Alii daemones malos virtute divinorum nominum adjuratos,
advocare solent, atque haec est illa Necromantiae species quae
dicitur malefica: vel in Theurgiam, quae quasi bonis Angelis,
divinoque numine regitur (ut nonnulli putant) cum saepissime
tamen sub Dei, et Angelorum nominibus malis Daemonorum
One of three demons in the service of Satanachia , commander of the first legion of Hell.
"The Destroyer", from a Hebrew word meaning "destruction." An angel of hell known as Sovereign of the Bottomless Pit or King of Demons and is Chief of the demons of the seventh hierarchy. Abaddon is the name given by St. John in the Apocalypse to the king of the grasshoppers. In greek, Abaddon is known as Apollyon (Revelations, ix, 11).
An Arabic demon said to be the lord of slaves and slavery. His name is derived from the Arabic word 'Abd', meaning 'slave'.
According to the Enochian tradition, Abduxuel is one of the demonic rulers of the lunar mansions.
A Grand Duke of Hades, he commands sixty of the infernal legions. He is depicted in the form of a handsome knight, bearing lance, standard, or sceptre. He is a demon of the superior order, and responds readily to questions concerning war. He can foretell the future, and instructs leaders how to make themselves respected by the soldiers. Also called Abigar.
The Basilidian sect of the Gnostics of the second century claimed Abraxas as their supreme god, and said that Jesus Christ was only a phantom sent to earth by him. They believed that his name contained great mysteries, as it was composed of the seven Greek letters which form the number 365, which is also the number of days in a year. Abraxas, they thought, had under his command 365 gods, to whom they attributed 365 virtues, one for each day. The older mythologists placed him among the number of Egyptian gods, and demonologists have described him as a demon, with the head of a rooster, a huge belly, a knotted tail and serpents instead of legs. He is represented on ancient amulets, with a whip in his hand. It is from his name that the mystic word, Abracadabra, is taken. Also called Abrasax or Abracax.
The Babylonian god of the storm. Also called Adad.
Johann Weyer, a sixteenth century demonologist and pupil and friend of the famous magus Cornelius Agrippa, places Adramelech among the chieftains of hell in his book Pseudomonarchia Daemonum (an attempt to provide a complete hierarchy of infernal spirits). According to this account, Adramelech was the Grand Chancellor of the infernal empire, and in this role, presided over the Devils' general council. He was also in charge of the sovereign's wardrobe. He often shows himself in the guise of a mule and sometimes in that of a peacock.
In MacGregor Mather's Kabbalah Denudata, Adramelech is listed among the ten archdemons who were under the supreme command of Sammael , the 'venom of God.' According to that hierarchy, Adramelech was the eighth of the ten evil Sephiroth. He is thus the counterpart or negation of the eighth divine Sephiroth Hod, who is 'majesty and glory.'
Not much is known of Adramalech's origins. The Old Testament contains two incidents in which the name of Adramelech occurs. The first one narrates how the Assyrian King Sennacherib, returning from a disastrous expedition against the Israelite King, Hezekiah, was murdered by his two sons, Adramalech and Sharezer, as he was worshipping in the temple of his idol, Nisrach.
The other version makes Adramelech a Samarian deity, a sun god worshipped by the Sepharvites, who burned their children as sacrificial offerings to him. It is possible that this Samarian deity was the origin of the demon Adramelech.
In the Enochian tradition, a demon of the mansions of the moon.
One of the six classes of demons identified by medieval theologians. They roam through the air but remain close to human beings. They can fashion bodies for themselves from thin air. Moved by passion like men, they can cause natural disturbances. They can be invoked by sorcerers, and often change shape.
One of seven archangels of the Persians. Has been recorded in history for at least three thousand years. Aeshma is known as the 'fiend of the wounding spear,' (Yasht xi.15) and is the demon of wrath and fury.
Aeshma was later adopted into the Hebrew mythology as Asmodeus.
A serpent identified by the Scythians with archfiend Ahriman.
A Grand General of Hell, commander of the second legion and possessed of the power to discover all secrets. He commands Buer , Guseyn <>, and Botis .
Grand Duke of the eastern regions of Hell, commander of thirty-one legions. The army he protects in battle is indeed fortunate, for he disperses their enemies, and puts new courage into the hearts of the cowards who fly before superior numbers. He distributes place and power, titles and prelacies, teaches all languages, is an inciter of dancing among terrestrial beings, and has other equally remarkable powers. He is of the Order of the Virtues. Shown under the form of a benevolent lord mounted on a crocodile, and carrying a hawk on his fist. Also Aguares.
A familiar demon which was said to appear only at midday. It took the shape of a man or a beast, or even enclosed itself in a talisman, bottle, or magic ring.
The great spirit of evil praised by Giosue Carducci in his hymn to Satan (`Inno a Satana,' 1863).
Demon of fear.
One of Satan's wives and demoness of whores.
In Assyrian demonology, these are evil vampires.
(The Seizer). Little is known of this ancient Semitic demon unless it is the same ahazie told of in medical texts, where a man can be stricken by a disease bearing this name.
A Mayan demon.
In the ancient Persian religion (Zoroastrianism), Ahriman (aka Arimanius or Angra Mainya) stood high in the ranks of the enemies who opposed Ohrmazd (aka Ahura Mazda or Oromasdes). Ahriman is thought to be the first personification of "the Devil" because Zoroastrians believed in a completely dualistic form of religion.
There are four major stands in Zoroastrianism. The first is that of Zarathustra (Zoroaster). The
second is of the teachings of Mazdaism, which made Ahriman creator and leader of the daevas . The third is that of Zeravanism, and the fourth is that of the Magi.
Zarathustra believed that one of the ahuras, Ahura Mazda, was the supreme god, and chose to be good, while Ahriman chose to be evil. Therefore, the daevas that opposed the ahuras chose to be evil as well, and were commonly thought of as demons. All things in Zoroastrianism have free will and choose whether they want to be good or evil.
In Mazdaist traditions, in the beginning there were two spirits, Ohrmazd and Ahriman. These two spirits were separated by a void. Ohrmazd was thought to be characterized by goodness, light, and he was unlimited in time but not in space. He was free of all evil, and does not create or willingly tolerate evil. Ahriman was represented as evil and limited by time because he knew eventually Ohrmazd would defeat him, and he was also limited by space.
Because there was a void separating the two, in the beginning, Ohrmazd knew of Ahriman but
Ahriman did not know of Ohrmazd. Ohrmazd wanted to free himself from his own limitation in
space, but he knew that by doing so, he would have to initiate a struggle with Ahriman, which he did not want to do. In time, though, Ahriman saw a light across the void and envied and lusted for it. He then created the evil things of this world (such as the daevas ) to fight against the good things Ohrmazd created. Ohrmazd offered Ahriman peace if Ahriman would worship the good things Ohrmazd created, but Ahriman refused, and Ohrmazd showed Ahriman his inevitable fate. Ahriman was stunned and fell into the void for a period of time. When he awakened, he engaged in war with Ohrmazd, which Ohrmazd won and finally destroyed Ahriman.
In the Zeranism tradition, there is one ur-principle called Zurvan, who is the All. He contains all good and evil, and is also infinite in time. Zurvan then wishes for a son, and so his wife, who is actually the female half of his androgynous nature, gives birth to two sons. One (Ohrmazd) is the product of love and desire, while the other (Ahriman) is the result of a moment of doubt. Ahriman is born first and assumes the birth rite. In this way Ahriman was Ohrmazd's brother, and they each held equal sway over the world.
Ahriman created all the maladies of life, and prided himself on the feat of having conjured ninety-nine thousand, nine hundred and ninety-nine diseases to plague the earth. He also attempted and failed to change the Persian religion by maiming the divine prophet Zarathustra. He first sent the demon Buiti to kill Zarathustra, but the prophet chanted aloud the Ahuna-Vairya, and the demon fled back to Ahriman. Ahriman himself then 'rushed forth from the regions of the North to lure away the Prophet from the path of righteousness,' but the prophet resisted the temptation and affirmed that he would never do the bidding of Ahriman.
For all that Ohrmazd created, Ahriman created either the evil opposite, or he turned the good to excess:
The author foul of evil, how with shades
From his dire mansion, he deform'd the works
Of Oromazes; turn'd to noxious heat
The solar beam, that foodful Earth might parch,
That streams exhaling might forsake their beds,
Whence pestilence and famine...
If the hand of Oromazes, on precarious life
Shed wealth and pleasure, swift the infernal God
With wild excess, or avarice, blasts the joy.
But yet at last, shall Arimanius fall
Before his might, and evil be no more.'
Later texts refer to Ahura Mazda as having created six (sometimes seven) Amesha Spenta, or archangels. Angra Mainya also created a council of six (sometimes seven) archdemons. The archdemons (daevas ) are known as Aka Manah, Indra, Sauru, Taurvi, Zairitsha, and Naonhaithya (the seventh is Aeshma).
Eventually, Ahriman will be defeated by the coming of a Saoshyant or Saviour. Ancient texts refer to three great souls who are designated to be Saoshyants. The third of these will destroy evil and bring forth the reign of righteousness. The coming is referred to in the Farvardin Yasht, which says he will be the son of Zarathustra and will be conceived through a virgin called 'the all-destroying' (Yasht xiii.142; Vendidad xix.5). He will be assisted by his friends, who are fiend-smiting, well-thinking, well-speaking, well-doing, and whose tongues have never uttered a word of falsehood (Yasht xiii.142).
After this, the world will be restored, the dead will arise, and life and immortality will come.
"With the disappearance of evil from the universe, good will prevail everywhere
and for all time; and the accursed name of Angra Mainya will be forgotten. Ahura
Mazda will be for ever, even as he has been from all eternity" (Yasht xix.11,12).
A strong duke, who appears with the body of a handsome man and three heads, the first like a serpent, the second like a man, with two stars on the forehead, and the third like a cat. He rides on a viper, and carries a blazing firebrand with which he spreads destruction. He imparts much cunning, and gives true answers concerning private matters.
A little Lithuanian demon who appears in the shape of a black cat or a black cock. He will give goods and money to those who sell their souls to him; things he stole from other people. Aitvaras usually nests behind the stove, and the inhabitants often leave food and drink for him.
Burmese evil spirits that inhabit trees.
One of the leaders of the angels who, according to the Book of Enoch, swore allegiance to
In Assyrian demonology, evil spirits. They are demons of destruction.
A cruel demon, who, according to Johann Weyer, filled the post of chief executioner to the monarch of Hades. The conception of him somewhat resembles that of Nemesis. Zoroaster is said to have called him "The Executioner." He was originally a mortal, the son of Neleus, king of Pylos. He became a (minor) demon when he and his brothers were slain by Heracles. Others confound him with the destroying angel. Evil genies were formerly called Alastors. Plutarch says that Cicero, who bore a grudge against Augustus, conceived the plan of committing suicide on the emperor's hearth, and thus becoming his Alastor.
An Egyptian demon presiding over the tempests, earthquakes, rainstorms, hailstorms, etc. It is he, also, who sinks ships. When he appears in visible form he takes the shape of a woman.
In old Scandinavian folklore, a term for a being that is half god, half dwarf. In later mythology it degrades to a demon that only causes nightmares and diseases. In Germany it is pronounced as 'alb'. A reference to the word can be found in the Nibelungen Saga, where the king of the dwarves is called Alberich.
One of three demons serving Fleuretty .
In Sumero-Akkadian religion, one of the names of the evil demon, Death. He is the offspring and servant of Ereshkigal. His more familiar name is Namtar (Namtary). In Assyro-Babylonian religion, Allatu is the goddess of the underworld, consort of Bel, and later the consort of Nergal .
A Grand Duke of Hell, commander of thirty-six legions. He appears in the shape of a lion-headed knight mounted on an enormous horse. His face has a ruddy complexion and burning eyes and he speaks with much gravity. He is said to give family happiness to those whom he takes under his protection, and to teach astronomy and liberal arts.
A female demon who is also a succubus and vampire who exhausts men and drives them to suicide.
An angel or demon, who, according to the Talmud, presides over fruit trees.
Female demons or sorceresses, the mothers of the Huns in ancient Germany. They took all sorts of shapes, but without changing their sex.
Ancient Babylonian demon, said to owe his parentage to a human being; he hides himself in caverns and corners, and slinks through the streets at night. He also lies in wait for the unwary, and at night enters bed-chambers and terrorizes folk, threatening to pounce upon them if they shut their eyes.
Also called Amaymon. One of the four spirits who preside over the four parts of the universe. Amaimon is the governor of the eastern part, according to the grimoire or magic manual of the Lemegeton of Solomon, also known as the Little Key.
One of the demons who possessed Sister Jeanne des Anges. Aman was among the first of
the demons whom she managed to expel.
According to the Book of Enoch, one of the leaders of the two hundred angels who
rebelled against God and swore allegiance to Samiaza.
A Grand Duke of Hell, commander of twenty-nine legions. He has the form of a unicorn, but when evoked, appears in human shape. He gives concerts, at the command of men, where one hears the sound of all kinds of instruments but can see nothing. It is said that the trees themselves bend to his voice., and is a producer of disturbing music.
A marquis of hell and strongest of the demon princes, commander of forty legions. Depicted as a wolf-headed demon with a serpents tail, vomiting flame. When in human form, his head resembles that of a large owl with canine teeth. He knows the past and the future, and can reconcile friends who have quarreled.
One of the four kings of Hades, of which the eastern part falls to his share. He is invoked in the morning from nine to twelve and in the evening from three to six. He has been identified with Amaimon. Asmodeus is his lieutenant and the first prince of his dominions.
According to an ancient grimoire, Grand President of Hades, and one of the princes of the infernal monarchy. He appears there enveloped with flame, but on earth, in human form. He teaches the secrets of astrology and of the liberal arts, and gives faithful servants. He reveals to those who possess his favour the hiding place of treasures guarded by demons. Thirty-six of the infernal legions are under his command. The fallen angels acknowledge his orders, and he hopes that at the end of 20,000 years he shall return to heaven to occupy the seventh throne.
Bearer of ill news. He was worshipped at Sepharvahim, a town of the Assyrians. He reveals himself in the figure of a quail. His name, we are told, signified a "good king", and some authorities declare that this demon was the moon, as Andramalech is the sun.
One of the demons charged with the guardianship of subterranean treasures, which he carries about from one place to another, to hide them from men.. It is he who, with his companions Gaziel and Fecor, shakes the foundations of houses, raises tempests, rings the bells at midnight, causes spectres to appear, and inspires a thousand terrors.
A little known demon, who, during the possession of the nuns of Louviers, in 1643, was said to have occupied the body of Sister Barbara of St. Michael.
A Hindu demon.
A Grand Marquis of Hell, commander of thirty legions. Depicted as an owl head with the body of a winged angel, riding a black wolf and brandishing a pointed sabre. He teaches those whom he favours to kill their enemies, masters and servants. He sows discord and will kill the unwary.
A mighty marquis, appears at first in the shape of a peacock, with a great noise, but after puts on human shape. He teaches geometry perfectly and all that belongs to measurements, astronomy included. He can transform men into the likeness of a bird.
A great duke and earl, appears in the form of a man holding a serpent in his hand. He returns stolen goods and the thief, discovers all wickedness and underhand dealing, as also hidden treasures.
Demon of the mines, known principally in Germany. On one occasion he killed with his breath twelve miners who were working in a silver mine of which he had charge. He was a wicked and terrible demon, sometimes represented as a large goat, sometimes as a horse, with an immense neck and frightful eyes.
Apaosa (Apa-urta) is a demon who brings drought and aridity. He rides on a black, bald horse. Eventually he was defeated by the god Tistrya. He is equal to the Indian evil spirit Vritra.
"Short Wave". One of two ocean demons who are greatly feared by Polynesian mariners because they are at the mercy of their immense power. The other demon is Aremata-Rorua.
"Long Wave". One of two Polynesian ocean demons greatly feared by mariners because they are at the mercy of their immense power. The other one is Aremata-Popoa.
Demon of vengeance, according to some demonologists. He is different from Alastor, and occupies himself only with vengeance in particular cases where he is employed for that purpose.
A Persian sorcerer who was killed by a thunderbolt (according to Abdias of Babylon) at the same hour as the martyrdom of St. Simon and St. Jude.
In the account of the possession of the nuns of Loudun there is a demon Arphaxat, who took possession of the body of Louise de Pinterville.
Asmodeus seems to be Persian in origin and may be identical to the demon Aeshma, one of the seven archdemons of Persian mythology. According to that tradition, he visited heaven every day to eavesdrop on the angels' conversations.
The Latinized version of his name may be derived from the Hebrew, Ashmedai or Shamad ('to destroy'), and it is among the Jews that Asmodeus achieved his highest degree of power. He belongs to the order of the Seraphim, the highest order of angels, from whence he fell. He is the son of Naamah and Shamdon. In his female incarnation, Asmodeus is the spirit of lust and the beautiful sister of Tubal-Cain. Often portrayed as an ugly man endowed with a pair of large wings, Asmodeus inspires men with such lust that they betray their wives.
This demon appears first in the apocryphal Book of Tobit, which tells how Asmodeus fell in love with a beautiful young woman and wanted to possess her. Sarah, the daughter of Raguel, had already been married to seven men, but the jealous demon had slain each one of them before the marriage could be consummated, Sarah was so deeply grieved that she thought of hanging herself, however, she did not want to bring disgrace and sorrow to her father, who was in old age. Praying fervently to God, she begged Him to have pity on her.
The Lord heard her prayer and sent the archangel Raphael to earth to help her new suitor, Tobias, the son of Tobit, to overcome the demon. Raphael taught the young man to prepare a charm by burning the heart and liver of the glanos fish, with incense made from tamarish wood. After the marriage ceremony, the newlyweds retired to their chambers, and Tobias did as the archangel had instructed him. When Asmodeus entered the room to kill the new husband, the odour of the burning incense drove him away.
Asmodeus is best known for his help in building King Solomon's Temple. This story is told in the Testament of Solomon, and in a number of other ancient sources on magic and demons. When the Temple was being built, a demon plagued a boy by taking his pay and food, and making him sick. This boy was a favourite of Solomon. When the king heard the complaints, he went into the temple to pray for a night and a day so that he might gain power over the demon. The archangel Michael appeared to Solomon and gave him a magic ring which was inscribed with the powerful pentacle. This enabled the owner to command all spirits. With the help of this formidable weapon, the King freed the boy from the demon, and then proceeded to use the ring to call other demons to help complete the Temple.
According to the Aggadah, a traditional collection of Hebrew folklore, Asmodeus was the third demon to be conjured up. Solomon knew that Asmodeus was a particularly brutal captive. By hurling insults and thrusting the magic ring in his face, the King forced the demon to reveal the spell which would protect from the fiend's evil influence.
One day the King asked Asmodeus wherein the greatness of demons lay if their prince could be kept in bonds like a mortal. Asmodeus replied that if Solomon would remove the chains and lend him his magic ring, he would prove his greatness. When he was released, the demon seized Solomon, flung him out of Jerusalem and set himself up as king.
When Solomon returned, he surrounded himself by other demons and finally fell prey to their evil influence. He fell in love with a woman from the Shumannite tribe. Although there is very little information concerning this, it seems most likely that this woman was goaded in her seduction by Lilith , the queen of demons and equal in power to Asmodeus. For her sake, Solomon built a temple to Baal , sacrificed to Moloch , and thus fell one of the great wise men, perhaps the greatest of all magi.
During the Middle Ages, Asmodeus was considered an evil spirit who caused men to be unfaithful. He plotted against the newly-wed, and wasted the beauty of virgins.
It seems that despite Christianity, Asmodeus lost none of his evil energies, and he was much
dreaded. It took a figure of truly great power, such as John the Baptist, to help the tempted man oppose this demon. Sister Elizabeth, one of the Louviers nuns, was said to have been possessed by Asmodeus. He was supposedly sent to trouble her by two witches, Father Picard and Sister Madeleine Bavent.
Paul Lucas, a medieval writer and traveller, describes meeting Asmodeus during one of his journeys through Egypt. The Courier de L' Egypte reports that at the time many Egyptians still adored the serpent Asmodeus. The serpent had a temple in the desert of Ryanneh. There he was said to cut himself into pieces, and to reappear immediately afterwards, healed and whole.
The medieval demonologists ranked him high in the hierarchy of hell, calling him 'a strong and
powerful king disposing of seventy-two legions.' He is described as possessing three heads: the first one resembling that of a bull, the second that of a man, and the third that of a ram. He has the tail of a serpent, the feet of a goose, and fiery breath. Carrying a banner and a lance, he appears mounted on a dragon. Asmodeus bequeaths his followers with rings engraved with planetary symbols. He teaches men the difficult but useful art of becoming invisible, as well as instructing them in geometry, arithmetic, astronomy, and the mechanical sciences. He has vast knowledge concerning buried treasures, and can be forced to reveal their site with the help of appropriate spells and incantations.
Astaroth is the name given to the male, medieval incarnation of the ancient demon goddess Astoreth, as the Hebrews call her, or Astarte as she was known to the Phoenicians.
He was said to appear in the guise of an ugly angel, riding on a dragon and holding a viper in his left hand. Johann Weyer's hierarchy describes Astaroth as a very powerful grand duke in hell, where he held the office of great treasurer and commanded forty legions. In the hierarchy of the fallen angels he ranks as the 'prince of thrones.' Always desirous to sit idle and be at ease, he is a great lover of sloth. For that reason he can best be frustrated by appealing to St. Bartholomew for help. Further medieval sources specify that he resides in the Occident, that he procures the friendship of the great lords, and that he has to be invoked on Wednesdays between the tenth and the eleventh hours of the night.
When the demon appears, it is wise not to approach too closely because of the infernal stench
emanating from him, although one can protect oneself from the fetid odour by holding a magic ring under one's nose. Astaroth willingly answers questions concerning the past and the future. He is willing to make discourse on great secrets, and he loves to talk about the Creation and the Fall, or the faults of the angels. In his conversations, he stresses most emphatically that he himself has been punished unjustly, and that some day he will once again take his rightful place among the heavenly angels. He is also said to be a very good teacher of the liberal arts and or most sciences.
The Persian demon of death whom no human escapes. Together with Aesma Daeva he chases and tries to catch the souls of the deceased with a noose when they rise to heaven.
"Demon princes". A group of Jain (one of the great classical religions of India) gods associated with rain and thunder.
A Prince of Hell, commander of thirty-six legions, foreseer of the future. Depicted as a standing vulture or eagle.
In Armenian mythology, Ays is an evil demon and the personification of the wind. In this form he is able to enter the body of a human being, who will either go mad or become a demon himself. Ays belongs to the Dev, a group of immortal spirits.
One of the angels who revolted against God. The rabbis say that he is chained on sharp stones in an obscure part of the desert, awaiting the last judgement.
According to Johann Weyer, Azazel is a demon of the second order and the principal standard bearer of the infernal armies.
Azazel is the chief of the Se'irim, or goat-demons, who haunted the desert and to whom most primitive Semitic (most likely non-Hebrew) tribes offered sacrifices. The Old Testament states that Jeroboam appointed priests for the Se'irim. But Josiah destroyed the places of their worship, as the practices accompanying this worship involved copulation of women with goats.
The Se'irim, or hairy demons as the word itself means, are mentioned in Leviticus 17:7 and 2 Chronicles 11:15 as "goat-demons". Isaiah 34:14 says that the "goat-demons" greet each other among the ruins of Edom along with Lilith and other wild beasts.
The name 'Azazel' may be derived from 'azaz' and 'el' meaning 'strong one of God.' It is thought that Azazel may have been derived from the Canaanite god, 'Asiz, who caused the sun to burn strongly. It has also been theorized that he has been influenced by the Egyptian god, Seth.
In Leviticus 16:8 we are told that the Lord ordered his high priest, Aaron, to 'place lots upon the two goats, one marked for the Lord and the other marked for Azazel' on the Jewish Day of Atonement. The goat designated by lot for the Lord is to be used as a sin offering, while the goat designated for Azazel "shall be left standing alive before the Lord, to make expiation with it and to send it off to the wilderness for Azazel." (Lev 16:10) Aaron was to "lay both his hands upon the head of the live goat and confess over it all the iniquities and transgressions of the Israelites, whatever their sins, putting them on the head of the goat; and it shall be sent off to the wilderness through a designated an. Thus the goat shall carry on it all their iniquities to an inaccessible region; and the goat shall be set free in the wilderness." (Lev 16:21-22) Leviticus also says that "He who set the Azazel-goat free shall wash his clothes and bathe his body in water; after that he may reenter the camp." (16:26)
From this passage in Leviticus, it would seem that Azazel is conceived of as a personal being, as lots were drawn for the Lord and for him. Also, Leviticus mentions that Azazel lives in the wilderness, as do the Se'irim. Because of this ritual, Azazel is known as the "scapegoat." The goat that is sent to Azazel is not as a sacrifice, but as a symbol that there is no longer any unexpiated guilt. Both the goat and the man who leads away the goat are unclean, and the only way the man can reenter the camp is by washing his clothes and bathing.
In the Book of Enoch, Azazel is the leader of the horde of the Watchers - the sleepless angels. In the time preceding the flood, these angels saw that 'the children of men had multiplied and that beautiful and comely daughters were born unto them.' Descending to earth, the Watchers mingled with the women and began 'to defile themselves with them.' While the angels taught their wives all manners of enchantments and charms, as well as the science of root cutting and botany; Azazel taught the art of warfare, and the making of swords and shields. He also taught his wives how to use cosmetics, 'the art of deception by ornamenting their bodies,' and revealed the secrets of witchcraft.
But finally he was brought to the Lord's command, bound hand and foot by the archangel Raphael, and chained to a jagged rock. There he is to abide in utter darkness until the Day of Judgement, when he will be cast into the fire to be consumed forever.
In the Apocalypse of Abraham, Azazel is portrayed as an unclean bird which came down upon the sacrifice which Abraham prepared. This is in reference to Genesis 15:11 "Birds of prey came down upon the carcasses, and Abram drove them away."
"And the unclean bird spoke to me and said, 'What are you doing, Abraham, on the holy heights, where no one eats of drinks, nor is there upon them food for men. But these all will be consumed by fire and ascend to the height, they will destroy you.' And it came to pass when I saw the bird speaking I said this to the angel: 'What is this, my
lord?' And he said, 'This is disgrace, this is Azazel!' And he said to him, 'Shame on you Azazel! For Abraham's portion is in heaven, and yours is on earth, for you have selected here, (and) become enamored of the dwelling place of your blemish.
Therefore the Eternal Ruler, the Mighty One, has given you a dwelling on earth.
Through you the all-evil spirit (is) a liar, and through you (are) wrath and trials on the generations of men who live impiously." - Apocalypse of Abraham 13:4-9
The Apocalypse of Abraham also associates Azazel with Hell. Abraham says to him "May you be the firebrand of the furnace of the earth! Go, Azazel, into the untrodden parts of the earth. For your heritage is over those who are with you" (14:5-6) There is also the idea that God's heritage (the created world) is largely under the dominion of evil. It is "shared with Azazel" (20:5)
Azazel is also identified with the serpent which tempted Eve. His form is described as a dragon with "hands and feet like a man's, on his back six wings on the right and six on the left." (23:7)
Finally, the Apocalypse of Abraham says that the wicked will "putrefy in the belly of the crafty worm Azazel, and be burned by the fire of Azazel's tongue." (31:5) Here again, there is another reference to Azazel as being Hell.
A storm demon from Iranian mythology. He steals cattle and brings harm to humans. It is a snake-like monster with three heads and six eyes who also personifies the Babylonian oppression of Iran. The monster will be captured by the warrior god Thraetaona and placed on the mountain top Dermawend. In a final revival of evil, it will escape its prison, but at the end of time (fraso-kereti) it will die in the river of fire Ayohsust.