Grand Duke of Hell, general of the infernal armies and commander of sixty-six legions. He is depicted as a creature with three heads - a cat, a crowned man and a toad. His pudgy torso ends in a spider's legs. Those who invoke him are made alert and cunning and are taught the means of making themselves invisible when necessary.
Demon of the second order. Chief Secretary and Archivist of Hell, master of the Infernal Alliance. He is depicted as a pontiff seated among princes of the infernal regions. Originally he was the Phoenician (Canaanite) god of covenants. He was one of the demons who possessed an Ursuline nun at Aix-en-Provence in 1610.
Captain of the guard and sentinels of Hell.
A demon known as the Keeper of Graves.
One of the names given to Satan, when he appeared in the guise of a great he-goat, for the purpose of love intercourse with the witches.
A demon cited in the Grand Grimoire and head of the infernal powers. It is with him that Johann Weyer commenced his inventory of the famous Pseudomonarchia Daemonum. He alluded to Bael as the first monarch of hell, and said that his estates are situated on the eastern regions thereof. He had three heads, that of a crab, a cat, and a man. Sixty-six legions obey him.
Among the seventy-two spirits of the brazen vessel, as enumerated in the Lesser Key of Solomon, there is a demon called Balam. He features as number fifteen in what some authors refer to as 'the false monarchy of demons.' Judging by the various descriptions of Balam, he is identical with several other demons whose names are given by writers of the same period as Balan, Balaam, and Balemm.
He is described as being a great and terrible king in hell, commanding forty legions of infernal
soldiers. He appears at times with three heads: the middle one is that of a man, while the others are those of animals, usually a bull and a ram. Furthermore, Balam is equipped with a serpent's tail and eyes so fierce that they spit forth fire and flames.
Usually, though, Balam is said to appear as a naked monster riding on a bear. He wears a royal crown, surmounting two long and upward horns, and a pair of extremely hairy ears stick out at right angles from his skull. The sharp, goat-like facial features are enhanced by a long, scraggly beard. His limbs terminate in unnaturally long fingers and toes, capped by sharp-pointed nails that look as deadly as the claws of the goshawk perching on his right wrist.
Balam, once an angel of the Order of Dominations, is quite easily invoked and relatively harmless to deal with. Like many of his species, he answers questions concerning past, present and future events, and he is willing to reveal the secret of invisibility. He is an excellent teacher of the subtle art of cunning, and he imparts wit and finesse to whoever queries him on these matters.
A demon of delusion.
An ancient Indian demon, king of the Daityas . He ruled the sky and the earth, but this power was wrested from him by Vishnu in the avatara of Vamana, the dwarf. Since then he rules the underworld.
One of the demons supposed to have possessed Nicole Aubry of Laon, France, in the year 1566. He went to dine with her husband under the pretext of freeing her from demon possession, which he did not accomplish. It was observed that at supper he did not drink, which showed that demons are averse to water.
Ancient Semitic demon said to sit on the roofs of houses and leap on the inhabitants. People so afflicted were called d'baregara.
According to the medieval hierarchies he was the demon of mechanics.
A great count and duke, who appears when the sun is in Sagittarius with four noble kings and three companies of troops; he gives instructions in all the sciences, reveals treasures concealed by enchantment, knows the past and future, reconciles friends and those in power, and is of the Order of the Virtues. He also understands the songs of birds and the language of other animals
Demon in whose keeping was the secret of the Philosopher's Stone.
One of the three demons in the service of Fleuretty . Duke of the Infernal Regions. He has the appearance of a robust man but his body ends in a serpent's tail. He bestrides a steed of livid colour. He is well versed in the virtues of herbs and precious stones. He is able to transport men from one place to another with wondrous speed. He commands thirty legions. Also known as Marthin.
Named in the grimoire of Honorius as that of a powerful demon whom it addresses as monarch of the western parts of the Infernal Regions. To him the following invocation is addressed; "O King Bayemon, most mighty, who reigneth towards the western parts, I call upon thee and invoke thy name in the name of the Divinity. I command thee in the name of the Most High to present thyself before this circle, thee and the other spirits who are thy subjects, in the name of Passiel and Rosus, for the purpose of replying to all that which I demand of thee. If thou dost not come I will torment thee with a sword of heavenly fire, I will augment thy pains and burn thee. Obey, King Bayemon."
Although ascribed to Pope Honorius III, supported by what is claimed as a Papal Bull authorizing ordained priests to invoke spirits and control demons, this grimoire is denounced by Catholic writers as a forgery. The grimoire became popular among seventeenth-century occult magicians.
The demon who teaches the secret of the Philosopher's Stone. He is but little known. The demon barbu is not to be confused with Barbatos, said to be a Duke in Hades, although not a philosopher; nor with Barbas, who is interested in mechanics. It is said that the bearded demon is so called on account of his remarkable beard.
A demon alluded to in the ancient grimoire The Key of Solomon as having power over the winds and the tempests. He makes hail, thunder and rain.
The scriptures call Beelzebub the 'prince of demons,' and St. Matthew reports that the Pharisees accused Jesus of casting out demons in his name:
'It is only by Beelzebub, the prince of demons, that this man casts out demons'
He was an idol of the Canaanites, and his best known shrine was in the Philistine city of Ekron. When King Ahaziah of Israel consulted his oracle in Ekron, he brought upon himself the wrath of the prophet Elijah.
Baal or Bel means 'lord,' and was a title given to a great number of deities. Beelzebub means 'lord of the flies;' though it is not known if this is a reference to the practice of divination by the flight of flies, or to the idol's power of delivering men from flies which ruined their crops. It may possibly refer to the fact that the god's statue, dripping with sacrificial blood, must have attracted large numbers of flies.
Most medieval demonologists consider him as the sovereign ruler of the infernal empire. One book called In Zodiaco Vitae, describes him as being of prodigious height, sitting on a giant throne. A band of fire encircles his forehead, his chest is swollen, his face puffed up; while sparkling eyes and lifted eyebrows enhance his menacing air. He has cavernous nostrils and two big horns sprout from his head; while large bat wings adorn his back. He has ducks' feet, a lion's tail and is covered from head to foot with thick black hair.
According to the apocryphal Gospel of Nicodemus, Beelzebub was not at first the most powerful potentate of hell. Satan was the 'prince and captain of death.' After Christ's crucifixion, Satan conversed with Beelzebub at the gates of hell, bragging that he was about to bring Jesus down to his infernal abode. He rejoiced as Jesus was an enemy who had deprived him of many a victim. Beelzebub begged his master not to attempt this dangerous feat because 'the very power of His name disturbed him and him impious company.'
"Then Hell, receiving Satan the prince, with sore reproach said unto him: O prince of
perdition and chief of destruction, Beelzebub, the scorn of the angels and spitting of the
righteous why wouldest thou do this? Thou wouldest crucify the King of glory and at
his decease didst promise us great spoils of his death: like a fool thou knewest not what
thou didst. For behold now, this Jesus putteth to flight by the brightness of his majesty
all the darkness of death, and hath broken the strong depths of the prisons, and let out
the prisoners and loosed them that were bound. And all that were sighing in our
torments do rejoice against us, and at their prayers our dominions are vanquished and
our realms conquered, and now no nation of men feareth us any more. And beside this,
the dead which were never wont to be proud triumph over us, and the captives which
never could be joyful do threaten us. O prince Satan, father of all the wicked and
ungodly and renegades wherefore wouldest thou do this? They that from the beginning
until now have despaired of life and salvation - now is none of their wonted roarings
heard, neither doth any groan from them sound in our ears, nor is there any sign of tears
upon the face of any of them. O prince Satan, holder of the keys of hell, those thy
riches which thou hadst gained by the tree of transgression and the losing of paradise,
thou hast lost by the tree of the cross, and all thy gladness hath perished. When thou
didst hang up Christ Jesus the King of glory thou wroughtest against thyself and against
me. Henceforth thou shalt know what eternal torments and infinite pains thou art to
suffer in my keeping for ever. O prince Satan, author of death and head of all pride,
thou oughtest first to have sought out matter of evil in this Jesus: Wherefore didst thou
adventure without cause to crucify him unjustly against whom thou foundest no blame,
and to bring into our realm the innocent and righteous one, and to lose the guilty and the
ungodly and unrighteous of the whole world? And when Hell had spoken thus unto
Satan the prince, then said the King of glory unto Hell: Satan the prince shall be in thy
power unto all ages in the stead of Adam and his children, even those that are my
righteous ones" - Gospel of Nicodemus VII (XXIII)
As they were discussing the matter, a thunderous voice sounding like rushing winds proclaimed: 'Lift up your gates, O ye princes, and the King of Glory shall come in.'
Terrified, Beelzebub pushed Satan away from the mouth of hell, and told him indignantly to fight Jesus by himself if he yearned for a divine conquest so much. Beelzebub then slammed the gates shut, and commanded the rest of the demons to bar the way with all the strength they could muster.
But inside, the souls had heard Christ's booming voice and rushed forward, jostling the fiends,desperately trying to speak to the Saviour. Fear lent the demons enough strength to push the souls back and to barricade the gates even more tightly, but nothing could bar Jesus' way. He trampled over Satan, deprived Beelzebub of his powers, and with a single word, snapped the chains of the imprisoned souls. All the saints held captive in hell were released. They joined hands and flew up to heaven. As Jesus was about to take leave of himself, he turned to Beelzebub and said:
'Satan the prince shall be in thy power unto all ages in the stead of Adam and his
children, even those that are my righteous ones.' - Gospel of Nicodemus VII (XXIII)
In medieval times Beelzebub also had great power. It was very difficult to get rid of him once the conjured demon had appeared. The nineteenth century scholar, MacGregor Mathers, remarked that:
'the invocation to make visible the appearance of such fearful potencies as Amaymon,
Egyn, and Beelzebub would probably result in the death of the exorcist on the spot;
such death presenting the symptoms of one arising from Epilepsy, Apoplexy, or
One of the spells used to conjure up Beelzebub was:
A manuscript containing another appeal to Beelzebub is housed in the British Museum. It says:
'I conjure bind and charge thee by Lucifer
Beelzebub, Sathanas, Jauconill, and by their power,
And by the homage thou owest unto them
And also I charge thee by the triple crown
Of Cerberus' head, by Styx and Phegiton,
By your fellow and private devil Baranter,
That you do torment and punish this disobedient
Demon until you make him come corporally
To my sight and obey my will and
Commandments in whatsoever I shall charge
Or command thee to do. Fiat, Fiat, Fiat.
At witches' sabbaths Beelzebub was lord and master over all the rites, and it was in his name that Jesus was denied. Eucharist was given with the seal of Beelzebub imprinted upon the pieces of bread instead of the symbol of Christ. The witches then chanted:
'Belsabub goity, Belsabub beyty'
meaning 'Beelzebub above, Beelzebub below.' After forming a semicircle around the altar and lying flat on the ground, they swallowed 'two mouthfuls of an infernal medicine and brew, of so foul a flavour that they sweated to swallow it, and so cold it froze them.' Beelzebub then copulated with all the participants and this triggered the commencement of a frenzied orgy.
In the seventeenth century, Beelzebub along with a host of other demons possessed the nun, Sister Madeleine de Demandoix, of the Ursuline Convent near Aix-en-Provence. In his power, the wretched nun was compelled to writhe on the floor exposing her genitals. She also had gruesome visions of sodomy and cannibalism. Beelzebub was finally exorcised, never to return to that convent again.
The Apocryphal Book of Enoch gives the following description of this monster's origins:
'And that day will two monsters be parted, one monster, a female named Leviathan in
order to dwell in the abyss of the ocean over the fountains of water; and (the other), a
male called Behemoth, which holds his chest in an invisible desert whose name is
Dundayin, east of the garden of Eden.' - 1 Enoch 60:7-8
According to the Islamic tradition, when God created the earth, he realized that it was not secure. To stabilize it, he placed under it first an angel, then a huge rock made of ruby, then a bull with four thousand eyes, ears, nostrils, mouths, tongues, and feet. But even the bull did not stand firm. So below it God placed Behemoth, who rested on water which was surrounded by darkness.
Some authors have identified Behemoth with the Egyptian deity Taueret. She was a hippopotamus goddess with whom we are acquainted through the writings of the Greek historian, Herodotus.
The most powerful description of Behemoth is found in the Book of Job (Job 40:15-24):
which I made as I made you;
he eats grass like an ox.
Behold, his strength is in his loins,
and his power in the muscles of his belly.
He makes his tail stiff like a cedar;
the sinews of his thighs are knit together.
His bones are tubes of bronze,
his limbs like bars of iron.
He is the first of the works of God;
let him who made him bring near his sword!
For the mountains yield food for him
where all the wild beast play.
Under the lotus plant he lies,
in the covert of the reeds and in the marsh.
For his shade the lotus tree covers him
the willows of the brook surround him.
Behold, if the river is turbulent he is not frightened;
he is confident though Jordan rushes against his mough.
Can one take him with hooks,
or pierce his nose with a snare?'
The Rabbinical tradition has somewhat alleviated the fear of Behemoth by prophesying an end for the beast. He is described as the deadly enemy of Leviathan, and on the Day of Judgement, 'Behemoth will slay, and be slain by a gigantic whale. For his fate is to furnish the meat for the Messiah's feast, and this food the Lord will distribute among the faithful.'
Behemoth is not mentioned in the most complete of the many medieval demonic hierarchies, the Pseudomonarchia Daemonum. Although the author, Johann Weyer, does talk about the monster in another work called De Praestigiorum Daemonum. In that book, Weyer speculates that Behemoth might very well be a representation of the vast powers of the archfiend Satan himself.
But a number of medieval demonologists do place Behemoth in their infernal hierarchies; though they mostly describe him as an overweight and rather stupid demon, whose domains are gluttony and the pleasures of the belly. They add that in hell his functions correspond to those of a headwaiter, or the caretaker of wine cellars. Belancre, a renowned French demonologist, maintains that Behemoth is not a monstrous animal of evil, but rather a spirit who likes to take on the shapes of extremely large animals. According to the same authority, Behemoth is also able to disguise himself perfectly as a cat, a dog, a fox, or a wolf.
A great king and terrible, riding on a pale horse, before whom go trumpets and all melodious music. He commands eighty-five legions. He is very furious when first summoned, and must be commanded into a triangle or circle with the hazel wand of the Magician pointed to the South-East. He must be received courteously and with homage, but a silver ring must be worn on the middle finger of the left hand, which must be held against the face. He procures love between man and woman, and is of the Order of the Powers.
'Never has Hell received a more dissolute, more heinous, more worthless spirit, or one more in love with vice for vice's sake!'
The demon thus characterized by a medieval writer is Belial (Beliar is the Greek equivalent of the Hebrew), the demon of lies. His name is derived from the Hebrew 'beli ya'al,' meaning 'without worth.' He is said to have been created immediately after Lucifer himself, and was one of the first angels to revolt against God. This is why he was expelled from heaven. He was partly of the Order of the Virtues and partly of the Order of the Angels.
Among certain sections of the Jews, Belial was considered the chief of all the devils. In The War of the Sons of Light and the Sons of Darkness, one of the Dead Sea scrolls, Belial is the leader of the Sons of Darkness:
'But for corruption thou hast made Belial, an angel of hostility. All his dominions are in
darkness, and his purpose is to bring about wickedness and guilt. All the spirits are
associated with him are but angels of destruction.'
Belial is also mentioned in the Fragments of a Zadokite Work, which states that at the time of the Antichrist, "Belial shall be let loose against Israel, as God spake through Isaiah the prophet." (6:9). The Fragments also speak of "three nets of Belial" which are said to be fornication, wealth, and pollution of the sanctuary. (6:10-11) In this work, Belial is sometimes presented as an agent of divine punishment and sometimes as a rebel, as Mastema is. It was Belial who inspired the Egyptian sorcerers, Jochaneh and his brother, to oppose Moses and Aaron. The Fragments also say that anyone who is ruled by the spirits of Belial and speaks of rebellion should be condemned as a necromancer and wizard.
Belial is also mentioned in the Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs. The author of the work seems to be a dualist because he presents Belial as God's opponent, not as a servant, but does not mention how or why this came to be. Simeon 5:3 says that fornication separates man from God and brings him near to Beliar. Levi tells his children to choose between the Law of God and the works of Beliar (Levi 19:1) It also states that when the soul is constantly disturbed, the Lord departs from it and Beliar rules over it. Naphtali (2:6, 3:1) contrasts the Law and will of God with the purposes of Beliar. Also, in 20:2, Joseph prophesies that when Israel leaves Egypt, they will be with God in light while Beliar will remain in darkness with the Egyptians. Finally, the Testament describes that when the Messiah comes, the angels will punish the spirits of deceit and Beliar (3:3) and that the Messiah will bind Beliar and give to his children the power to trample the evil spirits (18:12).
In the Martyrdom of Isaiah, Belial is the angel of lawlessness and is the ruler of this world.
"And Manasseh turned aside his heart to serve Beliar; for the angel of lawlessness, who
is the ruler of this world, is Beliar, whose name is Matanbuchus." - Martyrdom of
According to the medieval hierarchies, Belial was a king in hell, where he commanded eighty legions of demons. He appears in the form of a beautiful angel seated on a chariot of fire-belching dragons. To conjure Belial, one must make offerings and sacrifices to him. He answers in the most suave and pleasant of voices, but this is deceptive. Unless one keeps him in check by continually invoking the name of God, this Belial deceives all and sundry. To those successful in gaining his friendship, it is said that he distributes favours and preferences, and gives excellent familiars. Belial is also supposed to be the infernal ambassador to Turkey.
Belphegor was originally a Moabite deity called Baal-Peor, who was adored on Mount Phegor. For his generative and productive powers he was worshipped in the form of a phallus.
In the Kabbalah, Belphegor is the archdemon of the Togarini, whose name means the 'wranglers.' MacGregor Mathers, in his book The Kabbalah Unveiled, lists him as the sixth of the evil Sephiroth, who were the demonic counterparts of the ten divine Sephiroth, or emanations of the substance of God.
A medieval legend tells how Belphegor set forth from hell to investigate rumours concerning the happiness and misery of married couples on earth. For a while he lived among men, imitating all the intimacies that men experienced. He is said to have fled back to hell in horror, happy that intercourse between men and women did not exist there. This is the reason why the name of Belphegor is sometimes applied to misogynists and licentious men.
But his dislike of women seems to be contradicted by a number of demonologists who maintain that he usually appeared in the form of a beautiful young girl. He was difficult to summon, though it was known that he distributed riches with great generosity, if the conjuror was agreeable to him. His gifts were also the power of discovery and ingenious invention. He was sometimes depicted as a naked woman and sometimes as a hideous demon with a gaping mouth, beard and with horns and painted nails.
In the Dictionnaire Infernal, De Plancy mentions that several rabbis maintained that Belphegor was paid homage to sit on a 'pierced chair,' because excrement was the usual sacrificial offering to this demon.
According to Dom Jacques Martin (1684-1751) in his Religion de Gaulois (1727), "chief deviless" of a certain Sabbatic meeting held in France in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. She was, he says, the Diana of the Ancient Gauls, and was also called Nocticula, Herodias, and "The Moon." One finds in the manuscripts of the church at Couserans that the ladies of the fourteenth century were said to go on horseback to nocturnal revelries of Bensozia. All of them were forced to inscribe their names in a Sabbatic catalog along with those sorcerers proper, and after this ceremony they believed themselves to be fairies. There was found at Montmorillin in Poitou, in the eighteenth century, a portion of an ancient temple, a bas-relief with the figure of a naked woman carved upon it, and it is not unlikely, according to J. Collin de Plancy (author of Dictionnaire infernal, 6th ed., 1803) that this figure was the original deity of the Bensozia cult.
According to the detailed description of the seventy-two major demons, as put forth in the
Lemegeton, or the Lesser Key of Solomon, Berith takes his place among the truly powerful spirits. Weyer mentions that this demon was also called Beal, while certain necromancers knew him as Bofi or Bolfri. In hell, he was ranked as a duke having command over twenty-six legions of minor demons.
He appears clad in a soldier's uniform, wears a golden crown and is mounted on a red horse. He can only be safely summoned with the help of magic rings, bearing his specific seal. Berith's voice is clear and persuasive, but he is a notorious liar. Anything he says must be weighed with great care, though he does reveal the past and the future. Berith also has the power to transmute all base metals into gold; thus he is sometimes known as the demon helper to the unscrupulous alchemists. Lured by a handsome reward, he will ensure that great public dignities and manifold riches are bestowed upon the conjuror. Finally, he possesses the rather singular power of lending clarity of sound and ease of elocution to the voices of singers.
In books on magical recipes, Berith is associated with a method of conjuring him under a form
resembling a mandragora. On a Monday night a black chicken is bled at a crossroads. One must say: 'Berith will do all my work for twenty years and I shall recompense him.' Or else one may write the spell on a piece of virgin parchment with the chicken's blood. The demon thus evoked will appear the same day, and put himself completely at the conjuror's disposal. But after twenty years, Berith will claim his reward for services rendered.
Indian demon, master of souls that roam through space after being changed into airy demons. It is said to have crooked nails with which it lopped off one of Brahma's heads.
A Hindu demon goddess. She is a form of Parvati.
A little-known demon, chief of a legion who was said to have entered the body of Denise de la Caille and who was obliged to sign with his claws the proces verbal of exorcisms.
He often takes the form of a man well versed in astrology and planetary influences. He excels in geometry, is acquainted with the virtues of herbs, precious stones and plants. He can transport corpses from one place to another. It is he who lights the strange corpse lights above the tombs of the dead. He commands twenty-six legions.
Great Prince of Hell. He appears in the form of a leopard with the wings of a griffon. When adopting a human form, it is invariably one of great beauty. It is he who awakes lust in the human heart. He commands seventy legions. Also known as Sytry.
Known as the Grand Enticer of Thieves, he eventually leads all of his followers to destruction.
One of the two demons said to have been successfully exorcised from Elisabeth Allier in 1639 by Francois Faconnet.
The two demons who had possessed her for twenty years admitted that they had entered her body by means of a crust of bread which they had put into her mouth when she was seven. They fled from her body in the presence of the Holy Sacrament. The other demon's name was Orgeuil .
A great president and earl, who appears like a horrid viper, but when commanded, assumes a human shape, with large teeth and horns. He bears a sharp sword in his hand, discerns past, present and future, and reconciles friends and foes. One of the three demons in the service of Agaliarept .
A great president and demon of the second order. He has the form of a star, though sometimes depicted with the head of a lion and the feet of a goat. He is gifted with a knowledge of philosophy and of the virtues of medicinal herbs. He gives domestic felicity and health to the sick. He is in charge of fifteen legions. Also one of the three demons in service to Agaliarept . He appears when the Sun is in Sagittarius.
Grand Duke of the infernal regions. He speaks only by sign. His form is that of a man. He removes corpses, haunts cemeteries, and marshals the demons around tombs and the places of the dead. Commander of thirty infernal legions. He enriches and renders eloquent those who serve him. The demons under his authority are called Bunis, and regarded by the Tatars as exceedingly evil. Their power is great and their number immense. But their sorcerers are ever in communication with these demons by means of whom they carry on their dark practices. He has also been depicted as a three-headed dragon, the heads being respectively those of a dog, griffin and man.
In Zoroastrian mythology, the yellow demon of lethargy and sloth. He is the evil genius which causes men to oversleep and to neglect their religious duties.
An evil demon in Indonesian mythology. A demon with hooked teeth is called Buta Cakil.
An ancient Persian demon of laziness who tries to prevent people from working. He is one of the Daevas .