...Like a snake seizing a rat, Hari seized his adversary...and, laying him back over his thigh, as if it were child's play, with his nails he tore the skin that thunderbolts could not pierce...Shooting out looks of insupportable fury, licking the corners of his wide mouth with

his tongue...Hari shaking his mane dripping with blood, made a garland for himself with his enemy's entrails."


A demon riding an ostrich in the desert. It devours travellers.


A mighty duke, appears in the form of a man with many faces of men and women, and has a book in his right hand. He teaches all arts and sciences, declares all secret counsels, for all human thoughts, and can change them at his will. He kindles love, and shows the similitude of any person in a vision, wheresoever they may be.


A marquis, comes in the form of a star in a pentacle, but puts on the image of man at command. He discovers the virtues of herbs and precious stones, makes birds seem to fly before the exorcist, and remain with him as familiars, singing and eating like other birds.


Devil worshipped by the inhabitants of Calicut in Malabar. He has a crown, four horns on his head, and four crooked teeth in his enormous mouth. He has a sharp, crooked nose, feet like a rooster, and holds in his claws a soul he is about to devour.


In Persian mythology, a demon of enormous power, a ruthless and immoral god of war.


An ancient Iranian female demon, the representation of the lie. Together with horny men she causes much evil. She is the eternal opponent of Asha Vahishta. Also Drug or Drauga.



The "Satan" of the Mohammedans. It was said that he was an inmate of Azaze, the heaven nearest God, and when the angels were commanded to bow down before the first man, Eblis was the chief of those who rebelled. They were cast out of Azaze, and Eblis and his followers were sentenced to suffer in hell for a long time. It is supposed that he was composed of the elements of fire, and that he succeeded the peris (fairy-like nature spirits) in the government of the world. Also called Iblis .


The Roman personification of poverty. Virgil mentioned her later as a demon in the underworld.


A great duke, appearing as a goodly knight carrying a lance, pennant and sceptre. He discovers hidden things, causes war, marshalls armies, kindles love and lust.


Demon belonging to a higher order, Prince of Death. He has enormous, long teeth, a hideous body covered with sores and fox-skin clothing.


Ewah is a demon. The very sight of Ewah causes permanent irreversible insanity. The Ewah was destroyed by an Indian woman named Running Deer.



A Hungarian demon, and the opposite of Isten, the god of light. Fene is also the name of the place where demons roam.


Grand General and Duke of Hell. He appears in the shape of a terrible leopard. When he assumes a human shape, he has a frightful face and blood-red eyes. He knows the past, present and future, but unless commanded into the triangle he will deceive the exorcist. He incites demons or spirits against his enemies the exorcists, and he commands twenty legions. He converses gladly of divinity and the creation of the world, as also of the fall of spirits, his own included.


A lieutenant general of the infernal armies.


A strong duke, appears in the form of a man with the wings of a griffin. He drowns men, sinks warships, and has power over the winds and the sea, but he will not hurt any one if commanded to forbear by the exorcist. He hopes to return to the Seventh Thrones in 1050 years.


The Fomors were an ancient tribe of Celtic sub-aquatic monsters. Their ancestry and lifestyle have been described in detail in books that date as far back as the eleventh century. One such book is The Book of the Dun Cow, written about the year one thousand and ninety, and it contains a section entitled the History of Monsters or the Fomorians and Dwarfs. There the Fomors are said to be the offspring of Noah's son, Ham, and are depicted as 'men with goat's heads.' Other legends say that they were born before all other gods, and were children of Chaos and Old Night. Their name means the 'dark of the sea,' and they were thought to encompass the antithesis of all that is good in the world.

They lived mainly on an underwater island, known as Lochlan. From there they issued forth,

terrorizing the coast of Donegal with their titanic appearance. Each Fomor looked different from the others, although they were in general of gigantic stature and had deformed limbs. One of these weird beasts had 'one hand out of his chest, one leg out of his haunch, and one eye in the front of his face.' Some were covered with a thick layer of metallic feathers, while others had three animal heads.

The most cruel and treacherous of the Fomors was one named Balor of the Evil Eye, who, though he had two eyes, kept one perpetually shut. Balor had once by accident peered through the window of a sorcerer's house in which a cauldron of poisonous brew was bubbling over the fire. The smoke of the concoction had blown into one of his eyes, and from then on, one glance from that eye could kill anybody instantly.


Grand President and Knight of Hell, commander of twenty-nine legions. He knows the properties of herbs and precious stones. He teaches logic, esthetics, chiromancy, pyromancy and rhetoric. He can make a man invisible, inventive and adept in the use of words. He can locate lost objects and find hidden treasure. He is depicted as an old man with white hair and a long white beard.


One of the demons who serves Sargatanas , a brigadier general of the infernal legions.


A great marquis, appears as a sea-monster. He teaches all arts and sciences, gives a good reputation and the knowledge of tongues, and causes men to be loved by their enemies even as by their friends.


The Japanese god of the wind and one of the eldest Shinto gods. He was present at the creation of the world and when he first let the winds out of his bag, they cleared the morning mists and filled the space between heaven and earth so the sun shone. He is portrayed as a terrifying dark demon wearing a leopard skin, carrying a large bag of winds on his shoulders.


A great duke, appears in the form of a cruel old man, with a long beard and hoary hair. He is settled on a pale horse, and has a sharp spear in his hand. He teaches philosophy, rhetoric, astronomy, logic, chiromancy, and pyromancy, perfectly in all their parts.He has twenty legions at his command.


A great earl, appears in the form of a hart with a fiery tail, and will not speak until compelled within the triangle. He then assumes the form of an angel, speaking with a hoarse voice. He causes love between man and wife, raises thunder, lightning, and great winds, gives true answers about secret and divine things. He is the commander of twenty-six legions.



A great president and prince, appears when the sun is in the southern signs, coming in a human shape, and preceded by four powerful kings. He teaches philosophy and the liberal sciences, excites love and hatred, makes men insensible, gives instruction in the consecration of things which belong to the divination of Amaymon , his king, delivers familiars out of the custody of Magicians, gives true answers as to past, present and future, transports men speedily from place to place at the will of the exorcist. According to Weyer, he will speak outside the triangle, but what he says will be false.


From Kur, the Sumerian underworld, came seven demons called Galla. They were the attendants and messengers of Ereshkigal, the goddess of death and gloom, who sat naked on a throne in her dark lapis lazuli palace, surrounded by seven great walls. The central rule of the Sumerian hell stated that no one, neither a mortal nor a god, who entered her dark domain, could ever leave Kur again. To this the Galla were an exception, for they could roam the world to relentlessly terrorize men and haul them back to the dark abode. Gods and humans alike, on earth or in hell, needed food and drink. But not the Galla who, to quote an ancient Sumerian poem:

'Touched no food,
Drank no water,
Did not taste the sprinkled flour,
Did not know the sacred wine.
No bribe mollified the Galla,
Nor did they satisfy a woman's body
But hated children
And tore them from their parents' lap.'

The goddess, Innana, having failed in her attempt to over throw her sister, Ereshkigal, who had imprisoned her in Kur, managed to escape from the underworld. But the seven Galla followed, threatening to drag her back if she could not find another deity to take her place. When Innana found the shepherd Dumuzi, her lover, celebrating instead of mourning her departure, she cast the eye of death on him. He was delivered into the demons' hands:

'The seven demons grip his thighs,
They bite and tear his face,
They slash at his body with an axe,
They turn his face into the face
Of agony.'


A great marquis, appearing in the form of a small horse or ass, but afterwards in human

shape. He speaks hoarsly teaching the liberal sciences, and giving news of souls who have died in sin. According to Weyer, he summons into the presence of the exorcist the souls of drowned men, and of those detained in Purgatory, called magickally Cartagra - that is, the affliction of souls. They assume an aerial body, are visible to sight, and reply to questions.


A demon (possible female) in the deserts of the Red Sea countries. It catches travelers and tortures them by devouring their genitals.


In Muslim folklore, the ghoul is a female demon of the desert that is able to assume the shape of an animal. It is an evil spirit that robs graves and feeds on the flesh of the dead. They also lure travelers into the desert, sometimes beguiling them by prostituting themselves, and then devouring them.


Prince of the western region of Hell.


A powerful duke, appears like a beautiful woman, wearing a ducal crown. He discovers past, present, and future, as also the whereabouts of hidden treasures; he procures the love of women, and especially of girls.

Gong Gong

A Chinese demon who is responsible for the great floods, together with his associate, the snake-like Xiang Yao. Gong Gong is the eternal opponent of the highest ruler. Also called Kung Kung.


The Gorgons were the three demonic daughters of Phorcys and Ceto. The word Gorgons meant 'the grim ones,' and because of their mother's name they were sometimes alluded to as the Phorcydes. They had long, razor-shaped teeth, brazen claws, while their faces and breasts were those of women. They were usually considered demons of the underworld or of the deep sea.

Medusa ("ruler"), the most infamous of the three and the only mortal one, had hissing vipers instead of hair. Her sisters, who were both immortal, were named Stheno ("forceful") and Euryale ("far-roaming").

So dreadful was their appearance that the area outside the cave in which they lived was surrounded by bodies of those who had had the misfortune to look directly at a Gorgon's face. One glance sufficed to turn the greatest hero into stone. Their faces were likened to the pock-marked surface of the moon. To ward off undesired suitors, ancient Grecian chastity belts were stamped with the Gorgon's likeness above the keyhole. Bakers also painted their oven door with a Gorgon face in order to discourage anyone from opening the door and letting in a draught.

Medusa was the ugliest of the three because she had once dared boast greater beauty than that of Athena, the goddess of wisdom. The goddess promptly transformed Medusa into a hag. Later Athena, still full of anger, helped the hero Perseus kill the Gorgon. She told him to approach the demoness while she was asleep, and to be sure not to look at her face but to guide his sword by looking at her image in his highly polished shield. After chopping off Medusa's head, Perseus presented the goddess with the trophy, which she attached to the centre of her magic shield, the Aegis.


King of the southern regions of Hell.


Among the Araucanians, an Indian tribe of Chile, South America, the Guecubu were evil spirits, who did all in their power to thwart and annoy the Great Spirit Togin and his ministers.


A mighty duke, who appears like a cynocephalus, and discerns the past, present and future, answers all questions, reconciles enemies and gives honours and dignities.


A demon in the service of Agaliarept .


A greatly feared Hungarian demon who beats his victims to death.