The Manual of The Factors Leading to Enlightenment, Introduction
By Mahathera Ledi Sayadaw, Aggamahapandita, D.Litt.
Note to the electronic version:
This electronic version is reproduced directly from the printed version. The text is an English translation from the original Burmese. No attempt has been made to change any of the English phraseology. The reason for putting this book into electronic media is that the book is out of print and the text has been found very a valuable source of inspiration to those practicing Vipassana meditation, despite using English language, which is somewhat archaic.
The Venerable Ledi Sayadaw's works are well known in Burma. They are widely known because they are clear expositions of the Buddha-Dhamma couched in language easily intelligible to an ordinary educated Burman. Yet the Venerable Sayadaw's works are not meant for an absolute beginner in Buddhist studies. There are many technical Buddhist words, which require a certain amount of previous foundation in Buddhist tradition and practice.
The Venerable Sayadaw's exposition contains many technical Pali words, which are used by him as if they were ordinary Burmese words. Many of these words have been incorporated into the Burmese language either in their original Pali form of with slight variations to accord with Burmese euphony. These are words, which Burmans have made no attempt to translate, but have preferred to absorb them into the normal usage of the Burmese language. I have, similarly, made no attempt to translate many of them into English in the present translation. I have used these words in their original Pali form though in all such cases an attempt has been made to append short explanatory footnotes in order to facilitate continuity in reading.
Though the translation is not verbatim, yet a careful attempt has been made to render as nearly a verbatim translation as is possible in the circumstances, having regard to differences in the construction of sentences between English and Burmese, to differences in the manner of presentation, and to the Venerable Sayadaw's penchant for sometimes using extremely long sentences.
Many of the sub-headings and sub-titles are not in the original text, but have been introduced by the translator in order to assist the English reader.
The Venerable Sayadaw was a prolific writer. His works number over a hundred. Each of these works was written at the specific request of one or more of his innumerable disciples, either as an answer to certain questions put to him, or as in the present case, to expound certain important points or aspects of the Buddha-Dhamma. Sein Nyo Tun. 135, University Avenue, Rangoon.
In compliance with the request of the Pyinmana Myo-ok Maung Po Mya and Trader Maung Hla, during the month of Nayon, 1266 Burmese Era (June 1904 C.E.), I shall state concisely the meaning and intent of the thirty-seven bodhipakkhiya-dhamma (factors leading to enlightenment).
Four Classes of Individuals
It is stated in the Puggala Pannatti  (the book of Classification of Individuals) and the Anguttara-Nikáya  that, of the beings who encounter the Sasanas (teachings) of the Buddhas, four classes can be distinguished:
3. Neyya and
Of these four classes of beings, an ugghatitannu is an individual who encounters a Buddha in person, and who is capable of attaining the holy Path and the holy Fruits through the mere hearing of a short concise discourse.
A vipancitannu is an individual who has not the capability of attaining the Paths and the Fruits through the mere hearing of a short discourse, but who yet is capable of attaining the Paths and the Fruits when the short discourse is expounded to him at some length.
A neyya is an individual who has not the capability of attaining the Paths and the Fruits through the hearing of a short discourse, or when it is expounded to him at some length, but is one for whom it is necessary to study and take careful note of the sermon and the exposition, and then to practice the provisions contained therein for days, months, and years, in order that he may attain the Paths and the Fruits.
This neyya class of individuals can again be sub-divided into many other classes according to the period of practice which each individual finds necessary before he can attain the Paths and the Fruits, and which further is dependent on the parami (perfections) which each of them has previously acquired, and the kilesa (defilements) which each has surmounted. These classes of individuals include, on the one hand, those for whom the necessary period of practice is seven days, and on the other, those for whom the necessary period of practice may extend to thirty or sixty years.
Further classes also arise, as for example, in the case of individuals whose necessary period of practice is seven days, the stage of an arahat may be attained if effort is made in the first or second period of life,  which no more than the lower stages of the Paths and the Fruits can be attained if effort be made only in the third period of life.
Then, again, putting forth effort for seven days means exerting as much as is in one's power to do so. If the effort is not of the highest order, the period of necessary effort becomes lengthened according to the laxity of the effort, and seven days may become seven years or longer. If the effort during this life is not sufficiently intense as to enable one to attain the Paths and the Fruits, then release from worldly ills cannot be obtained during the present Buddha Sasana, while release during future Buddha Sasanas can be obtained only if the individual encounters them. No release can be obtained if no Buddha Sasana is encountered.
It is only in the case of individuals who have secured niyata vyakarana (sure prediction made by a Buddha), is an encounter with a Buddha Sasana and release from worldly ills certain. An individual who has not attained niyata vyakarana cannot be certain either of encountering a Buddha Sasana or achieving release from worldly ills, even though he has accumulated sufficient parami to make both these achievements possible.
These are considerations in respect of those individuals who possess the capabilities of attaining the Paths and the Fruits by putting forth effort for seven days, but who have not obtained niyata vyakarana.
Similar considerations apply to the cases of those individuals who have the potentiality of attaining the Paths and the Fruits by putting forth effort for fifteen days, or for longer periods.
A padaparama is an individual who, though he encounters a Buddha Sasana, and though he puts forth the utmost possible effort in both the study and practice of the Dhamma, cannot attain the Paths and the Fruits within this lifetime. All that he can do is to accumulate habits and potentials. 
Such a person cannot obtain release from worldly ills during this lifetime. If he dies while practicing samatha (calm) or vipassana (insight) and attains rebirth either as a human being or a deva in his next existence, he can attain release from worldly ills in that existence within the present Buddha Sasana.
Thus did the Buddha say with respect to four classes of individuals.
Three Types of Individuals
In the same Pitakas referred to above, the Buddha gave another classification of beings, dividing them into three classes according as they resembled three kinds of sick persons. The three kinds of sick persons are:
5. A person who is certain of regaining health in due time even though he does not take any medicine or treatment.
6. A person who is certain of failing to make a recovery, and dying from the illness, no matter to what extent he may take medicines or treatment.
7. A person who will recover if he takes the right medicine and treatment, but who will fail to recover and die if he fails to take the right medicine and treatment.
These are the three kinds of sick persons.
Persons who obtained niyata vyakarana (sure prediction made by a Buddha) from previous Buddhas, and who as such are certain of obtaining release from worldly ills in this life, resemble the first class of sick persons.
An individual of the padaparama class resembles the second class of sick person. Just as this second class of sick person has no chance of recovery from his illness, an individual of the padaparama class has no chance of obtaining release from worldly ills during this life. In future lives, however, he can obtain release either within the present Buddha Sasana, or within future Buddha Sasanas. The story of the youth Chattamanava,  of the frog who became a deva, and of the ascetic Saccaka, are illustrations of persons who obtained release from worldly ills in their next following existences within the present Buddha Sasana.
An individual of the neyya class resembles the third class of sick person. just as a person of this third class is related to the two ways of either recovering or dying from the sickness, so is a neyya individual related to the two eventualities of either obtaining release from worldly ills during the present life, or failing to obtain such release.
If such a neyya individual, knowing what is good for him according to his age, discards what should be discarded, searches for the right teacher, and obtains the right guidance from him and puts forth sufficient effort, he can obtain release from worldly ills in this very life. If, however, he becomes addicted to wrong views and wrong ways of conduct, if he finds himself unable to discard sensual pleasures, if although able to discard sensual pleasures he does not obtain the guidance of a good teacher, if although obtaining the guidance of a good teacher, he is unable to evoke sufficient effort, if although inclined to put forth effort he is unable to do so through old age, if although young he is liable to sickness, he cannot obtain release from worldly ills in this present life. King Ajatasattu, the millionaire Mahadhana's son, Bhikkhu Sudinna, are cases of persons who could have obtained release from worldly ills in this present existence.
King Ajatasattu failed to obtain release because he had committed patricide. It is stated that he will drift in future samsára (round of rebirths) for two asankheyyas (unit followed by 140 ciphers) world-cycles, after which he will become a paccekabuddha (solitary Buddha).
The millionaire Mahadhana's son indulged himself so excessively in sensual pleasures during his youth that he was unable to attain tranquility of mind when he grew older. Far from obtaining release from worldly ills, he did not even get the opportunity of associating with the Ti-Ratanas.  Seeing his plight at that stage, the Buddha said to Ánanda: "Ánanda, if this millionaire's son had become a Bhikkhu in my sasana during his youth or first period of his life, he would have become an arahat and would have attained parinibbána  in this present life. If, otherwise, he had become a Bhikkhu during the second period of his life, he would have become an Anagami,  and on death would have been reborn in the suddhavasa Brahma loka, whence he would have attained parinibbána, In the next alternative, if he had become a Bhikkhu in my sasana at the beginning of the third period of life, he would have become either a Sakadagami or a sotápanna, and would have attained permanent release from rebirth in the apaya loka." Thus said the Buddha to the Venerable Ánanda. Thus, although, he (the millionaire Mahadhana's son) possessed parami ripe enough to make his present existence his last existence, not being a person who) had secured niyata vyakarana, he failed to obtain release from worldly ills in this present life because of the upheavals caused by the defilements within him, and this is despite the fact that he had the opportunity of encountering the Buddha Sasana. If further, his period of existence in the apaya loka is prolonged because of evil acts done in this existence, he would not be able to rise again and emerge out of those apaya lokas in time for the sasana of the future Metteyya Buddha. And, after that, the large number of world-cycles that follow are world-cycles where no Buddhas appear, there being no world-cycles within the vicinity of the present world where Buddhas are due to appear. Alas! Far indeed is this millionaire's son from worldly ills even though he possessed parami ripe enough to make his present existence his last existence.
The general opinion current at the present is that, if the parami are complete, one cannot miss encountering a Buddha Sasana even if one does not wish to do so, and that one's release from worldly ills is ensured even though one may not desire such release. These people fail to pay attention to the existence of niyata (one who has obtained a sure prediction made by a Buddha) and aniyata (one who has not obtained a sure prediction made by a Buddha). Considering the two texts from the Pitaka mentioned above, and the story of the millionaire Mahadhana's son, it should be remembered that aniyata neyya individuals can attain release from worldly ills in this life only if they put forth sufficient effort, even if they possess parami sufficient to enable them to obtain such release. If industry and effort are lacking, the Paths and the Fruits cannot be attained within the present Buddha Sasana.
Apart from these classes of persons, there are also an infinite number of other beings who, like the ascetics Alara and Uddaka,  possess sufficient parami for release from worldly ills, but who do not get the opportunity, because they happen to be in one or the other of the eight inopportune places (atthakkhanas) where it is not possible to attain the Paths and the Fruits thereof.
(Here ends the part showing the division of beings into four and three classes according to Puggala Pannatti of the Abhidhamma Pitaka and the Anguttara-Nikáya of the Suttanta Pitaka).
Necessary Conditions of Practice for Neyya and Padaparama
Of the four classes of individuals mentioned, the Ugghatitannu and the vipancitannu classes can attain the sotapatti-magga (path of a stream-winner) and the other higher stages of wisdom--like Visakha and Anathapindika --through the mere hearing of a discourse. It is not necessary for such individuals to practice the Dhamma according to the stages of practice such as sila-visuddhi (purification of virtue), citta-visuddhi (purification of consciousness) and so on. Be it remembered that this is also the case when devas and Brahmas attain release from worldly ills.
Hence, it should be noted that the courses of practice, such as sila-visuddhi and citta-visuddhi, laid down in the Pali Canon, are only for the neyya and padaparama classes of individuals before their attainment of the sotapatti-magga. These courses of practice are also for the first three classes of individuals prior to the achievement of the higher stages of the Paths and the Fruits. In the period after the attainment of Arahatship also, these courses of practice are used for the purpose of dittha-dhamma-sukhavihara  (dwelling at ease in this present existence), since arahats have already gone through them.
After the passing of the first thousand years (of the present Buddha Sasana), which constituted the times of the patisambhidha-patta arahat (arahat possessing analytical knowledge), the period of the present Buddha Sasana comprises the times of the neyya and padaparama classes of individuals alone. At the present day, only these two classes of individuals remain.
Of These Two Classes of Individuals
Of these two classes of individuals, an individual of the neyya class can become a sotápanna in this present life if he faithfully practices the bodhipakkhiya-dhamma comprising Satipatthána (four applications of mindfulness), sammapadhana (right exertion), else. If he is lax in his practice, he can become a sotápanna only in his next existence after being reborn in the deva planes. If he dies while still aloof from these (bodhipakkhiya) Dhamma, such as Satipatthána, etc., he will become a total loss so far as the present Buddha Sasana is concerned, but he can still attain release from worldly ills if he encounters the Sasana of the next Buddha.
An individual of the padaparama class can attain release within the present Buddha Sasana after rebirth in the deva planes in his next existence, if he can faithfully practice these (bodhipakkhiya) Dhamma in his present existence.
The Age of Ariyas (Noble Ones) still:
The five thousand years of the present Buddha Sasana constitute, all of them, the age of ariyas. This age of ariyas will continue to exist so long as the Tipitaka remain in the world. The padaparama class of individuals have to utilize the opportunity afforded by the encountering of the present Buddha Sasana to accumulate as much of the nuclei or seeds of parami as they can within this lifetime. They have to accumulate the seeds of síla (morality). They have to accumulate the seeds of samádhi (concentration). They have to accumulate the seeds of paññá (wisdom).
Of these three kinds of accumulations, síla (morality), samádhi (concentration), paññá (wisdom), the seeds of síla mean: panca-sila,  Ajivatthamaka-sila, atthanga-uposatha-sila, dasanga síla, in respect of ordinary laymen and women, and the bhikkhu-sila  in respect of the Bhikkhus.
The seeds of samádhi means the effort to achieve parikamma-samádhi (preparatory concentration) through one or other of the forty objects of meditation, such as the ten kasina (meditation devices), or, if further effort can be evoked, the effort to achieve upacara-samádhi (access concentration), or, if still further effort can be evoked, the effort to achieve appana-samádhi (attainment concentration.)
The seeds of paññá means the cultivation of the ability to analyze the characteristics and qualities of rupa (material phenomena), nama (mental phenomena), khandha (constituent groups of existence), ayatana (bases), dhatu (elements), sacca (truths), and the paticcasamuppada (dependent origination), and the cultivation of insight into the three characteristics of existence (lakkhana), namely, anicca (impermanence), dukkha (suffering), anattá (impersonality).
Of the three kinds of seeds of magga-nana and phala-nana,  síla and samádhi are like ornaments that permanently adorn the world, and exist even in the Sunna world-cycles that is, world-cycles where no Buddhas arise. The seeds of síla and samádhi can be obtained at will at any time. But the seeds of paññá, which are related to rupa, Nama, khandha, ayatana, dhatu, sacca, and paticcasamuppada, can be obtained only when one encounters a Buddha Sasana. Outside of a Buddha Sasana, one does not get the opportunity of even hearing the mere mention of words associated with paññá, though an infinite number of 'sunna' world-cycles may elapse. Hence, those persons of the present day who are fortunate enough to be born into this world while a Buddha Sasana flourishes, if they intend to accumulate the seeds of magga-nana for the purpose of securing release from worldly ills in a future existence within a future Buddha Sasana, should pay special attention to the knowledge of the paramattha  (ultimate realities), which is extremely difficult for one to come across, more than they attempt the accumulation of the seeds of síla and samádhi. In the least, they should attempt to obtain an insight into how the four great primaries (mahabhuta)--pathavi, apo, tejo and vayo are constituted in one's body. If they acquisition a good insight into the four great elements, they obtain a sound collection of the seeds of paññá which are most difficult of acquisition, and this is so even though they may not acquire any knowledge of the other portions of the Abhidhamma. It can then be said that the difficult attainment of rebirth within a Buddha Sasana has been made worthwhile.
Vijja (Knowledge) And Carana (Conduct):
Síla and samádhi constitute carana, while paññá constitutes vijja. Thus are vijja-carana (knowledge and conduct) constituted. Vijja resembles the eyes of a human being, while carana resembles the limbs. Vijja is like eyes in birds, while carana is like wings. A person who is endowed with morality and concentration, but lacks wisdom, is like one who possesses complete and whole limbs but blind of both eyes. A person who is endowed with vijja (knowledge), but lacks carana (conduct), is like one who has good eyesight but is defective in his limbs, A person who is endowed with both vijja and carana is like a normally whole person possessing both good eyesight and healthy limbs. A person who lacks both vijja and carana is like one defective in eyes and limbs, and is not one worthy of being called a living being.
Consequences of Having Carana Only:
Amongst the persons living within the present Buddha Sasana, there are some who are fully endowed with morality and concentration, but do not possess the seeds of vijja (knowledge), such as insight into the nature of material qualities, mental qualities and constituent groups of existence. Because they are strong in carana, they are likely to encounter the next Buddha Sasana, but because they lack the seeds of vijja, they cannot attain enlightenment, even though they hear the discourse of the next Buddha in person. They are like Laludayi Thera,  Upananda Thera, Chabbaggiya Bhikkhus, and the King of Kosala, during the lifetime of the Omniscient Buddha. Because they were endowed with the previously accumulated carana, such as alms-giving and morality, they had the opportunity to associate with the Supreme Buddha, but since they lacked previously accumulated vijja, the discourses of the Buddha which they often heard throughout their lives, as it were, fell on deaf ears.
Of Having Vijja Only:
There are others who are endowed with vijja, such as insight into the material and mental qualities and the constituent groups of existence, but who lack carana, such as Dana, nicca-sila (permanent morality) and uposatha-síla (precepts observed on fasting days). Should these persons get the opportunity of meeting and hearing the discourses of the next Buddha, they can attain enlightenment because they possess vijja, but since they lack carana, it would be extremely difficult for them to get the opportunity of meeting the next Buddha. This is so because there is an antara-kappa (intervening world-cycle) between the present Buddha Sasana and the next.
In case these beings wander within the sensuous sphere during this period, it means a succession of an infinite number of existences and rebirths, and an opportunity to meet the next Buddha can be secured only if all these rebirths are confined to the happy course of existence. If, in the interim, a rebirth occurs in one of the four lower regions, the opportunity to meet the next Buddha would be irretrievably lost, for one rebirth in one of the four lower worlds is often followed by an infinite number of rebirths in one or other of them.
Those persons whose acts of Dana (alms-giving) in this life are few, who are ill-guarded in their bodily acts, unrestrained in their speech, and unclean in their thoughts, and who thus are deficient in carana (conduct), possess a strong tendency to be reborn in the four lower worlds when they die. If through some good fortune they manage to be reborn in the happy course of existence, wherever they may be reborn, they are, because of their previous lack of carana, such as Dana, likely to be deficient in riches, and likely to meet with hardships, trials, and tribulations in their means of livelihood, and thus encounter tendencies to rebirth in the apaya loka. Because of their lack of carana of nicca-sila and uposatha-síla, they are likely to meet with disputes, quarrels, anger and hatred in their dealings with other persons, in addition to being susceptible to diseases and ailments, and thus encounter tendencies towards rebirth in the apaya lokas. Thus will they encounter painful experiences in every existence, gathering undesirable tendencies, leading to the curtailment of their period of existence in the happy course of existence and causing rebirth in the four lower worlds. In this way, the chances of those who lack carana meeting the next Buddha are very few indeed.
The Essential Point:
In short, the essential fact is, only when one is endowed with the seeds of both vijja and carana can one obtain release from worldly ills in one's next existence. If one possesses the seeds of vijja alone, and lacks the seeds of carana, such as Dana and síla, one will fail to secure the opportunity of meeting the next Buddha Sasana. If, on the other hand, one possesses the seeds of carana but lacks the seeds of vijja, one cannot attain release from worldly ills even though one encounters the next Buddha Sasana. Hence, those padaparama individuals of today, be they men or women, who look forward to meeting the next Buddha Sasana, should attempt to accumulate within the present Buddha Sasana the seeds of carana by the practice of Dana, síla and samatha- bhávaná (practice of calm), and should also, in the least, with respect to vijja try to practice insight into the four great primaries, and thus ensure meeting the next Buddha Sasana, and having met it, to attain release from worldly ills.
When it is said that Dana is carana, it comes under the category of saddha (faith), which is one of the saddhamma or practical conduct of good people, which again comes under the fifteen carana-Dhamma. The fifteen carana-Dhamma are:
8. Síla (morality)
9. Indriya-sarhvara (guarding the sense doors)
10. Bhojanemattannuta (moderation in eating)
11. Jagariyanuyoga (wakefulness)
5-11 saddhamma (the seven attributes of good and virtuous men)
12-15 four jhana-first jhana, second jhana, third jhana, and fourth jhana.
These fifteen Dhamma are the property of the highest jhanalabhi (attainer of jhana). So far as sukkhavipassaka (practicing insight only) individuals are concerned, they should possess the eleven carana Dhamma, i.e. without the four jhana.
For those persons who look forward to meeting the next Buddha Sasana, Dana, síla uposatha, and the seven saddhamma are the essentials.
Those persons who wish to attain the Paths and the Fruits thereof in this very life must fulfill the first eleven carana-Dhamma, i.e. síla, indriya-samvara, bhojanemattannuta, jagariyanuyoga, and the seven saddhamma. Herein, síla means ajivatthamaka-nicca-sila (permanent practice of morality ending with right livelihood); indriya-samvara means guarding the six sense-doors--eyes, ears, nose, tongue, body and mind; bhojanemattanuta means taking just sufficient food to preserve the balance of the corporeality group in the body and being satisfied therewith; jagariyanuyogo means not sleeping during the day, and sleeping only during one period (of the three periods) of the night, practicing bhávaná (mental concentration) during the other two periods.
12. Saddha (faith)
13. Sati (mindfulness)
14. Hiri (moral shame)
15. Ottappa (moral dread)
16. Bahusacca (great learning)
17. Viriya (energy; diligence)
18. Paññá (wisdom).
For those who wish to become sotápanna’s during this life, there is no special necessity to practice Dana (alms-giving). But let those who find it unable to evoke sufficient effort towards acquiring the ability to obtain release from worldly ills during the present Buddha Sasana make special attempts to practice Dana (alms-giving) and uposatha (precepts observed on fasting days).
Order of Practice And Those Who Await the Next Buddha
Since the work in the case of those who depend on and await the next Buddha consists of no more than acquiring accumulation of parami, it is not strictly necessary for them to adhere to the order of the stages of practice laid down in the Pali Texts: síla, samádhi and paññá. They should not thus defer the practice of samádhi before the completion of the practice of síla, or defer the practice of paññá before the completion of the practice of samádhi. In accordance with the order of the seven visuddhi (purifications), such as sila-visuddhi (purification of virtue), citta-visuddhi (purification of consciousness), ditthi-visuddhi (purification of view), kankhavitarana-visuddhi (purification by overcoming doubt), maggamaggananadassana-visuddhi (purification by knowledge and vision of what is and what is not path), patipadananadassana-visuddhi (purification by knowledge and vision of the way), and nanadassana-visuddhi (purification by knowledge and vision), they should not postpone the practice of any course for a visuddhi until the completion of the respective previous course. Since they are persons engaged in the accumulation of as much of the seeds of parami as they can, they should contrive to accumulate the largest amount of síla, samádhi, and paññá that lies in their power.
Unnecessary to Adhere to the Prescribed Order of Practice
When it is stated in the Pali Texts that citta-visuddhi should be practiced only after the completion of the practice of sila-visuddhi, that ditthi-visuddhi should be practiced only after the completion of the practice of citta-visuddhi, that kankhavitarana-visuddhi should be practiced only after the completion of the practice of ditthi-visuddhi, that the work of anicca, dukkha, and anattá bhávaná (contemplation of impermanence, suffering and impersonality) should be undertaken only after the completion of the practice of kankhavitarana-visuddhi, the order of practice prescribed is meant for those who attempt the speedy realization of the Paths and the Fruits thereof in this very life. Since those who find it unable to call forth such effort, and are engaged only in the accumulation of the seeds of parami are persons occupied in grasping whatever they can, it should not be said in their case that the work of samatha manasikara citta-visuddhi (the practice of purification of consciousness consisting of advertence of mind to tranquility) should not be undertaken before the fulfillment of sila-visuddhi. Even in the case of hunters and fishermen, it should not be said that they should not practice samatha vipassana (calm and insight) manasikara (advertence of mind towards calm and insight) unless they discard their avocations. One who says so causes dhammantaraya (danger to the Dhamma). Hunters and fishermen should, on the other hand, be encouraged to contemplate the noble qualities of the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Sangha. They should be induced to contemplate, as is in their power, the characteristic of loathsomeness in one's body. They should be urged to contemplate the liability of oneself and all creatures to death. I have come across the case of a leading fisherman who, as a result of such encouragement, could repeat fluently from memory the Pali Text and 'nissaya' (word for word translation) of the Abhidhammatha Sangaha, and the Paccaya Niddesa of the Patthana (Book of Relations), while still following the profession of a fisherman. These accomplishments constitute very good foundations for the acquisition of vijja (knowledge).
At the present time, whenever I meet my dayaka Upasakas (lay disciples who contribute to a Bhikkhus upkeep), I tell them, in the true tradition of a Bhikkhu, that even though they are hunters and fishermen by profession, they should be ever mindful of the noble qualities of the Three Jewels and three characteristics of existence. To be mindful of the noble qualities of the ti-ratana (Triple Gem) constitutes the seed of carana. To be mindful of the three characteristics of existence constitutes the seed of vijja. Even hunters and fishermen should be encouraged to practice the advertence of mind. They should not be told that it is improper for hunters and fishermen to practice advertence of mind towards samatha (calm) and vipassana (insight). On the other hand, they should be helped towards better understanding, should they be in difficulties. They should be urged and encouraged to keep on trying. They are in that stage when even the work of accumulating parami and tendencies is to be extolled.
Loss of Opportunity to Attain the Seed of Vijja Through Ignorance of the Value of the Present Times
Some teachers, who are aware only of the existence of direct and unequivocal statements in the Pali Texts regarding the order of practice of the seven visuddhi (purifications), but who take no account of the value of the present times, say that in the practices of samatha and vipassana (calm and insight) no results can be achieved unless sila-visuddhi (purification of virtue) is first fulfilled, whatever be the intensity of the effort. Some of the uninformed ordinary folk are beguiled by such statements. Thus has dhammantaraya (danger to the Dhamma) occurred.
These persons, because they do not know the nature of the present times, will lose the opportunity to attain the seeds of vija, which are attainable only when a Buddha Sasana is encountered. In truth, they have not yet attained release from worldly ills and are still drifting in samsára (round of rebirths) because, though they have occasionally encountered Buddha Sasanas in their past inconceivably long samsára where Buddha Sasanas more numerous than the grains of sands on the banks of the Ganges had appeared, they did not acquire the foundation of the seeds of vijja.
When seeds are spoken of, there are seeds ripe or mature enough to sprout into healthy and strong seedlings, and there are many degrees of ripeness or maturity. There are also seeds that are unripe or immature. People who do not know the meanings of the passages they recite or who do not know the right methods of practice even though they know the meaning, and who thus by custom or tradition read, recite and count their beads while performing the work of contemplating the noble qualities of the Buddha, and anicca, dukkha and anattá, possess seeds that are unripe and immature. These unripe seeds may be ripened and matured by the continuation of such work in the existences that follow, if opportunity for such continued work occurs.
The practice of samatha until the appearance of parikamma- nimitta,  and the practice of vipassana until insight is obtained into rupa and nama (matter and mind) even once, are mature seeds filled with pith and substance. The practice of samatha until the appearance of uggaha-nimitta and the practice of vipassana until the acquisition of sammasananana  even once, are seeds that are still more mature. The practice of samatha until the appearance of patibhaga-nimitta, and the practice of vipassana until the occurrence of udayabbayanana  even once, are seeds that are yet more extremely mature. If further higher effort can be made in both samatha and vipassana, still more mature seeds can be obtained bringing great success.
Adhikara (Assiduous And Successful Practice)
When it is said in the Pali Texts that only when there has been adhikara in previous Buddha Sasanas can relative jhana, the Paths and the Fruits be obtained in the following Buddha Sasanas, the word 'adhikara' means 'successful seeds.' Nowadays, those who pass their lives with traditional practices that are but imitation samatha and imitation vipassana do not come within the purview of persons who possess the seeds of samatha and vijja, which can be called adhikara.
Of the two kinds of seeds, those people who encounter a Buddha Sasana, but who fail to secure the seeds of vijja, suffer great loss indeed. This is so because the seeds of vijja, which are related to rupa and Nama Dhamma can only be obtained within a Buddha Sasana, and that only when one is sensible enough to secure them. Hence, at the present time, those men and women who find themselves unable to contemplate and investigate at length into the nature of rupa and nama Dhamma, should, throughout their lives, undertake the task of committing the four great primaries to memory, then of contemplating on their meaning and of discussing them, and lastly of seeking insight into how they are constituted in their bodies.
Here ends the part showing, by a discussion of four classes of individuals and three kinds of individuals as given in the Sutta and Abhidhamma Pitaka, that 1) those persons, who within the Buddha Sasana do not practice samatha and vipassana but allow the time to pass with imitations, suffer great loss as they fail to utilize the unique opportunity arising from their existence as human beings within a Buddha Sasana, 2) this being the time of padaparama and neyya classes of persons, if they heedfully put forth effort, they can secure ripe and mature seeds of samatha and vipassana, and easily attain the supra-mundane benefit either within this life or in the deva loka (deva abodes) in the next life--within this Buddha Sasana or within the Sasana of the next Buddha, 3) they can derive immense benefit from their existence as human beings during the Buddha Sasana.
Here ends the exposition of the three kinds and the four kinds of individuals.
Miccha-Dhamma of the Present Day: A Word of Advice And Warning
If the Tipitaka which are the discourses of the Buddha delivered during forty-five vassa (rainy seasons) be condensed and the essentials extracted, the thirty-seven bodhipakkhiya-dhamma are obtained. These thirty-seven bodhipakkhiya-dhamma constitute the essence of the Tipitaka. If these be further condensed, the seven visuddhi (purifications) are obtained. If again the seven visuddhi be condensed, they become síla (morality), samádhi (concentration), and paññá (wisdom). These are called adhisila-sasana (the teaching of higher morality), adhicitta-sasana (the teaching of higher mentality), and adhipanna-sasana (the teaching of higher wisdom). They are also called the three sikha (trainings).
When síla is mentioned, the essential for laymen is nicca-sila. Those people who fulfill nicca-sila become endowed with carana, which with vijja, enables them to attain the Paths and the Fruits. If these persons can add the refinement of uposatha-síla over nicca-sila, it is much better. For laymen, nicca-sila means ajivatthamaka-síla. That síla  must be properly and faithfully kept. If because they are puthujjana (worldlings) they break the síla, it can be re-established immediately by renewing the undertaking to keep the síla for the rest of their lives. If, on a future occasion, the síla is again broken, it can again be similarly cleansed, and every time this cleansing occurs, the person concerned again becomes endowed with síla. The effort is not difficult. Whenever nicca-sila is broken, it should be immediately re-established. In these days, persons endowed with síla abound in large numbers.
But persons who have attained perfect concentration in one or other of the kasina exercises (meditation devices), or in the practice of asubha-bhavana (meditation of loathsomeness), etc., as also persons who have at one time or other attained insight in regard to physical phenomena, mental phenomena, the characteristics of anicca, etc., are very rare. This is so because these are times when miccha-dhamma (wrong Dhamma) that are likely to cause dhammantaraya (danger to the Dhamma) are rife.
By miccha-dhamma that are likely to cause dhammantaraya is meant such views, practices and limitations as the inability to see the dangers of samsára, the belief that these are times when the Paths and the Fruits can no longer be attained, the tendency to defer effort until the parami ripen, the belief that persons of the present day are dvi-hetuka, the belief that the great teachers of the past were nonexistent, etc.
Even though it does not reach the ultimate, no kusala kamma (wholesome volitional action) is ever rendered futile. If effort be made, a kusala kamma (wholesome volitional action) is instrumental in producing parami in those who do not possess parami. If no effort be made, the opportunity to acquire parami is lost. If those whose parami are immature put forth effort, their parami become ripe and mature. Such persons can attain the Paths and Fruits in their next existence within the present Sasana. If no effort be made, the opportunity for the parami to riper, is lost. If those whose parami is ripe and mature put forth effort, the Paths and the Fruits can be attained within this life. If no effort be made the opportunity to attain the Paths and the Fruits is lost.
If persons who are dvi-hetuka put forth effort, they can become tihetuka  in their next existence. If they do not put forth effort, they cannot ascend from the stage of dvi-hetuka and will slide down to the stage of ahetuka. 
In this world, there is a certain person who plans to become a Bhikkhu. If another person says to him, 'entertain the intention only if you can remain a Bhikkhu all your life. Otherwise, do not entertain the idea', it amounts to dhammantaraya.
'Cittuppadamattam pi kusalesu dhammesu bahupakaram vadami.' (I declare that the mere arising of intention for the performance of meritorious deeds is productive of great benefits). 
Thus did the Buddha preach!
To disparage either the act of Dana (alms-giving), or the performer of Dana may invoke punnantaraya  on oneself. If the acts of morality, concentration and wisdom, or those who perform them are disparaged, dhammantaraya may be invoked. If punnantaraya is invoked, one is liable to be bereft of power and influence, of property and riches, and be abjectly poor in the existences or lives that follow. If dhammantaraya is invoked, one is liable to be defective in conduct, and defective of sense, and thus be utterly low and debased in the existences or lives that follow. Let all beware!
Here ends the part showing how the rare opportunity of rebirth as a human being can be made worthwhile, by ridding oneself of the miccha-dhamma mentioned above, and putting forth effort in this life to close the gates of the apaya loka (four lower worlds) in one's future samsára (round of rebirths), or else to accumulate the seeds that will enable one to attain release from worldly ills in the next following life, or within the next Buddha Sasana, through the practice of calm and insight with resolution, intention, and industry.
1. Abhidhamma Pitaka, Puggala Pannatti, 6th syn. Edn.
2. Suttanta Pitaka, Anguttara-Nikáya, Catukka-Nipata. Page 452, Sixth
3. Three periods of life are usually distinguished: youth, middle age,
and old age. Please see page 721, Visuddhimagga by Nanamoli.
4. Vasana: habits and potentials.
5. Vimana Vatthu, p. 76, 6th Syn. Edn.
6. Vimana Vatthu, p. 73, 6th Syn. Edn.
7. Suttanta Pitaka, Majjhima-Nikáya, Mula-panasa, pp, 288-299, 6th
8. Samannaphala Sutta published by the Union Buddha Sasana council.
Please see the Light of the Dhamma, Vol.V-No 1.
9. Dhammapada Commentary, Book 11, Story 9, See also Khuddaka-Nikáya,
Peta Vatthu, page 216, 6th Syn. Edn.
10. Vinaya Pitaka, Parajika, p. 13. 6th Syn. Edn.
11. Ti-Ratana: The Three Jewels: the Buddha, the Dhamma, the Sangha.
12. Full Nibbána. The death of an Arahat is known as attaining
13. A Non-Returner to kamma-loka.
14. The 'Pure Abodes' are a group of six heavens belonging to the
form-sphere, where only the never-returners are reborn, and in
which they attain Arahatship and Nibbána.
15. The 'Once-Returner.'
16. The 'Stream-Winner..' See page 53 Ibid.
17. Apaya loka: The four lower regions. They are: the animal world,
the ghost world, the demon world and hell.
18. Sunna-kappa: 'Zero' world-cycles.
19. Suttanta Pitaka, Majjhima Nikáya, Mulapannasa, Pasarasi Sutta,
p. 220, 6th Syn, Edition.
20. Digha-Nikaya Pithika-vagga, Dasuttara Sutta, page 248, 6th Syn.
Edn., Anguttara Nikáya III Atthaka.nipata, Akkhana Sutta, page 60,
6th Syn. Edn. i) paccantaro--a border district where the Buddha
Sasana does not flourish; ii) arupino--the four Brahma planes of
the formless-sphere; iii) vitalingo--persons with congenital
defects such as idiocy, etc. iv) asannasatta--a Brahma plane of the
form-sphere of non-consciousness.' v) micchaditthi--birth among
people holding wrong views, vi) peta--the peta world; vii)
tiracchana-the animal world, and viii) niraya-hell.
21. Dhammapada Commentary, stories relating to verses 1 and 18.
22. In an arahat there arises the knowledge of his freedom, and he
realizes: 'Rebirth is no more, I have lived the pure life; I have
done what ought to be done; I have nothing more to do for the
realization of Arahatship.' Thus he lives at ease in this
23. The five precepts. They are basic and constitute the minimum which
every man or woman must observe. There are abstention from
killing, stealing, improper sexual intercourse, telling lies, and
24. The three constituents of the morality-group of the Eightfold Path,
when considered in detail become Ajivatthamaka-sila (morality
consisting of the practice of Right Livelihood) in the following
1. I will abstain from taking life. 2. I will abstain from
stealing. 3. I will abstain from indulging in improper sexual
intercourse and taking intoxicant drugs. 4. I will abstain from
telling lies. 5. I will abstain from setting one person against
another. 6. I will abstain from using rude and rough words. 7. I
will abstain from frivolous talk. 8. I will abstain from improper
25. The eight precepts are: abstention from 1) killing, 2) stealing,
3) un-chastity, 4) lying, 5) intoxicants, 6) eating after midday,
7) dancing, singing, music and shows, garlands, scent, cosmetics
and adornment, etc., 8) luxurious and high beds.
26. The ten precepts. This is the polished form of attá síla. No. 7 of
the eight precepts is split into two and No. 10 is 'abstinence from
accepting gold and silver.'
27. Bhikkhu síla: The four kinds of parisuddhi-sila are:-
1) Restraint with regard to the 227 Vinaya Rules.
2) Restraint of the senses.
3) Restraint with regard to one's livelihood.
4) Morality with regard to the four requisites.
28. Magga-nana: knowledge of the holy paths. Phala-nana: knowledge of
the fruits thereof.
29. Paramattha: truth in the ultimate sense; absolute truth.
The Abhidhammattha Sangaha lists four paramattha Dhamma, namely,
citta (consciousness), cetasika (mental factors), rupa (material
qualities) and Nibbána. Pathavi (element of extension,) apo
(element of liquidity or cohesion,) tejo (element of kinetic
energy,) and vayo (element of motion or support).
30. Dhammapada-atthakatha, verse, 64, (The story of the wise fool).
31. Dhammapada commentary, story relating verse 158 'The greedy monk.'
32. Vinaya Pitaka, Mahavagga, p. 191, 6th Syn. Edn.
33. Dhammapada commentary, story relating to verse 60-Bala-vagga.
34. Nimitta is the mental image which arises in the mind by the
successful practice of certain concentration exercises. The image
physically perceived at the very beginning of concentration is
called the preparatory image or parikamma-nimitia. The still
unsteady and unclear image which arises after the mind has reached
a certain degree of concentration is called acquired image or
uggaha-nimitta. This is a mental image. The fully clear and
immovable image that arises at a great degree of concentration is
called the counter-image or patibhaga-nimitta. This also is a
35. Observing, exploring, grasping, determining, all phenomena of
existence as impermanent, miserable, and impersonal, which precedes
the flashing up of clear insight.
36. Knowledge arising from the contemplation of arising and vanishing
It is the first of the nine insight-knowledge’s constituting the
patipada-nanadassana-visuddhl (purification by knowledge and vision
of the way).
37. Ajivatthamaka-sila--morality ending with right livelihood as the
38. Dvi-hetuka-patisandhi--Being reborn with only two root-conditions:
alobha (detachment) and adosa (amity). Dvi-hetuka-patisandhi
individuals cannot attain the Paths and the Fruits in the present
39. Ti-hetuka-patisandhi--Being reborn with all the three root-
conditions, namely, alobha, adosa and amoha (wisdom).
40. A-hetuka--A being reborn without any wholesome root-condition.
41. Suttanta Pitaka, Majjhima-Nikaya Mulapannasa, Samlekha Sutta,
p. 48, 6th Syn. Edn.
42. Danger to the performance of wholesome Volitional actions.
I, The Bodhipakkhiya Dhamma and II, The Four Satipatthána
I, The Bodhipakkhiya Dhamma
I shall now concisely show the thirty-seven bodhipakkhiya Dhamma, which are Dhamma, which should be attempted with energy and determination by those persons wishing to practice samatha (calm) and vipassana (insight), and thus make the rare opportunity of rebirth as a human being within the present Buddha Sasana worthwhile.
Briefly, the bodhipakkhiya Dhamma consist of seven kinds, namely:
According to the definition 'bodiya pakkhe bhavati bodhipakkhiya', these Dhamma are called bodhipakkhiya because they form part of, or they are associates of, magga-nana (knowledge of the Holy Paths). They are Dhamma that are the padatthana (proximate cause), sambhara (requisite ingredients), and upanissaya (basis or sufficing condition) of magga-nana (knowledge of the Holy Paths).
II, The Four Satipatthána
The definition of Satipatthána is: 'Bhusam itthatiti patthanam; sati eva pattanam satipatthanam.' It means mindfulness or heedfulness, which is firmly established. There are four Satipatthána (applications of mindfulness). They are:
12. Kayanupassana-satipatthana means mindfulness, which is firmly established on physical phenomena, such as on the exhaled breath and the inhaled breath.
13. Vedandnupassana-satipatthana means mindfulness, which is firmly established on sensations.
14. Cittanupassana-satipatthana means mindfulness, which is firmly established on thoughts or mental processes, such as thoughts associated with the passions or dissociated from the passions.
15. Dhammanupassana-satipatthana means mindfulness, which is firmly established on phenomena such as nivarana (hindrances), etc.
Of the four, if mindfulness or attention is firmly established on a part of the body, such as on out-breath and in-breath, it is tantamount to attention being firmly established on all things. This is because the ability to place one's attention on any object at one's will has been acquired.
'Firmly established' means, if one desires to place the attention on out-breath and in-breath for an hour, one's attention remains firmly fixed on it for that period. If one wishes to do so for two hours, one's attention remains firmly fixed on it for two hours. There is no occasion when the attention becomes released from its object on account of the instability of thought-conception (vitakkha).
(For a detailed account of the Satipatthána, see the Mahasatipatthana Sutta. )
Why is it incumbent on us to firmly establish the mind without fail on any object such as the out-breath and the in-breath? It is because it is necessary for us to gather and control the six vinnana,  which have been drifting tempestuously and untrained throughout the past inconceivably long and beginning-less samsára (round of rebirths).
I shall make it clear. The mind is wont to flit about from one to another of the six objects of the senses, which live at the approaches of the six sense-doors. 
As an example, take the case of a mad man who has no control over his mind. He does not even know the mealtime, and wanders about aimlessly from place to place. His parents look for him and give him his meal. After eating five or six morsels of food, he overturns the dish and walks away. He thus fails to get a square meal. To this extent he has lost control of his mind. He cannot control his mind even to the extent of finishing the business of a meal. In talking, he cannot control his mind to the extent of finishing or completing a sentence. The beginning, the middle, and the end do not agree with one another. His talk has no meaning. He cannot be of use in any undertaking in this world. He is unable to perform any task. Such a person can no longer be classed as a human being, and he has to be ignored.
This mad man becomes a sane and normal person again if he meets a good doctor and the doctor applies such stringent methods of cure as tying him up and putting him in chains. Thus cured, he obtains control of his mind in the matter of taking his meals, and can now eat his fill. He has control over his mind in all other matters as well. He can perform his tasks till they are completed, just like others. Just like others, he can also complete his sentences. This is the example.
In this world, persons who are not insane, but who are normal and have control over their minds, resemble such a mad person having no control over his mind when it comes to the matter of samatha and vipassana. Just as the man upsets the food dish and walks away after five or six morsels of food although he attempts to eat his meal, these normally sane persons find their attention wandering because they have no control over their minds. Whenever they pay respects to the Buddha and contemplate his noble qualities, they do not succeed in keeping their minds fixed on those noble qualities, but find their attention being diverted many times on to other objects of thought, and thus they fail to reach the end of even the 'itipiso' verse. 
It is as if a man suffering from hydrophobia who seeks water feverishly with parched lips, yet runs away from it with fear when he sees a lake of cool refreshing water. It is also like a diseased man who when given a diet of relishing food replete with medicinal qualities, finds the food bitter to his taste and unable to swallow it and is obliged to spit and vomit it out. In just the same way, these persons find themselves unable to approach the contemplation of the noble qualities of the Buddha effectively and cannot keep on dwelling on them.
If in reciting the 'itipiso' verse, their recitation is interrupted every time their minds wander, and if they have to start afresh from the beginning every time such an interruption occurs, they will never reach the end of the verse even though they keep on reciting a whole day, or a whole month, or a whole year. At present they manage to reach the end because they can keep on reciting from memory even though their minds wander elsewhere.
In the same way, those persons who, on uposatha days, plan to go to quiet places in order to contemplate the thirty-two parts of the body, such as kesa (hairs of the head), loma (hairs of the body), etc., or the noble qualities of the Buddha, ultimately end up in the company of friends and associates because they have no control over their minds, and because of the upheavals in their thoughts and intentions. When they take part in congregational recitations, although they attempt to direct their minds to the samatha (calm) work of the brahma-vihara (sublime states), such as reciting the formula for diffusing mettá (loving-kindness), because they have no control over their minds, their thoughts are not concentrated but are scattered aimlessly, and they end up only with the visible manifestation of the recitation.
These facts are sufficient to show how many persons resemble the insane while performing kusala kamma (merit).
Papasmim ramate mano.
The mind takes delight in evil. 
Just as water naturally flows down from high places to low places, the minds of beings, if left uncontrolled, naturally approach evils. This is the tendency of the mind.
I shall now draw, with examples, a comparison between those who exercise no control over their minds and the insane person mentioned above.
There is a river with a swift current. A boatman not conversant with the control of the rudder floats down the river with the current. His boat is loaded with valuable merchandise for trading and selling at the towns on the lower reaches of the river. As he floats down, he passes stretches of the river lined with mountains and forests where there are no harbors or anchorages for his boat. He thus continues to float down without stopping. When night descends, he passes towns and villages with harbors and anchorages, but he does not see them in the darkness of the night, and thus he continues to float down without stopping. When daylight arrives, he comes to places with towns and villages, but not having any control over the rudder of the boat, he cannot steer it to the harbors and anchorages, and thus perforce he continues to float down until he reaches the great wide ocean.
The infinitely lengthy samsára (round of rebirths) is like the swift flowing river. Beings having no control over their minds are like the boatman who is unable to steer his boat. The mind is like the boat. Beings, who have drifted from one existence to another in the 'sunna' world-cycles, where no Buddha Sasanas appear, are like the boatman drifting down those stretches of the river lined by mountains and forests, where there are no harbors and anchorages. When at times these beings are born in world-cycles where Buddha Sasanas flourish, but are in ignorance of them because they happen to be in one or other of the eight atthakkhana (inopportune places), they resemble the boatman who floats down stretches of the river lined by towns and villages with harbors and anchorages, but does not see them because it is night. When at other times, they are born as human beings, devas or Brahmas, within a Buddha Sasana, but fail to secure the Paths and the Fruits because they are unable to control their minds and put forth effort to practice vipassana (insight) exercises of the Satipatthána (the four applications of mindfulness) thus continuing still to drift in samsára, they resemble the boatman who sees the banks lined by towns and villages with harbors and anchorages, but is unable to steer towards them because of his inability to control the rudder, and thus continues perforce to drift down towards the ocean. In the infinite samsára, those beings who have obtained release from worldly ills within the Sasanas of the Buddhas who have appeared, whose numbers exceed the grains of sand on the banks of the river Ganges, are beings who had control over their minds and who possessed the ability of retaining their attention on any desired object at will through the practice of the Satipatthána.
This shows the trend of the wandering or 'course of existence' of those beings that do not practice the Satipatthána, even though they are aware of the fact that they have no control over their minds when it comes to the practice of samatha and vipassana (calm and insight).
Comparisons may also be made with the taming and training of bullocks for the purpose of yoking to ploughs and carts, and to the taming and training of elephants for employment in the service of the king, or on battlefields.
In the case of the bullock, the young calf has to be regularly herded and kept in a cattle-pen, then a nose-rope is passed through its nostrils and it is tied to a post and trained to respond to the rope's control. It is then trained to submit to the yoke, and only when it becomes amenable to the yoke's burden is it put to use for plowing and drawing carts and thus effectively employed for trade and profit. This is the example of the bullock.
In this example, just as the owner's profit and success depends on the employment of the bullock in the drawing of ploughs and carts after training it to become amenable to the yoke, so do the true benefits of lay persons and Bhikkhus within the present sasana depend on training in samatha and vipassana (calm and insight). In the present Buddha Sasana, the practice of sila-visuddhi (purification of virtue) resembles the training of the young calf by herding it and keeping it in cattle-pens. Just as if the young calf is not so herded and kept in cattle-pens it would damage and destroy the properties of others and thus bring liability on the owner, so if a person lacks sila-visuddhi, the three kamma  would run riot, and the person concerned would become subject to worldly evils and to the evil results indicated in the Dhamma.
The effort to develop kayagata-satipatthana  resembles the passing of the nose-rope through the nostrils and training the calf to respond to the rope after tying it to a post. Just as when a calf is tied to a post it can be kept wherever the owner desires it to be, and it cannot run loose, so when the mind is tied to the body with the rope called Satipatthána, that mind cannot wander but is obliged to remain wherever the owner desires it to be. The habits of a disturbed and distracted mind acquired during the inconceivably long samsára become appeased.
A person who performs the practice of samatha and vipassana (calm and insight) without first attempting kayagata-satipatthana (mindfulness as regards the body), resembles the owner who yokes the still untamed bullock to the cart or plough without the nose-rope. Such an owner would find himself unable to drive the bullock at his desire. Because the bullock is wild, and because it has no nose-rope, it will either try to run off the road, or try to break loose by breaking the yoke.
On the other hand, a person who first tranquillizes and trains his mind with kayagata-satipatthana-bhavana (contemplation of the body) before turning his mind to the practice of samatha and vipassana (calm and insight), his attention will remain steady and his work will be successful.
In the case of the elephant, the wild elephant has first to be brought out from the forest into the field hitched to a tame trained elephant. Hence it is taken to a stockade and tied up securely until it is tame. When it thus becomes absolutely tame and quiet, it is trained in the various kinds of work in which it will be employed in the service of the king. It is only then that it is used in state functions and on battlefields.
The realm of sensual pleasures resembles the forest where the wild elephant enjoys himself. The Buddha Sasana resembles the open field into which the wild elephant is first brought out. The mind resembles the wild elephant. Faith (saddha) and desire (chanda) in the sasana-Dhamma resemble the tame elephant to which the wild elephant is hitched and brought out into the open. Sila-visuddhi (purification of virtue) resembles the stockade. The body, or parts of the body, such as out-breath and in-breath resemble the post in the stockade to which the elephant is tied. Kayagati-sati resembles the rope by which the wild elephant is tied to the post. The preparatory work towards samatha and vipassana resembles the preparatory training of the elephant. The work of and samatha and vipassana resembles the parade ground or battlefield of the king. Other points of comparison can now be easily recognized.
Thus have I shown by the examples of the mad man, the boatman, the bullock, and the elephant, the main points of kayagata-sati, which is by ancient tradition the first step that has to be undertaken in the work of proceeding upwards from sila-visuddhi within the Sasanas of all the Buddhas who have appeared in the past inconceivably long samsára.
The essential meaning is, whether it be by out-breathing or in-breathing, or by iriyapatha (four postures--going, standing, sitting, lying) or by sampajanna, (clear-comprehension), or by dhatu-manasikara (advertence of mind on the elements), or by atthika-sanna (contemplation of bones), one must put forth effort in order to acquire the ability of placing one's attention on one's body and its postures for as long as one wishes throughout the day and night at all waking hours. If one can keep one's attention fixed for as long as one wishes, then mastery has been obtained over one's mind. Thus does one attain release from the state of a mad man. One now resembles the boatman who has obtained mastery over his rudder, or the owner of the tamed and trained bullock, or the king who employs the tamed and trained elephant.
There are many kinds and many grades of mastery over the mind. The successful practice of kayagata-sati is, in the Buddha Sasana, the first stage of mastery over one's mind.
Those who do not wish to follow the way of samatha (calm), but desire to pursue the path of pure vipassana, which is the way of the sukkha-vipassaka  individual, should proceed straight to vipassana after the successful establishment of kayagata-sati. If they do not want to practice kayagata-sati separately and if they mean to practice vipassana with such industry that it may carry kayagata-sati with it, they will succeed, provided that they really have the necessary wisdom and industry. The kayagata-sati that is associated with udayabbaya-nana (knowledge arising from contemplation of the arisings and vanishings of mental and physical phenomena), which clearly sees their coming into existence and passing away, is very valuable indeed.
In the samatha (calm) method, by practicing the kayagata-sati of out-breathing and in-breathing, one can attain up to rupavacara-catuttha-jhana (the fourth Jhana of the form-sphere); by practicing vanna-mana-sikara  of the kayagata-sati of the thirty-two parts of the body, such as kesa (hair of the head), loma (hair of the body), etc., one can attain all the eight Samapatti  and by practicing  patikula-manasikara of the same kayagata-sati one can attain the first jhana. If vipassana (insight) is attained in the process, one also can attain the Paths and the Fruits.
Even if completion is not arrived at in the practice of samatha and vipassana (calm and insight), if the stage is reached where one attains control over one's mind and the ability to keep one's attention fixed on wherever one wishes it to be, it was said by the Buddha that such a one can be said to be one who enjoys the savor of amata nibbána. 
'Amatam paribhuttam, These who enjoy kayagata-sati,
Yesam kayagata sati paribhutta.' enjoy amata (nibbána).
Here, amata (nibbana) means great peacefulness or tranquility of mind. 
In its original natal state, the mind is highly unstable in its attentiveness, and thus is parched and hot in its nature. Just as the insects that live on capsicum are not aware of its heat, just as beings pursuing the realm of tanha (craving) are not aware of tanha's heat, just as beings subject to anger and pride are not aware of the heat of pride and anger, so are beings unaware of the heat of unsettled minds. It is only when, through kayagata-sati, the unsettlement of their minds disappear, do they become aware of the heat of unsettled minds. Having attained the state of the disappearance of that, they develop a fear of a relapse to that heat. The case of those who have attained the first jhana, or udayabbaya-nana, through kayagata-satipatthana needs no elaboration.
Hence, the higher the attainments that one reaches, the more does it become difficult for one to be apart from kayagata-sati The ariya puggala (holy ones) use the four Satipatthána as mental nutriment until they attain Parinibbána.
The ability to keep one's attention fixed on parts of the body, such as out-breath and in-breath, for one or two hours takes one to the culmination of one's work in seven days, or fifteen days, or a month, or two months, or three months, or four months, or five months, or six months, or a year, or two years, or three years, according to the intensity of one's efforts. For the method of practicing out-breathing and in-breathing, see my Anapana Dipani.
There are many books by past teachers on the method of the thirty-two parts of the body. In this method, kesa (hair of the head), loma (hair of the body), nakha (nails), danta (teeth), taco (skin) are known as taca-pancaka (group ending with taco as the fifth). If attention can be firmly fixed on these five, the work of kayagata-sati is accomplished.
For catu-dhatu-vavatthana (analysis of the four great primaries), rupa-vipassana (contemplation of physical phenomena), and nama-vipassana (contemplation of mental phenomena), see my Lakkhana Dipani, Vijja-Magga Dipani, Ahara Dipani, and Anattá Dipani.
Here ends a concise explanation of kayagtasati-bhavana, which is one of the four Satipatthána, and which has to be established first in the work of bhávaná (mental contemplation) by neyya and padaparama individuals for the purpose of attaining the Paths and the Fruits within a Buddha Sasana.
Here ends Satipatthána.
43. Please see the Light of the Dhamma, Vol. III, No. 4, Digha-Nikáya
Maha-Vagga, Mahasatipatthana Sutta, p. 231, 6th Syn. Edn.
44. Eye-consciousness, ear-consciousness, nose-consciousness, tongue-
consciousness, body-consciousness, and mind-consciousness.
45. Eye-door, ear-door, nose-door, tongue door, body-door and mind-
46. Verse relating to the nine inherent qualities of the Buddha.
Please see Brahmajala Sutta and Samannaphala Sutta published by the
Union Buddha Sasana Council.
47, Called 'wut' in Burmese.
48. The Four sublime states, namely, mettá (loving-kindness), karuna
(compassion), mudita (altruisic joy), and upekkha (equanimity).
49. Dhammapada, verse 116.
50. The tenfold unwholesome action:
kavakamma--threefold bodily action: killing, stealing, improper
vacikamma--one verbal action: lying, slandering, rude speech,
manokamma--threefold mental action: avarice, ill-will, wrong views.
51. Mindfulness with regard to the body.
52. One who practices vipassana only.
53. Advertence of mind to color or appearance. Part of the exercise of
reflection on the thirty-two parts of the body. sphere and formless
54. Eight sustained consciousness--Eight trances of the form sphere.
55. Contemplation of loathsomeness
56. Contemplation of loathsomeness.
57. Anguttara-Nikáya, Ekaka-Nipata, 20 Amata-Vagga Sutta, p. 47, 6th
58. This means kilesa nibbána.
III, The Four Sammappadhana
The definition of sammappadhana is:
Bhusam dhahati vahatiti padhanam,
Sammadeva padhanam sammappadhanam.
(Can carry out exceedingly: hence it is called padhana. Dhamma that can carry out properly and exceedingly: hence they are called sammappadhana.)
Effort that has not in it any element of unwillingness is called sammappadhana. It is also called atapa-viriya. It is effort that can evoke the taking of great pains physically and mentally. It is effort that possesses four characteristics. These four characteristics are:
Kamam taco ca nharu ca,
Atthi ca avasissatu.
Sarire upasussatu mamsalohitam,
Yam tam purisathamena purisaviriyena purisaparakkamena
Na tam apapunitva viriyassa santhanam bhavissati. 
(Let only my skin, and sinews, and bones remain, and let my flesh and blood in the body dry up, I shall not permit the course of my effort to stop until I win that which may be won by human ability, human effort and human exertion.)
These characteristics may be summed up as follows:
1. Let the skin, remain
2. Let the sinews remain
3. Let the bones remain
4. Let the flesh and blood dry up.
It is effort that calls forth the determination 'If the end is attainable by human effort, I shall not rest or relax until it is attained, until the end is grasped and reached.' It is the effort of the kind put forth by the Venerable Bhikkhu Sona  and the Venerable Cakkhupala.
It is only when the jhana, the Paths, and the Fruits are not attained after effort is put forth on this scale, as prescribed by the Buddha, throughout one's life, can it be said that the cause (of the failure) lies in the nature of the present times, or in one being dvi-hetuka (born with two root conditions only), or in one's lack of sufficient previously accumulated parami.
In this world, some persons, far from putting forth the full scale of the effort prescribed by the Buddha, do not even try to set up kayagata-sati effectively in order to cure their minds of aimless drifting, and yet they say that their failure to attain the Paths and the Fruits is due to the fact that these are times that preclude such attainment. There are others of the same class who say that men and women of the present day have not the necessary accumulation of parami to enable them to attain the Paths and the Fruits. There are yet others of the same class who say that men and women of the present day are dvi-hetuka. All these people say so because they do not know that these are times of the neyya class of individuals who fail to attain the Paths and the Fruits because they are lacking in sammappadhana effort.
If proper sammappadhana effort be put forth with pahitatta intention, where a thousand put forth effort, three, four or five hundred of them can attain the supreme achievement; if a hundred put forth effort, thirty, forty, or fifty of them can attain the supreme achievement. Here, pahitatta intention means 'determination to adhere to the effort throughout one's life and to die, if need be, while still making the effort.'
The Venerable Sona Thera's effort consisted of keeping awake throughout the three months of the vassa (rainy season), the only body postures adopted being sitting and walking. The Venerable Cakkhupala's effort was of the same order. The Venerable Phussadeva Thera  achieved the Paths and the Fruits only after twenty-five years of the same order of effort. In the case of the Venerable Mahasiva  Thera, the effort lasted thirty years.
At the present day, there is a great need for such kind of sammappadhana effort. It happens that those who put forth the effort have not sufficient foundations in the pariyatti (learning of the doctrine), while those who possess sufficient pariyatti foundations live involved in the palibodha (obstacles) of the business of Bhikkhus, according as they live in towns and villages, such as discussing the Dhamma, delivering sermons and discourses, and writing books on the Dhamma. They are persons who are unable to put forth sammappadhana effort for lengthy periods without a break.
Some persons are wont to say that when their parami become mature and the time becomes ripe for them to attain release from worldly ills they can easily obtain that release and that as such, they cannot put forth effort now when they are not certain whether of not that effort will result in release. They do not appear to compare the suffering occasioned by thirty years' effort now with the suffering they will encounter if, in the interim before they attain release, they are cast in the hell regions for a hundred thousand years. They do not appear to remember that the suffering occasioned by thirty years' effort is not as bad as the suffering caused by just three hours in the hell regions.
They may say that the situation will be the same if no release is attained after thirty years' effort. But if the person is sufficiently mature for release, he will attain that release through that effort. If he is not sufficiently mature, he will attain release in the next life. Even if he fails to attain release within the present Buddha Sasana, bhavana-acinna-kamma (the kamma of repeated efforts at mental development) is a powerful kamma. Through it he can avoid the apaya regions and can meet the next Buddha after continuous rebirths in the sugati existence (happy course of existence). In the case of those who do not put forth the effort, they will miss the opportunity of release even though they are mature enough to obtain release through thirty years' effort. For lack of effort they have nothing to gain and everything to lose. Let all, therefore, acquire the eye of wisdom, and beware of the danger.
There are four kinds of sammappadhana,  namely:
5. Uppannanam akusalanam dhammanam pahanaya vayamo,
6. Anuppannanam akusalanam dhammanam anuppadaya vayamo,
7. Anuppannanam kusalanam dhammanam uppadaya vayamo,
8. Uppannanam kusalanam dhammanam bhiyyobhaya vayamo.
9. Effort to overcome or reject evil unwholesome acts that have arisen, or are in the course of arising;
10. Effort to avoid (not only in this life but also in the lives that follow) the arising of unwholesome acts that have not yet arisen;
11. Effort to arouse the arising of wholesome acts that have not yet arisen;
12. Effort to increase and to perpetuate the wholesome acts that have arisen or are in the course of arising.
Uppanna And Anuppanna Akusala Kamma
In the personality of every being wandering in samsára (round of rebirths) there are two kinds of akusala kamma (unwholesome volitional actions), namely:
13. Uppanna akusala kamma
14. Anuppanna akusala kamma.
Uppanna akusala kamma means past and present akusala kamma.
They comprise unwholesome volitional actions committed in the interminable series of past world-cycles and past lives. Among these akusala kamma, there are some that have spent themselves by having produced rebirths in the apaya-loka. There are others that await the opportunity of producing rebirths in the apaya-loka, and thus constitute potentialities for rebirth in the apaya-loka that accompany beings from world-cycle to world-cycle and from life to life.
Every being in whom sakkaya-ditthi (personality-belief) resides, be he a human being, or a deva, or a Brahma, possesses an infinitely large store of such past debts, so to say, consisting of akusala kamma (unwholesome volitional actions) that have in them the potentiality of producing rebirths in the lowest Avici Hell. Similarly, there are infinite stores of other kamma capable of producing rebirths in the other apaya-loka. These past kamma which await a favorable opportunity for producing rebirth resultants and which accompany beings from life to life until they are expended are called uppanna.
These past uppanna akusala kamma have their roots in sakkaya-ditthi (personality-belief). As long as sakkaya-ditthi exists they are not expended without producing resultants. There is no case of past kamma expending itself without producing due resultants. But when, with insight into the anattá-lakkhana (characteristic of impersonality), one rids oneself of sakkaya-ditthi (personality-belief), from that instant all the uppanna akusala kamma lose their potentiality and disappear from the store of past akusala kamma. From that existence, one will no longer become subject to rebirth in the apaya-loka in future samsára, even in one's dreams.
Anuppanna akusala kamma means future akusala kamma. Beginning with the next instant in this life, all the new evil and unwholesome acts that one commits, whenever opportunity occurs in the course of this present life and in the succession of lives that are to follow, are called antippanna. These new akusala duccarita kamma (evil and unwholesome volitional actions) that one can commit even during a single lifetime can be infinite in number.
All these anuppanna akusala kamma have their origin in sakkaya-ditthi.
If at any time sakkaya-ditthi disappears, all the new anuppanna akusala kamma also disappear even at that instant, from the personality of the beings concerned, leaving no residue. Here, 'disappear' means that there will be no occasion, starting from the next instant, in future succession of lives and future succession of world-cycles, when new akusala kamma are perpetrated. Throughout future anamatagga-samsara (beginning less round of rebirths), those beings will not commit, even in their dreams, any akusala kamma (unwholesome volitional action) such as panatipata (killing any living being).
If sakkaya-ditthi remains, even though the being is a universal monarch exercising sway over the whole universe, he is, as it were, sandwiched between hell-fires in front and hell-fires at the back, and is thus hedged in between the two akusala kamma of uppanna and anuppanna. He is thus purely a creature of hell-heat. Similarly, the kings of the deva loka, Sakka, the king of the tavatimsa-deva-loka, the Brahmas of the rupa and arupa Brahma-loka, are all purely creatures of hell-heat. They are creatures that are hitched on to the chains of hell and the apaya regions. In the great whirlpool of samsára, they are purely creatures who drift or sink.
In the infinitely long samsára, beings have to cultivate the desire for encountering a Buddha Sasana, which is an extremely difficult achievement. Hedged in as they are, from before and behind, by the hell-fires of uppanna and anuppanna akusala kamma, they have to cultivate earnestly the desire to extinguish those fires once and for all. Hence, those beings who do encounter Buddha Sasanas have to make the extinguishing of the hell-fires of uppanna and anuppanna their sole task for their future welfare.
The task of extinguishing the akusala kamma of uppanna and anuppanna consists of ridding oneself of sakkaya-ditthi and no more. If sakkaya-ditthi is uprooted, the two-akusala kamma (unwholesome volitional actions) are entirely extinguished.
'Bon-sin-san' Sotápanna’s, like Visakha and Anathapindika, who are infinitely numerous among humans, devas, and Brahmas, are beings who have obtained release from the state of sinking and drifting in the great whirlpool of samsára (round of rebirths) from the moment sakkaya-ditthi was uprooted. They are beings who have attained the first stage of Nibbána called sa-upadisesa-nibbana (Nibbána with the five constituent groups of existence remaining). Although they are liable to wander in the round of rebirths for many more lives and many more world-cycles, they are no longer worldly beings. Having become 'bon-sin-san' ariyas (noble ones), they are beings of the lokuttara (supra-mundane sphere).
Here ends the part showing uppanna and anuppanna akusala kamma from which sotápanna’s have obtained their release.
Uppanna And Anuppanna Kusala Kamma:
I shall now show the division of kusala kamma (wholesome volitional actions) into uppanna and anuppanna, first with reference to the three sasanas of síla (morality), samádhi (concentration), and pannac (wisdom), and second with reference to the seven visuddhi of sila-visuddhi, citta-visuddhi, ditthi-visuddhi, kankha-vitarana-visuddhi, magga-magga-nana-dassana-visuddhi, patipada-nana-dassana-visuddhi and lokuttara-nana-dassana-visuddhi.
When it is said that samsára (round of rebirths) is very terrifying, it is because of the duccarita (evil deeds) of uppanna and anuppanna, which have ditthi (wrong views) as their root. When it is said that there is no hiding place, no haven, nowhere on which one can depend, it is because of the self-same duccarita and ditthi.
When ditthi is extinguished, both old and new duccarita are also extinguished. When old and new duccarita are extinguished, release from the samsára of apaya-loka is attained, and only exalted stages in the states of humans, devas, and Brahmas remain. Since beings have to cultivate the desire for an encounter with a Buddha Sasana in order to secure release from the apaya samsára together with old and new duccarita, now that they have encountered a Buddha Sasana, in this existence, it behooves them to make the attempt of extinguishing the great evil of ditthi,
Ditthi is established in beings in three layers:
These layers are the realm of sakkaya-ditthi. They may be called coarse, middling, and fine ditthi.
I shall how show how the offspring’s of ditthi, the ten duccarita, enter into ditthi.
The coarse ditthi of vitikkama comprises the akusala kamma committed through overt acts and speech. The middling ditthi of pariyutthana comprises the evils that occur in thoughts. Anusaya-ditthi is the evil that lies latent in the personalities of beings throughout anamatagga-samsara though it may not yet result in manifestations of acts, speech, or thoughts.
It may be said that there are three kinds of fire in a matchbox. The first is the fire that lies latent in the whole box of matches. The second is the fire that ignites the matchstick when it is struck. The third is the fire that is transferred to another object when it is brought in contact with the flame of the matchstick. Such a fire is that which burns rubbish heaps, clothes, houses, monasteries and villages.
This fire, the fire that is transferred to another object, resembles the coarse vitakkama-ditthi. The fire that burns the matchstick resembles the middling pariyutthana ditthi, which is manifested in the mind every time it comes in contact with objects of thought. The fire that is latent in the box of matches resembles the fine anusaya-ditthi that resides in the personalities of beings throughout the succession of lives in anama-tagga-samsara.
This fire that lies latent in the box of matches does not burst into flame so long as the match head is not rubbed with the nitrous surface of the matchbox, It does not cause any harm even if it be kept in contact with highly inflammable articles such as gunpowder. In the same way, the anusaya-ditthi lies latent in the personality and does not manifest itself so long as it does not come into contact with evil objects of thought or other causes of evil. When, however, evil objects of thought or other causes impinge on the six sense-doors, the anusaya-ditthi is disturbed and begins to make itself manifest in the mind-door, or in the plane of the pariyutthana through the function of volition. If at that time the manifestations can be suppressed by good doctrines, they disappear from the pariyutthana plane and return to the anusaya plane and reside there as latent natural tendencies. If they cannot be suppressed, they continue to manifest themselves as developing volitions. If they are further disturbed (in the pariyutthana plane), they manifest themselves in the vitikkama plane in the form of evil speech or evil acts.
In this world, if a person can control himself in the vitikkama and pariyutthana planes, and if thereby his acts, speech, and thoughts are, so to say, clean and unsoiled, he is called a good, pious, or moral man. But such a person is not aware of the anusaya plane. If the anusaya plane is not destroyed, even if perfect control is exercised over the vitikkama and pariyutthana planes, such control can only be of a temporary nature. If the person is strong in the observance of good principles, the control can last for the whole of this life. But there can be no certainty about the next life, when upheavals in these two planes may recur.
Lobha (greed), dosa (hatred), and moha (delusion) also have each of them three planes.
In order to destroy these three planes of ditthi completely, men have to put forth effort in the three sikkha (trainings) of síla (morality), samádhi (concentration), and paññá (wisdom). They have to practice the seven visuddhi (purifications).
As far as lay folk are concerned, síla means ajivatthamaka-síla, which is nicca-sila for them. The atthanga-uposatha-sila and dasanga-síla add refinement to nicca-sila. It is a good thing to be able to observe them, but it does not matter much if they cannot be observed. For those people who assume the yellow garb of Isis  the ajivatthamaka-síla and dasanga-síla constitute síla. The atthanga-uposatha-sila is included in the dasanga-síla. For Bhikkhus, the catuparisuddhi-sila  constitutes síla.
The parikamma-bhávaná, upacara-bhávaná, and appana (also called the eight Samapatti ), which arise out of mindfulness in the body (such as in out-breath and in-breath), and in the bones of the body, constitute samádhi.
The four lokiya (mundane) visuddhi  beginning with ditthi- visuddhi, together with lokuttara (supra-mundane) nanadassana-visuddhi constitute paññá.
Among the three planes of ditthi, síla can destroy the vitikkama plane. This means that if one possesses sila-visuddhi, upheavals in acts and speech cannot occur. Samádhi can destroy the ditthi in the pariyutthana plane. This means that if bhávaná manasikara (concentration on the objects of meditation) is firmly established, upheavals in thought cannot occur. Paññá destroys the ditthi in the anusaya plane. This means that if insight is obtained into the entire body as mere groups of nama and rupa and as anicca, dukkha and anattá groups, the latent store of ditthi that may manifest itself in views of 'personality' (puggala), 'living being' (satta), 'permanency' (nicca), 'pleasure' (sukha), 'self' (attá) disappears. So long as this ditthi-anusaya exists, the destruction of the vitikkama plane by síla, and of the pariyutthana plane by samádhi, can be no more than temporary.
In the division of uppanna and anuppanna there are two methods:
18. Division based on this life as the starting point
19. Division based on past infinite samsára as the starting point.
I shall now show the method of division based on this life as the starting point. In those who have never undertaken to keep síla in this life, there is no uppanna síla. In those who at one time or other in this life have undertaken to keep síla, such síla is uppanna. In the same way, in the cases of samádhi and paññá, what was attained in the past is uppanna, and what had never been attained in the past is anuppanna.
In the method of division based on past samsára as the starting point, there are two kinds of síla: lokiya-síla and lokuttara-sila. Lokiya-síla is uppanna, because there is no being who at one time or other in the past samsára has not undertaken to keep lokiya-síla. Lokuttara-sila, as far as puthujjana are concerned, is anuppanna.
Samádhi, also, is of two kinds: lokiya and lokuttara. Since lokiya- samádhi had been attained on many occasions by beings in the past samsára, it is uppanna. Lokuttara-samadhi, as far as puthujjana are concerned, is anuppanna.
Paññá, also, is of two kinds: lokiya and lokuttara. Ditthi-visuddhi, kankha-vitarana-visuddhi, magga-magga-nana-dasana-visuddhi, and patipada-nana-dassana-visuddhi are lokiya-paññá. These lokiya-paññá are uppanna to those who have encountered Buddha Sasanas in the past, and anuppanna to those who have never encountered any Buddha Sasana. Lokuttara-nana-dassana-visuddhi is lokuttara-panna. As far as puthujjana are concerned, lokuttara-panna is anuppanna, since it had never at any time been attained in past samsára.
I shall now show the four points of viriya (effort).
The opportunity of ridding oneself completely of old uppanna akusala kamma arises only when one encounters a Buddha Sasana. The opportunity of preventing the appearance of new akusala kamma in the series of existences that are to follow is also one that can arise only when one encounters a Buddha Sasana. Even though one's samsára be infinitely long, if one does not encounter a Buddha Sasana, no opportunity of ridding oneself of these two classes of akusala kamma can arise. This is because the business of ridding oneself of these two akusala kamma is identical with the business of destroying the anusaya plane of sakkaya-ditthi. And, the destruction of the anusaya plane of ditthi is the work of anattá bhávaná, which appears only when a Buddha Sasana appears.
Those beings who are destined to be Pacceka-Buddhas (solitary Buddhas) had acquired first the seeds of anattá bhávaná during their encounter with a Buddha Sasana. When there is no Buddha Sasana in the world, even the mere sound of anattá is not heard. And, by 'the sound of anattá' is meant the sound of rupa, khandha, ayatana, dhatu, and paticca-samuppada. The whole of the Abhidhamma Pitaka is replete with the sound of anattá. So is the whole of Abhidhammattha-Sangha.
The work of anattá bhávaná consists, first, of fulfilling sila-visuddhi, then of setting up kayagata-sati, and after tranquillizing and controlling one's madly tempestuous and unstable mind, of putting forth effort in the work of samatha and vipassana. It is only when the plane of ditthi-anusaya is destroyed through such effort that all the uppanna and anuppanna miccha-ditthi and the duccarita disappear.
The effort to cause the appearance in one's personality of kusala kamma, which have not appeared before, and the effort to fix in one's personality the kusala kamma that have already appeared, consist of attempting the successful completion of anattá bhávaná after the establishment of kayagata-sati.
Uppanna And Anuppanna Síla
Anuppanna-síla, which has never occurred to puthujjana in the past infinite samsára, consists of sammavaca, sammakammanta, and samma-ajiva, which are comprised in sotapatti-magga and which have Nibbána as their object. This síla destroys the evil acts manifesting themselves in action, speech, and wrong modes of earning a living. From the moment that this destruction takes place, the evils appearing in the form of actions, speech, and modes of living do not appear again even for an instant throughout the succession of many lives and many world-cycles that follow.
This class of lokuttara-sila is achieved only when anattá bhávaná is successfully practiced. Beings must attempt to achieve this anuppana-sila while yet within a Buddha Sasana. It is meant by this that from the moment of setting up sila-visuddhi (together with kayagata-sati) up to the successful completion of anattá bhávaná, beings must attempt (without relaxation) to practice the thirty-seven bodhipakkhiya-dhamma.
Uppanna-síla, which has often occurred in past infinite samsára, means lokiya-síla or kamavacara-síla.  When it is said that attempt must be made to attain the state of fixation of that síla, it must be understood that there are two planes of lokiya-síla: niyama and aniyama. The state of an ariya is that of the niyama plane, while the state of a puthujjana is that of the aniyama plane.
The kamavacara-lokiya-síla attains the niyama plane in the personalities of sotápanna’s. Ariyas who are sotápanna’s do not transgress the ajivatthamaka-síla even in their dreams throughout the series of lives and world cycles that follow until the final attainment of Parinibbána.
In the case of puthujjana, however, the kamavacara-lokiya-síla is still in the aniyama plane. These persons have been virtuous and moral lay individuals on an infinite number of occasions in the past. They have also suffered in the apaya loka countless number of times. They have been virtuous Isis and Bhikkhus on other infinite number of occasions. In all their past existences, however, they have never been free from the danger of liability to rebirth in the apaya loka. Even now, the number of beings in the apaya loka is infinite and the number of humans, devas and Brahmas, on the brink of being born in the apaya loka is infinite.
Hence, beings possessing kamavacara-lokiya-síla, which is still aniyama, and which, so to say, resides in them for a temporary moment, should attempt, while there is yet opportunity within a Buddha Sasana, to transform it into niyama. They should set up kayagata-sati, and having done so, should practice the bodhipakkhiya-dhamma until the function of anattá bhávaná is successfully completed.
This completes the two-síla kusala kamma.
Uppanna And Anuppanna Samádhi
Samádhi also has two planes: niyama and aniyama. Similarly, there are two planes of paññá: niyama and aniyama.
Appana-samádhi, which is identical with the eight or nine Samapatti  as the case may be, becomes niyama only when one attains the Anagami stage. The paññá that carries the tadi  quality becomes niyama only at the stage of an arahant.
I shall now show the samádhi and paññá that sotápanna’s achieve. In accordance with the discourse in the Maha Vedalla Sutta,  wherein it is said:
Yo ca visakha samma-vayamo ya ca samma-sati yo ca samma-samádhi, ime Dhamma samadhikkhandhe sangahita.
Samma-vayama (right effort), sammasati (right mindfulness) and samma-samádhi (right concentration), which are comprised within sotapatti-magga (path of a stream-winner) having Nibbána as object, are called lokuttara-samadhi (supra-mundane concentration).
These three samádhi can extinguish, once and for all, that is by samuccheda-pahana,  the mental evils of abhijjha (covetousness) and byapada (ill-will), which have miccha-vayama (wrong effort), miccha-sati (wrong mindfulness), and miccha-samádhi (wrong concentration), as their roots. From the instant they are extinguished, the mental evils of abhijjha and byapada do not arise again throughout the many lives and world-cycles that may follow. It is the kind of samádhi that can be achieved only within a Buddha Sasana, when only appears anattá bhávaná. Hence, now that they have encountered a Buddha Sasana, beings should endeavor to achieve anuppanna-samadhi without fail, before they become severed from the sasana. This means that, beginning with kayagata-sati, they should practice the bodhipakkhiya-dhamma until they attain the successful culmination of anattá bhávaná.
Upanna-samadhi, which has occurred countless number of times in infinite past samsára, consists of kamavacara-samádhi, rupavacara- samádhi and arupavacara-samadhi. When it is said that attempt must be made to make uppanna-samadhi niyama, it must be understood that there are two planes in lokiya-samádhi: niyama and aniyama. The lokiya-samma-vayama, samma-sati and samma-samádhi, with which ariyas are endowed, are established in the niyama plane. The duccarita such as abhijja and byapada do not arise in them even in dreams throughout the succession of lives and world-cycles that follow until the final attainment of Parinibbána.
The group of lokiya-samádhi with which puthujjana are endowed is in the aniyama plane. In the infinite past samsára, these persons have been men of samádhi, Isis of samádhi, and Bhikkhus of samádhi, endowed with jhana and powers, such as the ability to fly through the air or go through the earth, during an infinite number of existences. In the life-period of every world-system, there are four kappa (world-cycles), each of infinite length. In three of these kappa, these puthujjana have been Brahmas in the Brahma-loka. In every one of these world-systems, there have also appeared the apaya loka. These apaya loka have been filled by these self-same Brahmas and no other. These puthujjana have been Brahmas, petas, beings of hell, animals and asuras. In the infinitely long samsára, the life-period of each of these world-systems is like but the period of the twinkling of an eye.
Thus, it behaves us all to endeavor to transform the aniyama lokiya samma-vayama, samma-sati and samma-samádhi (which we temporarily acquired in the past on many countless occasions) to niyama, while there is yet opportunity now when we are in the midst of a Buddha Sasana. We must, after first setting up kayagata-sati, practice the bodhipakkhiya- Dhamma until the successful completion of anattá bhávaná.
This ends the two-samádhi kusala kamma.
Uppanna And Anuppanna Paññá
In accordance with the discourse in the Maha Vedalla Sutta, wherein it is said:
Ya ca visakha samma-ditthi yo ca samma-sankappo ime Dhamma pannakkhandhe sangahita.
Samma-ditthi (right view) and samma-sankappa (right thinking), which are comprised in sotapatti-magga having Nibbána as their object, are called paññá. This paññá destroys the anusaya plane of sakkaya-ditthi completely, and dispels by samuccheda-pahana every vestige of miccha- ditthi and miccha-sankappa, together with the duccarita and durajiva,  once and for all. The old store of duccarita kamma also disappears completely. Release is obtained from the apaya samsára. From this instant, the evils of miccha-ditthi and the duccarita do not make an appearance throughout the series of future existences and future world-cycles.
This paññá appears only during a Buddha Sasana when anattá bhávaná appears. Hence, now that they have encountered a Buddha Sasana, beings should endeavor to attain this anuppanna-panna before they become severed from the sasana. This means that, starting with kayagata-sati, they should practice the bodhipakkhiya-dhamma until they attain the successful culmination of anattá bhávaná.
The kinds of paññá that have often occurred in the past infinite Samsara are kammassakata-samma-ditthi, all kinds of kamavacara knowledge and wisdom, and abhinna,  such as dibba-cakkhu (the celestial eye) and dibba-sota (the celestial ear).
When it is said that effort must be made to transform this paññá into niyama, it must be understood that there are two planes in lokiya-paññá: niyama and aniyama.
The lokiya samma-ditthi and samma-sankappa of ariyas are established in the niyama plane. From the moment they are thus established, and throughout the series of lives that follow until they attain Parinibbána they are in possession of kammassakata-samma-ditthi-nana (knowledge of right view of the fact that all beings have kamma only as their own property), pariyatti-nana (knowledge of the doctrine), patipatti-nana (knowledge of practice of the Dhamma), and knowledge of the Four Noble Truths.
The lokiya paññá which puthujjana possess is, however, established in the aniyama plane. In the series of existences of these puthujjana wandering in infinite samsára, they have sometimes been learned in the Dhamma, sometimes have acquired fame in their learning, sometimes have been great theras and great physicians, while at other times they have also been cockles, snails, worms, leeches, lice, bugs, maggots, ticks, etc.--creatures that could just be said to be alive.
Hence, while the opportunity of an encounter with a Buddha Sasana offers itself, effort must be made to transform the aniyama-panna (which is but a temporary or momentary acquisition) into niyama-paññá. This means that, starting with kayagata-sati, the bodhipakkhiya-dhamma should be practiced until the successful attainment of anattá bhávaná.
This ends the two paññá kusala kamma.
So long as the realm of sakkaya-ditthi (personality-belief), which has been continuously established in our personalities throughout the past infinite samsára, is not destroyed, the defilements such as lobha (greed), dosa (hatred), and moha (delusion), remain keen, numerous and strong. As such they may be said to be permanent native inhabitants resident within our bodies. In Such circumstances, síla (morality), samádhi (concentration) and paññá (wisdom), which are the enemies of these defilements, are like occasional alien visitors. Their visitation resembles the trespassing of enemy aliens into the kingdom of the ogre Alavaka, inhabited by wild and powerful ogres. Before long, these alien invaders become the food of these ogres, and their alien settlements are destroyed. On one occasion, five hundred Isis with jhana attainments came from the Himalaya regions to the mansion of Alavaka, but the ogres seized them one by one by their legs and threw them across the river Ganges. And thus the five hundred Isis were destroyed.
Hence, those laymen, Isis and Bhikkhus, who have encountered a Buddha Sasana in this life, who desire to rid themselves of evils in their future existences, and who wish to fix the Dhamma such as sila-visuddhi (purification of virtue) permanently in their personalities, should practice the Satipatthána appropriately with sammappadhana effort in order thus to destroy the anusaya plane of sakkaya-ditthi.
If they desire to free themselves from the insane and wild mind such as is possessed by the mad man, the incapable boatman, the man afflicted with hydrophobia, and the sick man who vomits his medicines (in the illustrations given under Satipatthána), and if they desire to fix their samádhi or transform it to niyama so as to enable them to keep their attention tranquil, steady, and fixed on any kammatthana object at will, they should practice the Satipatthána appropriately with sammappadhana energy in order thus to destroy the anusaya plane of sakkaya-ditthi.
If they desire to free themselves from the sammoha-dhamma (delusion) which can cast them into the utter darkness of the absence of wisdom, and which can extirpate all feelings of respect and reverence that they have harbored towards the infinite and noble qualities of the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Ariya Sangha, as also of the establishments of the sasana, leaving no traces in the existences that follow; if they desire to rid themselves of the great miccha-dhamma that have led them in the past infinite samsára to approach, respect, and pay reverence to all manner of spurious Buddhas, because as puthujjana they were not in a position to know the true Buddha, the true Dhamma, and the true Sangha; if they desire to attain, in the series of existences and world- cycles beginning with the present, that faith known as adhigama- saddha, and that wisdom know as adhigama-panna, by virtue of which they can continue to evoke respect and reverence without let or hindrance for the true Buddha, the true Dhamma, and the true Sangha; and if they desire to transform them to the niyama plane, they must practice the Satipatthána appropriately with sammappadhana energy with a view to destroy the anusaya plane of sakkaya-ditthi. Here, the appropriate practice of sammappadhana means that energy accompanied by the determination, which says: 'Let the skin remain; let the bones remain; etc.'
Here ends sammappadhana.
IV, The Four Iddhipadda
I shall now give a brief description of iddhipdda.
Ijjhanam iddhi, (ijjhanam: completeness; iddhi: completeness) (The state of reaching completeness or perfection).
(Note:--The PTS Dictionary says: 'There is no single word for iddhi as the idea is unknown in Europe. The main sense seems to be potency.' --Translator.)
In the Buddha Sasana there are five iddhi. They are:
1. Abhinneyyesu dhammesu abhinnasiddhi
2. Parinneyyesu dhammesu parinnasiddhi
3. Pahatabbesu dhammesu pahanasiddhi
4. Sacchikatabbesu dhammesu sacchikiriyasiddhi
5. Bhavetabbesu dhammesu bhavanasiddhi.
6. Completion of or perfection in acquiring special knowledge in those things in which special knowledge should be acquired, things such as rupa (material phenomena), nama (mental phenomena);
7. Completion of or perfection in acquiring full understanding in those things in which full understanding should be acquired, things such as dukkha-sacca (the Noble Truth of Suffering);
8. Completion of or perfection attained in the task of abandonment of those things that should be abandoned, things such as samudaya-sacca (the Noble Truth of the Cause of Suffering);
9. Completion of or perfection attained in the task of realization of those things that should be realized, things such as nirodha-sacca (the Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering);
10. Completion of or perfection attained in the task of development or cultivation of those things that should be developed or cultivated, things such as magga-sacca (the Noble Truth of the Path Leading to the Cessation of Suffering).
These are the five essential iddhi within a Buddha Sasana.
Abhinnasiddhi means: the completion of the task of knowing analytically the number and meaning of the paramattha Dhamma (ultimate truths) which one had no knowledge of while one was beyond the pale of a Buddha Sasana. A thorough knowledge of the Abhidhammattha Sangaha (a resume of all the essential doctrines of the Abhidhamma) amounts to abhinnasiddhi.
Parinnasiddhi means: the completion of acquiring full understanding of dukkha sacca, (the Noble Truth of Suffering) either through a knowledge of their lakkhana (characteristics), rasa (functions), paccupatthana (manifestations), and padatthana (proximate causes), or through a knowledge of the three characteristics of anicca (impermanence), dukkha (suffering), and anattá (impersonality), which they possess.
Pahanasiddhi means: the completion of the task of destroying the kilesa (defilements), which are samudaya sacca (the Noble Truth of the Cause of Suffering). In this book, since the main emphasis is placed on the attainment of the lowest class of sotápanna’s, namely the 'bon-sin-san' sotápanna’s, and not on the higher classes of ariyas (noble ones), the completion of the task of destroying sakkaya-ditthi (personality-belief) is pahanasiddhi. The task of dispelling vicikiccha (skeptical doubt) is comprised within the task of destroying sakkaya-ditthi.
Sacchikiriyasiddhi means: the completion of the task of realizing nirodha sacca (the Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering) both bodily and mentally. This task consists of the suppression and destruction of the kilesa (defilements).
Bhavanasiddhi means: the development of the three sikkha (trainings) of síla (morality), samádhi (mental concentration) and paññá (wisdom), until the attainment of lokuttara-magga-sacca. (supra-mundane Path leading to the cessation of suffering).
If the iddhi be classified according to the order of the visuddhi, the fulfillment of catuparisuddhi-sila in sila-visuddhi constitutes four iddhi. In citta-visuddhi, the fulfillment of the eight Samapatti together with parikamma-samádhi (preparatory concentration) and upacara-samádhi (neighborhood concentration), as the case may be, constitutes eight iddhi. The fulfillment of the five-lokiya abhinna (mundane higher spiritual powers), such as iddhividha-abhinna (supernormal powers), constitutes five iddhi. In the paññá-visuddhi the fulfillment of ditthi-visuddhi constitutes one iddhi. In this way, further iddhi may also be recognized.
Here ends the discussion of iddhi within the sasana.
Iddhiya pado iddhipado (iddhiya: of attaining completion or perfection; pado: root or basis. The root or basis of attaining completion or perfection. Hence it is called iddhipada).
There are four kinds of iddhipada. They are:
14. Vimamsiddhipado-vimamsa or paññá.
By chanda is meant desire to obtain, desire to attain, desire to reach, desire to fulfill, desire to accomplish, The desire indicated here is extreme or excessive desire. There is nothing within or without one's personality that can obstruct that desire. It is the kind of desire that evokes the thought, 'If I do not attain this accomplishment in this life, I shall not rest content. It is better that I die rather than that I shall not attain it.'
It is the kind of desire nurtured by King Dhammasonda of Banaras during the time of the Kassapa Buddha,  when the king said to himself, 'What use is there in my being king of Banaras if I do not get the opportunity of hearing a discourse of the Kassapa Buddha?' The king, therefore, relinquished his throne and went out in search of one who could repeat to him a discourse of the Kassapa Buddha, no matter though that discourse consisted of a short stanza only.
Such desire is appeased if it is fulfilled as in the case of King Bimbisara, Visakha, and Anathapindika. It is only when there are faint indications that the desire can be attained but is not fulfilled that the mind becomes troubled, and thoughts arise that it is better to die than live without attaining the desire.
Examples of such desire existed also in King Temiya, King Hatthipala, and kings, nobles, and rich men in the time of the Buddha who discarded their palaces, retinue and other luxuries to live the lives of Bhikkhus in the Buddha Sasana.
Viriya means sammappadhana viriya together with its four characteristics. A person with this viriya is infused with the thought that the aim can be attained by energy and effort. He is not discouraged even though it is said to him that he must undergo great hardships. He is not discouraged even though he actually has to undergo great hardships. He is not discouraged even though it is said to him that he must put forth effort for many days, months, and years. He is not discouraged even though he actually has to put forth effort for such long periods.
Those who are weak in viriya recoil from their task when confronted with work requiring great energy and effort. They shrink when told that they will have to stay apart from friends and associates. They shrink from the prospect of the necessity to be frugal in sleep and food. They shrink from the prospect of long periods of concentration. They resemble 'white dogs that dare not venture into thickets.' White dogs are afraid to enter brushes of reeds that are no more than a cubit high because they think that the brushes might harbor leopards, tigers, and elephants.
Citta means: attachment to iddhi when one comes in contact with the sasana and hears the Dhamma. It is attachment that is extremely ardent and strong.
Although one lives amidst the beauties and luxuries of the world, amidst acquired powers and fortunes, amidst the sacred books and the study of them, one is not allured, but one's mind is always turned towards the iddhi. One attains satisfaction and tranquility only when one's mind is absorbed in matters connected with the iddhi. It is like the absorption of the alchemist engaged in the transmutation of the baser metals into gold or silver. Such an alchemist has no interest in anything else but his alchemy. He forgets to sleep or whether he had slept or eaten. He does not notice anything when out walking. Citta is great absorption or attachment of this nature.
Vimamsa means: knowledge or wisdom that can clearly perceive the greatness of the sufferings of hell, and of the sufferings attendant on the round of rebirths. It is knowledge that can clearly perceive the advantages and benefits of the iddhi. It is knowledge that can dwell on the deep and difficult Dhamma, and on their nature. A person who possesses such knowledge can no longer find pleasure in any worldly pursuit except the pursuit of the iddhi. He finds gratification only in the acquisition of deep and profound iddhi. The deeper and more profound the Dhamma, the greater is his desire to attain them.
Those who are endowed with any one of these four iddhipada can no longer, during this life, admit or plead inability and remain without putting forth effort in the establishment of kayagata-sati, and the higher stages of the sasana such as citta-visuddhi, ditthi-visuddhi, etc. It is only those who have never possessed any one of these iddhipada, and who cannot differentiate between the shallowness and profoundness of life, between superficiality and deepness of the Dhamma, who adinit or plead inability and remain without making any endeavor.
A person endowed with any one of these four iddhipada can attain, according to his parami, the iddhi until he reaches lokuttara (supra-mundane) iddhi, either in this life or as a deva in the next life. The cases of those endowed with two, or three, or four, iddhi need no lengthy explanation.
In the cases of those persons who (far from possessing any of the iddhi) do not even possess any of the iddhipada, they should attempt to acquire one or other of these pada. They admit or plead inability only because they have not the desire to acquire the higher benefits of the sasana, such as the Satipatthána. They should regard this very admission of inability as a highway to the apayaloka. Thus, they should study, think and ponder, over the suttanta discourses that can arouse chanda. They should approach a teacher who can arouse chanda and rely on him.
Hence did the Buddha say:
(One should put forth effort to develop chanda; one should put forth effort to develop viriya; one should put forth effort to develop citta; and one should put forth effort to develop vimamsa.)
Some persons, far from attaining the iddhi, do not even try to attain the iddhipada. If they do not possess chanda, they do not even know that it is necessary to acquire chanda. They are persons who admit and plead inability and defeat. The same is true in the cases of viriya, citta, and vimamsa.
Steady application of the mind to kayagata-sati amounts to setting up pada. Studying the anecdotes dealing with samvega,  applying oneself to dhutanga  and such other practices of the Dhamma, is setting up viriya. Applying oneself to profound Dhamma, such as the four great primaries  amounts to setting up vimamsa.
If any one of the pada is established, then it is certain that the respective iddhi will be attained according to one's parami. Hence, it is stated in the commentaries that persons who do not possess any one of the iddhipada resemble the sons of a candala,  while persons possessing any one of the pada resemble the sons of an emperor. The sons of candala never aim at becoming an emperor because they have no basis, no pada, for the attainment of such an aim. Sons of emperors, however, always aim at becoming emperors because they are endowed with the bases for the attainment of such an aim.
Hence, wise persons of the present day should attempt to acquire the four iddhipada so that they can destroy the great establishment of sakkayadi-tthi (personality-belief), and to attain, within the sasana, the benefits of the higher attainments that can be attained according to one's parami.
59. Anguttara-Nikáya, Duka-Nipata, 9 Upannata Sutta p. 53, 6th Syn.Edn.
60. Vinaya Pitaka, Mahavagga, V 13, 1-10. 267, 6th Syn. Edn.
Sammohavinodani Attilakatha, page 262, 6th Syn. Edn.
61. Dhammapada, p. 2., 6th. Syn. Edn.
62. Silakkhandha-vagga Atthakatha p. 159, 6th Syn. Edn.
Mula-pannasa Atthakatha, Satipatthána Sutta Vannana, p. 262,
6th Syn. Edn.
63. Digha-Nikáya, Mahavagga Atthakatha, Saka Panha Sutta, p 319,
6th Syn. End.
64. Khuddaka-Nikaya, Patisamhbhidda-Magga, Maha-Vagga, p.214, 6th Syn.
Edn. Anguttara-Nikáya, Catukka-Nipata, Padhdna Sutta, p. 322, 6th
Syn. Edn. Abhidhammattha Sangaha, Samuccaya-Kanda Padhana.
65. Beings who are bound to attain higher and higher stages of
66. Please see the Light of Dhamma, Vol. VII-No. 1. p. 18
67. Please see the Light of the Dhammna Vol. VI-No. 4, p. 17.
68. Hermits; recluses; rishis.
69. The same as bhikkhu-sila. Please see the Light of the Dhamma.
Vol. VII No. 1. p. 15.
70. Sustained consciousness of the form-sphere and the formless-sphere.
71. 1. Ditthi-visuddhi (purification of view);
2. Kahkhavitarana-visuddhi (purification by overcoming doubt);
3. magga-magga-nanadassana-visuddhi (Purification by knowledge
and vision of what is and what is not Path);
4. Patipadananadassana-visuddhi (purification by knowledge and
vision the way).
72. Morality relating to the sensuous sphere.
73. Niyama: stable; unchangeable.
aniyama: unstable; changeable.
74. Eight Samapatti are eight sustained consciousness of the form-
sphere and the formless-sphere. Nine Samapatti are the above eight
Samapatti and nirodha-Samapatti (total suspension of mind).
75. Tadi: That cannot be influenced by the ups and downs of life.
76. Suttanta Pitaka, Majjhima-Nikáya, Mulapannasa-Maha Vedalla Sutta,
p. 365 Synod Edition.
77. Overcoming by destruction; eradication.
78. Wrong livelihood.
79. Higher psychic powers.
80. Samyutta Atthakatha Yakkha Samyutta, Alavaka Sutta Vannana,
p. 289. 6th Syn. Edn.
81. Firmly established saddha (faith).
82. Firmly established wisdom.
83. Rasavahini (Jambudipuppatti-katha)
84. Predecessor of Gotama Buddha.
85. Khuddaka-patha, 7. Tirokutta Sutta, p. 8 6th Syn. Edn.
Khuddaka-patha Atthkatha, Tirokutta Sutta Vannana p 168. 6th Syn. Edn.
Visakha and Anathapindika-Dhammapada Commentary Story relating to
86. Khuddaka-Nikaya. Jataka Pali book II; Mugapakkha Jataka, p. 149
6th Syn. Edn.
87. Khuddaka-Nikaya, Jataka Pali book 1. Hatthipala Jataka, p 351,
6th Syn. Edn.
87. Samyutta-Nikáya, Capala-vagga, Samatta. p.224, 6th Syn. Edn.
88. Samvega: Dread caused by the contemplation on the miseries of this
89. Dhutanga: Ascetic practice.
90. Samyutta-Nikáya, Mahavagga Samyutta. 7. Iddhipada Samyutta,
1. Capala-vagga, 6. Samatta, p 224, 6th Syn. Edn.
91. A man of low class.
V, The Five Indriya
Indassa kammam indriyam.
(Indassa--of the rulers, governors, or controllers; kammam--act, i.e. act of ruling, governing, or controlling; indriyam--hence called indriya).
(The act of ruling by rulers. Hence called indriya).
'The act of ruling by rules' means, wherever the ruler rules, nobody can go against him.
In this matter, the control or rule that one exercises over one's mind is the essential factor.
There are five indriya. They are:
Saddhindriya is saddha (faith). There are two kinds of saddha, namely:
The saddha (faith and confidence) that leads ordinary men and women to perform acts of Dana (alms-giving), síla (morality), and limitation bhávaná (mental concentration) is called pakati-saddha. Here, as was shown in the case of the mad man, although saddha is said to be a controlling factor, the control does not extend to the extent of controlling the unstable minds of ordinary folk in the work of bhávaná. Control is exercised over the instability only to the extent of leading to acts of Dana.
The mind never leans towards kusala kamma (wholesome volitional actions) without saddha, for ordinarily it takes delight only in evil acts. This is true also in the case of effort to achieve sila-visuddhi (purification of virtue), and in the study of the sacred texts. This is how pakati kusala kamma are produced by the control of pakati-saddha, which has not been developed.
In the work of kammatthana (practice of calm and insight), pakati- saddha has no control over the mind, for the mind is apt to react and rebound from that saddha and proceed elsewhere. In kammatthana work pakati-saddha is not sufficient.
Bhávaná-saddha prepares the seedbed, so to say, for the acquisition of great strength and power through the practice of bhávaná, such as kammatthana exercises in out-breath and in-breath, etc.
In the matter of the bodhipakkhiya-dhamma, it is this bhávaná-saddha that is called saddhindriya. In the matter of kammatthana exercises, it represents the disappearance of unstable and oscillating mental attention and the appearance of a clear and steady mind. The mind's attention can be steadily fixed only on those objects, which it finds clear and un-befogged. The practice of kayagata-sati, such as anapana (in-breath and out-breath), is the preparation of the seedbed for bhávaná-saddha. If the mind is fixed on kayagata-sati, such as out-breath and in-breath, it amounts to the attainment of bhávaná-saddha. If then the work be continued in the fields of samatha and vipassana, the ability to destroy the three planes of sakkaya-ditthi can be acquired even within this life. The work of samatha and vipassana needs, for their proper performance, the reliance on a teacher very learned in the Dhamma.
Viriyindriva is viriya. There are two kinds, namely:
Another classification is:
Pakati-viriya can be easily recognized. Persons who possess excessive pakati-viriya in worldly matters can easily attain bhávaná-viriya. The dhutanga of pindapatikanga, (the alms-food-eater's ascetic practice), nesajjikanga (the sitter's ascetic practice), rukkhamulikanga (the tree-root-dweller's ascetic practice), abbhokasikanga the open-air dweller's ascetic practice), sosanikanga, (the cemetery-dweller's ascetic practice) are kayika-viriya-bhávaná.
If, after setting up kayika-viriya-bhávaná, such as sleeping for short periods only and being alert and energetic, there is no cetasika-viriya, such as enthusiasm in bhávaná manasikara, steady application or concentration cannot be attained in the kammatthana objects, such as on out-breath and in-breath, and the period of work is unduly lengthened without achieving clearness of mind and perception.
In any kind of work, it is proper and appropriate only when the person performing it obtains quick mastery over it. It is improper if the work obtains mastery over the person. By 'the work obtains, mastery over the person' is meant that the work is done without real energy, as a result of which no concrete results appear, and as days and months drag on, distaste and tedium in body postures appear, leading to sloth. With the appearance of sloth, progress in work slows down, and with the slowing down of progress, further sloth develops. The idea then appears that it would be better to change the form of the work. Thus constant changes in form of work occur, and thus does work obtain mastery over the person lacking viriya.
In kammatthana work, quick success is obtained only by one endowed with both kayika-viriya and cetasika-viriya. From the moment kayagata- sati is set up, the viriya that develops day by day is bhávaná-viriya, and it is this viriya that in the bodhipakkhiya-dhamma is called viriyindriya. It represents the disappearance of sloth and laziness in kammatthana work and the appearance of enthusiasm and energy. The mind takes delight in dwelling on objects on which its attention is strong. Hence, the task of setting up bhávaná-viriya, and graded development, is identical with that of saddhindriya.
Satindriya means, in the matter of the bodhipakkhiya-dhamma, the setting up of kayagata-sati on parts of the body, such as on out-breath and in-breath, and the development of bhávaná-sati (called Satipatthána) until the attainment of lokuttara-samma-sati-magga (supra-mundane right mindfulness).
Samadhindriya and pannindriya may be defined similarly. Samadhindriya dispels the restlessness of the mind when it is applied in the work of Satipatthána on an object, such as out-breath and in-breath; pannindriya dispels confusion and laziness.
Saddhindriya, viriyindriya, and satindriya, which precede samadhindriya, are like those who raise a kingship. They raise the latter until the topmost excellence is attained.
After the setting up of kayagata-sati and the attainment of mastery over one's mind, if the samatha road be taken, samadhindriya becomes the eight Samapatti, while pannindriya becomes the five abhinna  (higher spiritual powers), such as iddhividha (supernormal powers); if the vipassana road is taken, samadhindriya becomes sunnata-samadhi (emptiness-concentration), animitta-samadhi (condition less- concentration), appanihita-samadhi (desire less-concentration), and pannindriya becomes the five paññá-visuddhi beginning with ditthi-visuddhi, the three anupassana-nana, the ten vipassana-nana, the four magga-nana, the four phala-nana, and the nineteen paccavekkhana-nana.
This shows how the five indriya occur together.
It is now proposed to show where each of these indriya forms predominant factors.
Kattha saddhindriyam datthabbam? Catusu sotapattiyangesu ettha saddhingesu ettha saddhindriyam datthabam.  (Where should one look for saddhindriya? One should look for it in the four constituents of sotapatti,). This means that saddhindriya predominates in the four constituents of sotapatti. These four constituents are:
12. Unshakeable faith in the noble qualities of the Buddha, qualities such as araham, sammasambuddho, etc.
13. Unshakeable faith in the noble qualities of the Dhamma, qualities such as svakhata, etc.
14. Unshakeable faith in the noble qualities of the Sangha, qualities such as suppatipanna, etc.
15. Completely or perfectly endowed with the padatthana (proximate causes) of lokuttara-samadhi, i.e. sila-visuddhi (purification of virtue).
These are the four factors that ensure the attainment of sotapatti- magga-nana (knowledge pertaining to the path of the stream winner) within the compass of this life.
In the passage 'Buddhavecca pasadena samannagato ' of the Pali Text in question, 'aveccapasada' means 'unshakeable faith.' It is the saddha of those who have attained upacara-samádhi (access concentration) while reflecting on the noble qualities of the Buddha. 'Upacarasamadhi' means steady and fixed attention achieved while reflecting on the noble qualities of the Buddha (such as araham) just as in the case of those who have attained the Samapatti in jhana. When one sees such steady and fixed attention, one must know that saddha's control is predominant. Such a person is one who attains mastery over his mind in the matter of faith in the noble qualities of the Buddha. The same is true in regard to the noble qualities of the Dhamma and the Sangha.
'Foundation of lokuttara samádhi, i.e. sila-visuddhi, means Ajivatthamaka-nicca-sila (morality ending with right livelihood as the eighth precept) which can enable one to attain lokuttara-samadhi in this very life. When that síla is unbroken and pure, it is free from the defilements of tanha (craving), mana (conceit), and ditthi (wrong view), and as such one must understand that saddha is prominent in that síla. Inability to observe the requirements of the síla is called 'breaking' it. Although the síla may be technically unbroken, if it is observed amidst ordinary worldly conditions, it is said to be 'impure.' In accordance with the saying 'the worth of a bull can be known only on the ascent from the bed of a stream to the banks', lay persons and Bhikkhus who profess to be followers of the Buddha can know whether or not the turbulence and distractions latent in their minds have disappeared, i.e. whether or not they have obtained mastery over their minds, only when they arrive at these four constituents.
Kattha viriyindriyam datthabbadam? Catusu sammappadhanesu ettha viriyindriyam datthabbam.  (Where should one look for viriyindriya? One should look for it in the four constituents of sammappadhana.)
Lay persons and Bhikkhus who profess to be followers of the Buddha can know whether or not the dissettlement and turbulence of their minds in the matter of viriya have disappeared and whether or not they are thus persons who have obtained mastery over their minds, only when they come to the four constituents of sammappadhana.
'Let my skin remain, let my sinews remain, let my bones remain, let my blood dry up, I shall not rest until the realm of sakkaya-ditthi, the realm of the duccarita, and the apayasamsara, that are in my personality, are destroyed in this life.' This is the singleness of determination and effort in sammappadhana. It is the effort of the same order as the Venerable Cakkhupala's.  When one encounters such determination and effort, one must recognize in it the predominating control of viriya over the mind. In the matter of viriya, the dissettlement and turbulence of the mind have disappeared in such a person, and he is one within the Buddha Sasana who has obtained mastery over his mind.
Kattha satindriyam datthabbam? Catusu satipatthanesa ettha satindriyam datthabbam.  (Where should one look for satindriya? One should look for it in the four Satipatthána).
Lay persons and Bhikkhus who profess to be followers of the Buddha can know whether or not the dissettlement and turbulence of their minds in the matter of sati (mindfulness) have disappeared, and whether or not they are thus persons who have obtained mastery over their minds, only when they arrive at the four constituents of the Satipatthána. If the attention can be kept fixed on any part of the body, such as out-breath and in breath, by the successful practice of kayagata-sati for as long as is desired, then it must be recognized as the control exercised by sati. The dissettlement and turbulence of the mind of such a person have disappeared. He is one who has obtained mastery over his mind.
Kattha samadhindriyam ditthabbam? Catusu jhanesu ettha samma- dhindriyam datthabbam. (Where should one look for samadhindriya? One should look for it in the four jhana).
If in the work of samatha, such as out-breath and in-breath, the successful accomplishment in the least of upacara-samádhi bhávaná (contemplation of access-concentration) is attained, and if thereby the nivarana such as kamacchanda (sensuous desire), byapada (ill-will), etc., which have continuously in the past samsára been running riot in the mind, are removed, the attention of the mind on the objects of samatha becomes specially steady and tranquil. This must be recognized as arising out of the function of the predominant control exercised by samádhi. The dissettlement and disturbances of the mind in the matter of samádhi have disappeared from such an individual. He is one who has obtained mastery over his mind.
Kattha pannindriyam datthabbam? Catusu ariyasaccesu ettha pannindriyam datthabbam. (Where should one look for pannindriya? One should look for it in the Four Noble Truths).
Among persons who encounter a Buddha Sasana, knowledge of the Four Noble Truths is of supreme value. Only when this knowledge is acquired can they obtain release from the realm of sakkaya-ditthi, and that of the duccarita, and from the apaya samsára. Hence, in order to acquire a knowledge of the Four Noble Truths, they attempt in the least to obtain insight into the six dhatu (or basic constituent elements) of pathavi, apo, tejo, vayo, akasa and vinnana,  or insight into their fleeting and unstable nature--how they do not last for more than the twinkling of an eye at a time (so to say) and how they are continually being destroyed--through such methods of practice as studying, memorizing, reciting, cogitating, listening, discussing, questioning, practicing insight exercises, and contemplating. If a clear insight is obtained into these six elements, there is no necessity for special practice with regard to the remaining Dhamma.  If the nature of anicca (impermanence) can be clearly realized the realization of anattá (impersonality) follows as a matter of course. 
The realization of the nature of dukkha can be accomplished in its entirety only when one attains the stage of arahatta-phala (fruition of holiness).
Thus, after putting forth effort for lengthy periods, when insight is obtained into the nature of the six elements both within and without oneself, as well as into the nature of their impermanency, fixity of attention on them is achieved. This must be recognized as arising out of the predominant control exercised by paññá. The unreliability that had been a feature of one's mind throughout past infinite samsára gradually disappears.
Here, 'unreliability of one's mind' means the perception of permanency in things that are impermanent, of happiness in suffering, of pleasantness in loathsomeness, of self in non-self, of individuals in non-individuals, of beings in non-beings, of human in non-humans, of devas, sakka and brahmas, of women, men, bullocks, buffaloes, elephants, horses in non-men, non-bullocks, non-buffaloes, non-elephants, and non-horses. Freedom from unreliability means perceiving the true reality after having obtained mastery over the mind within the Buddha Sasana.
If dukkha-sacca or the Noble Truth of Suffering be clearly perceived, it follows as a matter of course that the other three sacca can also be clearly perceived. In the perception of these Four Truths, the way that puthujjana perceive them is known as anubodha, while the way of the ariyas is known as pativedha. Anubodha knowledge is like seeing a light at night but not the fire. Although the fire cannot be directly seen, by seeing the reflected light one can know without doubt that there is a fire. Seeing the fire directly is like pativedha knowledge.
The meaning of these Pali passages uttered by the Buddha is that the five indriya (mental faculties) should be practiced and developed in order to facilitate the great work of samatha and vipassana.
The aggregate that we call the body (khandha) of a person who has not developed these five indriya is like a country without a ruler or king. It is like the forests and mountains inhabited by wild tribes where no administration exists. In a ruler less or kingless country there is no law. There, the people are unrestrained. Like animals, the strong prey on the weak. In the same way, the mind of a person who has not developed the five indriya is distracted, and runs riot with defilements. Just as a person possessed by evil spirits cannot bear to hear the sound of such verses as 'itipiso' or 'hetu paccayo', when persons without developed indriya hear talks connected with the cause of contentment (paccaya santosa) or with the practice of mental development (bhavanarambha), they quickly discover antithetic criticisms. In them, the desire to exert themselves in the work of samatha and vipassana never arises.
On the other hand, the khandha of a person who develops the five indriya resembles a country ruled by a just and lawful king. It resembles the towns and hamlets of the majjhima-desa (mid-country) where governmental administration exists. Such a person is not disturbed by the variegated theories of various persons. He is confirmed in the sole way of the Buddha's teachings. When such a person hears talks connected with the cause of contentment, or the practice of mental development, his mind is clear and cool. He is confirmed in the desire to exert himself in the work of samatha and vipassana.
In this way, the arising of two kinds of desires in this world is not the work of beings or individuals, but depends on the existence or otherwise of development of the five indriya. If there is no development of the indriya, one kind of desire arises. If there is development of the indriya, that desire disappears and a new kind of desire invariably appears. The more the development of the indriya proceeds, the more does this new desire increase and gather strength. When all the five indriya are set up, the desire for the Paths and the Fruits will immediately appear. Thus must beings develop the five indriya in order to raise pakati-saddha, viriya, sati, samádhi and paññá (which are insignificant) to great heights.
92. The five mundane abhinna are:
1. iddhividha (supernormal powers),
2. dibba-sota (the celestial ear),
3. paracitta-vijana (knowledge of the minds of others),
4. pubbenivasa (knowledge of former existences, and
5. dibba-cakkhu (the celestial eye).
93. 1) purification of view, 2) purification by overcoming doubt,
3) purification by knowledge and vision of what is and what is
not Path, 4) purification by knowledge and vision of the
way 5) purification by knowledge and vision.
94. 1) aniccanupassana (contemplation of impermanence).
2) dukkhanupassana (contemplation of suffering).
3) anattanupassana (contemplation of impersonality)
95. The ten insight-knowledge’s are:
1) sammasana-nana (insight into the three characteristics of
2) udayabbayanupassana-nana (insight into rising and passing
away of phenomena).
3) bhanganupassand-nana (insight into passing away).
4) bhayanupassana-nana (insight into fearful condition).
5) adinavanupassana-nana (insight into faulty condition).
6) nibbidanupassana-nana (insight into wearisome condition).
7) muccitu-kamyata-nana (insight arising from desire to
8) patisahkhanupassana-nana (insight arising out of further
9) sahkharupekkha-nana (insight arising from equanimity).
10) anuloma-nana (adaptation knowledge).
96. Knowledge’s of the four holy Paths.
97. Knowledge’s of the four holy Fruitions.
98. Paccavekkhana-nana: reviewing knowledge’s.
He reviews the Path in this way: 'So this is the Path I have
come by'. Next he reviews the Fruition after that in this
way: 'This is the blessing I have obtained'. Next he reviews
the defilements that have been abandoned: 'These are:
the defilements abandoned by me.' Next he reviews the
defilements still to be eliminated by the three higher paths:
'These are the defilements still remaining in me.' Lastly he
reviews the deathless Nibbána in this way: 'This is the state
(Dhamma) that has been penetrated by me as object.' So the
noble disciple who is a stream-winner has five kinds of
reviewing. And as in the case of the stream-winner, so also
in the case of the once-returner and non-returner. Arahat
has no reviewing of remaining defilements. So all the kinds
of reviewing total nineteen.
-Visuddhimagga (Vol. II), p. 316, 6th Syn. Edn.
Please See Nanamoli's Visuddhiinagga, p. 790.
99. Samyutta-Nikáya Mahavagga, 4. Indriya Samyutta, 8. Datthabba
Sutta, p. 172, 6th Synod Edition.
100. Samyutta.Nikaya, Mahavagga II, Sotapatti Samyutta, Dhammadinna
Sutta. p. 356. 6th Synod Edition.
101. Samyutta-Nikáya, Mahavagga, 4. Indriya Samyutta,
8. Datthabba Sutta, p. 172, 6th Synod Edition.
102. See the Light of the Dhamma. Vol. I-No. 2, p. 13.
103. Samyutta.Nikaya, Datthabba Sutta, p. 176, 6th Syn. Edn.
104. Samyutta.Nikaya, Mahavagga Samyutta, 8. Datthabba Sutta, p. 172,
7th Synod Edition.
105. Samyutta Nikáya, Mahavagga Samyutta, 8. Datthabba Sutta, p. 172,
6th Synod Edition.
106. 1) Element of extension, 2) element of liquidity or cohesion,
3) element of kinetic energy, 4) element of motion or support.
5) element of space, 6) consciousness-elements.
107. Such as khanda and ayatana, etc.
108. Khuddaka-Nikaya, Udana Pali, Meghiya-vagga, Meghiya Sutta, p 120,
6th Synod Edition.
109. Samutta-Nikaya, Mahavagga Indriya Samyutta, 6. Sukarakhata-vagga,
8 Sukarakhata Sutta, p. 205. 6th Syn. Edn.
VI, The Five Bala (or Balani)
Bala is defined: Patipakkha dhamme baliyantiti balani.  (Suppresses opposition. Hence called bala.) The Pali Texts say: Akampanatthena balani.  (Whenever opposition is encountered, there is fearless firmness. Hence called bala.)
As in the case of the indriya, there are five bala:
They are five generals or five commanders for the purpose of destroying the kingdom of sakkaya-ditthi (personality-belief). They are the five strengths that serve as reliance for Bhikkhus and lay folk in the Buddha Sasana.
As in the case of saddhindriya, saddha is of two kinds:
Pakati-saddha, which has no development through specific practice, associates with tanha according to circumstances, and can thus produce only the pakati-kusala-kamma of Dana, síla, etc. It cannot overcome tanha with strength. On the other hand, tanha keeps pakati-saddha under its power.
This is how tanha keeps pakati-saddha under its power. The Pali Texts mention (as clearly as exist the sun and moon in the heavens) four ariya-vamsa-dhamma.  They are:
8. Being easily satisfied with food
9. Being easily satisfied with clothing
10. Being easily satisfied with dwelling place
11. Finding pleasure and enjoyment in the work of bhávaná.
They constitute the realm of saddha. In the present-day world, this great kingdom of saddha lies hidden and submerged. Today, beings take pleasure and enjoyment in material things (paccayamisa); they take pleasure and enjoyment in worldly rank, dignity, and honor (lokamisa); they take pleasure and enjoyment in the attainment of the pleasant life, in worldly riches and in power and dominion (vattamisa); and thus is the great kingdom of tanha established as clearly as the great ocean round the island. This shows the weakness of pakati-saddha in this world.
It is bhávaná-saddha, which has its genesis in the successful practice of kayagata-sati, such as out-breath and in-breath until the disappearance of the dissettlement and distraction of the mind that can dispel tanha, which takes pleasure and enjoyment in the three kinds of amisa. It is this bhávaná-saddha that can save Bhikkhus and lay folk, who are in the course of being drowned and submerged in the ocean of the three tanha, and enable them to reach the island haven of the kingdom of saddha consisting of the four ariyavamsa-dhamma. In the matter of the bodhi-pakkhiya-dhamma, it is this saddha that should be acquired.
Of the two kinds of viriya, pakati-viriya, which has no development practice, associates with kosajja (laziness) according to occasion and produces the pakati-kusala-kamma of Dana, the study of the sacred texts, etc. This pakati-viriya cannot dispel kosajja subdues pakati-viriya.
When beings encounter a Buddha Sasana, they acquire the knowledge that in the past infinite samsára they have been the kinsfolk of sakkaya- ditthi, the duccarita, and the apaya loka. The sacred Pali Texts clearly prescribe the method of the ariyavamsa, which consists of dispelling kosajja (laziness) and devoting the whole time to bhavanarama (delight in meditation) till release from such state is attained.
...The act of dispelling kosajja may be thus described. Having equipped oneself with the sikkha (trainings--which are the Buddha's heritage) and which one undertook in the sima (ordination hall) at the time of becoming a Bhikkhu, sikkha auch as the undertaking
rukkhamula senasanam nissaya pabbajja, tattha teyava jivam
and in accordance with such sikkha, if one makes trees and bushes in the forests as one's dwelling place, lives only on alms-round, does not associate with other persons, observes the dhutanga (ascetic practice) steadfastly, and practices kayagata-sati scrupulously, these are acts of viriya that dispel the akusala kamma (unwholesome volitional actions) arising out of kosajja. They are acts comprised within the realm of viriya.
This realm of viriya remains obscure and is unknown in the present-day world. Today, although Bhikkhus are aware that they belong to that class of beings possessed of sakkaya-ditthi, the duccarita, and the liability to rebirth in the apaya loka, they live permanently in dwelling places constructed within towns and villages by dayakas (or donors), they take pleasure and enjoyment in the receipt of large gifts and benefits, they are unable to discard the society of other people, etc. all of which acts are comprised within the realm of kosajja and this realm of kosajja is as conspicuous as the sea which has inundated an island. This shows the weakness of pakati-viriya.
It is only bhávaná-viriya, such as being satisfied with the minimum of sleep, being always alert and active, being fearless, being bold and firm in living alone, being steadfast in mental advertence, that can dispel kosajja. In the matter of the bodhipakkhiya-dhamma, it is this bhávaná-viriya that should be acquired.
The detailed meaning of the bala of sati, samádhi, and paññá may be known by following the lines of explanation outlined above. Here, I shall give just a concise explanation.
The antithesis of sati is the akusala kamma called mutthasacca. Mutthasacca means inability to become absorbed in the work of samatha- bhávaná--such as in kayagata-sati--or in the work of vipassana-bhávaná inability to concentrate, inability to control one's mind, and the wandering of thoughts to objects other than the object concentrated on. The pakati-sati that one possesses in its natal state from birth cannot dispel mutthasacca. It is only bhávaná-sati that can dispel it.
The antithesis of samádhi is the akusala kamma of vikkhepa  (restlessness of mind). It consists of the inability to concentrate, and of un-quietness and restlessness of mind in the work of bhávaná manasikara. It is the arising of thoughts on objects other than the object of concentration. It is the inability to control the mind and keep its attention fixed on one object. Pakati-samádhi cannot dispel that akusala kamma of vikkhepa. Only bhávaná samádhi can dispel it.
The antithesis of paññá is the akusala kamma of sammoha.  It consists of ignorance, lack of clarity, mistiness, and absence of light of the mind. It is the darkness that surrounds the mind. This sammoha cannot be dispelled by pakati-paññá, nor by pariyatti-paññá, which may comprise a knowledge of the whole of the Ti-Pitaka. It is only bhávaná- paññá that has set up kayagata-sati, which can gradually dispel sammoha.
This shows the meaning of the five-patipakkha akusala Dhamma coupled with their respective bala.
The five patipakkha akusala Dhamma are: 1) tanha, 2) kosajja, or laziness, or inability to take pains, or lack of fearlessness in the work of the patipatti, 3) mutthasacca, 4) vikkhepa, and 5) sammoha. The five Dhamma that can counteract and dispel these akusala Dhamma are called bala. If any one of these five bala is weak and unable to dispel the respective patipakkha Dhamma,  work in samatha and vipassana cannot be very successful as far as neyya individuals are concerned.
Hence, at the present day, some persons can emerge out of the realm of tanha because of their strength in saddha-bala. They are rid of the attachments to paccaya amisa and worldly dignities and honors. But since they are deficient in the other four bala, they are unable to rise above the stage of santutthi (state of being contented).
Some persons can emerge out of the realm of tanha and kosajja because they are strong in saddha-bala and viriya-bala. They are constant in the observance of the santosa Dhamma  in residence among hills and forests, and in the practice of the dhutanga (ascetic practices). But because they are weak in the other three bala, they are unable to practice kayagata-sati, or do the work of samatha and vipassana.
Some persons are strong in the first three bala and thus can rise up to the work of kayagata-sati. They achieve concentration in out-breath, or in the bones of the body. But since they are deficient in the other two bala, they cannot rise up to the work of the jhana and vipassana.
Some persons can rise up to the attainment of jhana Samapatti because they are strong in the first four bala, but since they are weak in paññá-bala, they cannot rise up to the work of vipassana.
Some persons are strong in paññá-bala. They are learned in the Dhamma and the Pitakas. They are wise in the paramattha Dhamma (ultimate realities). But because the back is broken in the four other bala, they cannot emerge from the realm of tanha, kosajja, mutthasacca and vikkhepa. They live and die within the confines of these akusala. In this way, whenever one is deficient in any one of the bala, one cannot emerge out of the realm of the respective patipakkha.
Of the five bala, viriya-bala and paññá-bala are also iddhipada. Hence, if these two bala are strong and coordinated, it does not happen that one cannot rise up to the work of vipassana because of the weakness of the other three bala. As an illustration, consider the case of the five crores and five lakhs of householders in Savatthi City during the Buddha's time who obtained release from ills.
People who do not know the functions of the iddhipada, the indriya, and the bala, do not know why their desires are weak, and what patipakkha assails them. They do not know what Dhamma they have to set up, and the desire to set them up never arises. It is thus that the ariyavamsa-dhamma are on the verge of disappearance at the present day.
I shall give an illustration. There is a species of bull called usabha. It is a bull worth more than a thousand or ten thousand ordinary bulls. If the characteristics and distinctive signs of that bull be recognized, and it be reared and nurtured properly, its limbs and marks will develop, and its strength and powers will increase. It can then guard even a hundred cattle pens from the incursions of lions and leopards. The cattle in the enclosures where such a bull exists will be free from major diseases and epidemics. People living in houses round the stockade, up to the seventh house in each direction, will be free from major diseases and epidemics. Like the bull Nandi Visala, it can draw even five hundred carts at a time.
If the owner of such a bull is ignorant of all these, and if thus he does not rear and nurture it properly but keeps and tends it just as he would any other ordinary bull, if he employs it in plowing and drawing carts in company with other bulls, its distinctive marks and limbs will fail to develop, and its strength and powers will remain dormant. It will thus live and die just like any other bull.
A knowing owner, however, will separate such a bull from the rest and keep it in a specially constructed shed. He will cover the floor of the shed with clean sand and will fix a ceiling to the roof. He will keep the shed clean of urine and excreta, and will feed the bull with paddy and pulses fit for human consumption. He will wash and bathe it, and apply cosmetics and unguents. In such a case, the distinctive marks and limbs will develop, and its strength and powers will increase enormously.
In this Buddha Sasana, neyya individuals resemble the owner of the bull. The five bala of these neyya individuals resemble the usabha bull. The Satipatthána vibhanga, sammappadhana vibhanga, iddhipada vibhanga, indriya vibhanga, bojjhanga vibhanga, and magganga vibhanga, of the Abhidhamma Pitaka and the Mahasatipatthana Sutta, Satipatthána Samyutta, sammappadhana Samyutta, iddhipada Samyutta, indriya Samyutta, bala Samyutta, and bojjhanga Samyutta of the Sutta Pitaka, resemble the worldly expository books which expound the distinctive signs, marks, and characteristics, of usabha bulls, the methods how such bulls are to be reared and taken care of, and the strength and powers that such bulls can attain if reared and nurtured properly.
Those neyya individuals who through ignorance do not attempt to develop the five bala through the work of bhávaná, and who thus remain satisfied with the lower attainments within the sasana, such as Dana, síla, and the study of pariyatti-Dhamma, resemble the ignorant owner of an usabha bull who does not rear and nurture it properly.
In this world, there are many kinds of worldly undertakings. There are undertakings that can be accomplished by the strength of wealth, and there are undertakings that can be accomplished by the strength of knowledge. Even in the case of the cultivation of land, several kinds of strength are needed for its accomplishment. Sometimes the strength of wealth has to be garnered first, and at other times the strength of knowledge. Preparatory education and study constitute the garnering of the strength of knowledge.
Similarly, in the Buddha Sasana, there are five bala needed for the work of samatha, vipassana, and the attainment of the holy Paths and Fruits and Nibbána. It is only when these bala are first accumulated that the great works mentioned can be undertaken. Those persons who do not possess even one of the five bala cannot evoke a desire to undertake these great tasks. It does not occur to them that those great tasks can be accomplished in this life. They live forgetfully and without determination. If it is pointed out to them that the tasks can be accomplished, they do not wish to hear it. They do not know that such untoward thoughts occur to them because they are utterly impoverished in the bala. They lay the blame at the door of parami, or dvi-hetuka, or at the times. 
If, however, these people set up work in one of the Satipatthána, such as in anapana-sati, and if thereby they set up the three bala of saddha, viriya, and sati, such untoward thoughts will certainly disappear. It is inevitable that new wholesome thoughts must arise. This is because they have developed their strength.
This is how the strength is developed. Although such a person cannot as yet attain an insight into rupa and Nama, the weak saddha develops through the control exercised on paccayamisa-tanha and [email protected] The weak viriya develops through the control of kosajja. The weak sati develops through the control of mutthasacca. Samádhi and paññá also gather strength through the control of vikkhepa and sammoha. When these bala develop, it is inevitable that there must be a change in his mind.
A person who is afflicted with a major disease, such as leprosy, has no desire to take an interest in the ordinary affairs and undertakings of the world. But if after taking the proper medicines and treatment, the great sickness is gradually cured and he is aroused from his apathy. This is inevitable. The group of five-akusala kamma of tanha, kosajja mutthasacca, vikkhepa, and sammoha, resemble five major sicknesses.  In the Sasana the work of samatha and vipassana-bhávaná resembles the affairs and undertakings of the world. The work of Satipatthána, such as anapana-sati, resembles the taking of proper medicines and treatment. The rest of the comparison can be easily recognized.
Hence did the Buddha say: 
In this world, the strength of builders lie in good tools, such as awls, chisels, axes, knives, saws, etc. Only when he equips himself with such strength can he undertake to build monasteries, houses, etc. In the work of carpenters, blacksmiths, goldsmiths, artists, wood-carvers, etc., also, they have each their respective strength. Their strength consists of good tools and implements. Only with such can they accomplish their work.
Similarly, in the Sasana, the tools of samatha and vipassana for the purpose of achieving magga-nana and phala-nana consists of bhávaná-saddha, bhávaná-viriya, bhávaná-sati, bhávaná samádhi, and bhávaná paññá, developed through one of the Satipatthána, such as anapana-sati. These five bala are the strength of yogavacara.  Hence, these five bala must be developed in order to undertake successfully the work or samatha and vipassana within the Buddha Sasana. This is the meaning of 'bhaveti' in the stanza quoted above.
110. Paramattha Dipani, Sangha Maha-Tika by Ledi Sayadaw, page 299,
Kawimyethman Press, Rangoon.
111. Anguttara-Nikáya, Ekaka Nipatatthakatha, 18. Apara
Accharasanghata-vagga-vanna, p. 388, 6th Syn. Edn.
112. Traditional practice of the Noble Ones. Anguttara Nikáya,
Catukka Nipata. 1. Patthama-pannasaka, 8 Ariyavamsa Sutta, p. 336
6th Syn. Edn.
113. The going forth by depending on the foot of a tree as abode; thus
they undertake the tree dweller's practice their whole lives. --
Vinaya Pitaka, Vol. 1. Mahakhandhaka, 64. Cattaro Nissaya, p. 133,
6th Syn. Edn.
114. Wandering thoughts or idle fancies.
115. Sammoha: delusion
116. Patipakkha: opposite.
117. These are four kinds of santosa-Dhamma. They are:
1. civara-santosa: contentment of robes;
2. pindapata-santosa: contentment of food;
3. senasana-santosa: contentment of lodging, and
4. gilana paccaya bhesajja parikkhara santosa: contentment of
Note-- Santosa and santutthi have the same meaning.
118. Khuddaka-Nikaya Jataka Pali, Ekaka Nipata, Kurunga-Vagga, 28,
Nandi Visala Jataka, p. 7, 6th Synod Edn.
119. Some believe that these are times when the holy paths and the
Fruits thereof can no longer be attained, and tend to defer
effort till the parami ripen. Some believe that persons of the
present day are dvi-hetuka (i.e. beings reborn with
two root-conditions, namely, detachment and amity), and as
such they cannot attain the holy Paths and the Fruits thereof
in the present life.
120. Five major sicknesses are: 1. leprosy, 2. boils, 3. tuberculosis, 4. apoplexy,
121. Idha bhikkhave Bhikkhu (In this Sasana, the Bhikkhu)
Saddhabalati,i bhaveti (develops saddhabala),
Viriyabalam bhaveti (develops viriyabala),
Satibalam bhaveti (develops satibala),
Samddhibala bhaveti (develops samadhibala) and
Pannabalam bhaveti (develops pannabala).
-Suttanta Pitaka, Samyutta-Nikáya Mahavagga Samyutta Pali, 6 Bala
Samyutta Gangapeyyalavagga, 1-12, Baladi Sutta, page 218, 6th
122. Yogavacara: One who practices samatha or vipassana or both.
VII, The Seven Sambojjhanga
Catusaccadhamme sutthu bujjhatitti sambodhi. Sambodhiya ango samboj-jhango. (Can clearly perceive the Four Noble Truths. Hence called Sambodhi. Constituent of magga-nana. Hence called sambojjhanga.)
Birds are first delivered from their mothers' wombs in the form of eggs. They are then delivered a second time by breaking the eggs. Thence, when they become full fledged with feathers and wings, they are delivered from their nests, when they can fly wherever they please. In the same way, in the case of yogavacara individuals, they are first delivered from the distractions of mind, which have accompanied them through infinite samsára when they successfully set up kayagata-sati or accomplish the work of samatha. Secondly, when they attain vipassana insight into rupa, nama-khandha, etc., they are free from coarse forms of ignorance. Finally, when the seven bojjhanga develop and mature, they become full fledged in lokuttara-magga-nana, and attain the magga-nana known as Sambodhi, and thus they are delivered from the state of worldlings. They are delivered from the state of puthujjana and attain the state of ariya--of lokuttara or Nibbána.
There are seven bojjhanga:
The sati-cetasika (mental factor) called Satipatthána, satindriya, satibala, samma-sati-magganga, is sati-sambojjhanga.
The paññá-cetasika called vimamsiddhipada, pannindriya, paññá-bala, sammaditthi-magganga, are all dhammavicaya-sambojjhana. Alternatively, the five paññá-visuddhi beginning with ditthi-visuddhi, the three anu-passana-nana, the ten vipassana-nana are called dhammavicaya- sambojjhanga. Just as cotton seeds are milled, carded, etc., so as to produce cotton wool, the process of repeatedly viewing the five khandha with the functions of vipassana-nana is called dhammavicaya.
The viriya-cetasika called sammappadhana, viriyiddhipada, viriyindriya, viriya-bala, and samma-vayama-magganga, are called viriya- sambojjhanga.
The joy and happiness that appears when the process of seeing and knowing increases after the setting up of Satipatthána, such as kayagata-sati, is called piti-sambojjhanga.
The process of becoming calm and tranquil in both body and mind when the mental distractions, reflections, aides thoughts abate, is called passaddhi-sambojjhanga. It is the cetasika of kaya-passaddhi and citta- passaddhi.
The samádhi Dhamma called sammadhindriya, samádhi-bala, and samádhi-magganga, is called samádhi-sambojjhanga. Alternatively, the parikamma-samádhi, upacara-samádhi, appana-samádhi, or the eight Samapatti, associated with the work of samatha and citta-visuddhi, and sunnata-samadhi, animitta-samadhi, appanihita-samadhi, associated with paññá-visuddhi, are called samádhi-sambojjhanga. The samádhi that accompanies vipassana-nana, or magga-nana and phala-nana, are called by such names as sunnata-samadhi, animitta-samadhi and appanihita-samadhi.
When the work in kammatthana is as yet not methodical or systematic, much effort has to be exercised both in body and mind, but when the work becomes methodical and systematic, one is freed from such effort. This freedom is called tatramajjhatatta-cetasika (mental factor of equanimity). It is upekkha-sambojjhanga.
When a yogavacara becomes endowed with these seven characteristics of Sambodhi equally, be enjoys the joys and pleasures of a Samana within the Sasana--joys and pleasures which are unequalled and unparalleled by any worldly joy--just as a universal cakka king, lord of the four great islands and possessor of the seven jewels, enjoys unparalleled and unique ease and comfort.
Thus it is said in the Dhammapada:
amanusi rati hoti
samma dhammam vipassato.
Yato yato sammasati
amatam tam vijanatam.
[The Bhikkhu who retires to a lonely abode and has a calm mind, experiences joy transcending that of men, as he clearly perceives the Dhamma.
The formation and disintegration of whichever part of the body the yogi contemplates, he experiences joy and happiness, as he can thereby perceive the Deathless state (Nibbána).]
If the pleasure and joy experienced in vipassana-sukha, which is complete with the seven characteristics of Sambodhi, be divided into 256 parts, one part of that joy and pleasure exceeds the worldly joys and pleasures of kings among humans, devas, and Brahmas--so great is the joy and pleasure inherent in the Sambodhi. Hence also did the Buddha say:
'Sabba rasam dhammaraso jinati ' (The flavor of the Dhamma exceeds all other flavors.)
There are stories wherein it is related that major diseases and ailments have been cured by the mere hearing  of the recitation of these seven characteristics of Sambodhi. But, these diseases and ailments can be cured only when the hearers are fully aware of their meaning, and great and clear saddha (faith) arises.
When these seven characteristics or Sambodhi are acquired in a balanced manner, the yogavacara can rest assured that there is no deficiency in his kayagata-sati. He can rest assured that there is no deficiency in his perception of anicca or anattá, and in his mental and bodily energy. Because his mind is set at rest in regard to these three factors, he experiences joy in the knowledge that he can now perceive the light of Nibbána which has never before appeared to him in the past infinite samsára, even in his dreams. Because of that joy and ease of mind, his attention on the kammatthana objects becomes extremely calm and steady and upekkha (equanimity), which is free from the anxieties and efforts for mindfulness, perception of anicca and anattá, and the necessity to evoke energy, arises.
All the above statements are made with reference to the stage at which the sambojjhanga are in unison with one another and their respective functions are especially clear. As far as ordinary sambojjhahga are concerned, from the moment kayagata-sati is set up, the Dhamma such as sati are known as sambojjhanga.
When the Buddha said that the seven sambojjanga must be practiced, as in: Satisambojjhangam bhaveti, viveka nissitam, viraga nissitam, nirodha nissitam, vossaggaparinamim... upekkha sambojjhangam bhaveti, viveka nissitam, viraga nissitam, nirodha nissitam, vossaggaparinamim',  it is meant that in the ordinary course, the process of setting up kayagata-sati (such as out-breath and in-breath) amounts to the setting up of the seven bojjhanga. For the distinctive and specific setting up of the bojjhanga, see the Commentary on the Bojjhanga Vibhanga. 
The meaning of the Pali passage above is: 'One should practice sati-sambojjhanga which is dependent on the absence of all kinds of activities and anxieties, of lust and greed, or suffering attendant on the round of rebirths, and on the abandonment of the four substratum of upadhi. 
Viveka nisita, viraga nissita, nirodha nissita, mean 'having no leanings towards bhava-sampatti  and bhoga-sampatti,  attempting to destroy the great realm of latent sakkaya-ditthi in this very 1ife, and thus is free from dependence on the round of rebirths.' Vivatta nissita means freeing oneself day by day from the attachments of sensuous passions, the meanings of bojjhanga, sambojjanga, and Sambodhi anga are identical.
123. Please see footnote to Chapter V, ibid.
124. Universal Monarch. Please see The Light of the Dhamma,
Vol. VII, No. 1, p. 28.
125. Dhammapada verse 354
126. Please see The Light of the Dhamma, Vol. VII, No. 1, p.9
127. Abhidhamma Pitaka, Vibhanga Pali, 10 Bojjanga Vibhanga, p. 238 6th
128. Sammohavinodani Atthakatha, 1. Suttanta-bhajaniya-vannana
p. 296, 6th Syn. Edn.
129. There are four kinds of upadhi. They are:
1. Kamupadhi: attachment to sensuous pleasures;
2. Kilesupadhi: attachment to mind-defiling passions;
3. Abhisankarupadhi: attachment to performance of merits, etc.
4. Khandupadhi: attachments to the five constituent groups of
130. Attainment of happy planes of existence.
131. Attainment of wealth
VIII, The Eight Magganga
The definition of magga is:
Kilese marenta nibbanam gacchanti etenati maggo.
(These Dhamma dispel the defilements such as sakkaya-ditthi and thus enable one to reach Nibbána--end of apaya dukkha and vatta dukkha. Hence they are called magga.)
There are eight ingredients of magga, namely:
1. Samma-ditthi--Right View
2. Samma-sankappa--Right Thinking
3. Samma-vaca--Right Speech
4. Samma-kammanta--Right Action
5. Samma-ajiva--Right Livelihood
6. Samma-vayama--Right Effort
7. Samma-sati--Right Mindfulness
8. Samma-samádhi--Right Concentration.
All these eight ingredients are present in lokuttara-nanadassana- visuddhi (supra-mundane purification by knowledge and vision). In the preceding lokiya-visuddhi (mundane purifications), samma-vaca, samma kammanta and samma-ajiva are present only in sila-visuddhi (purification of virtue). They are not present in citta-visuddhi (purification of consciousness), etc.
Hence, in the matter of the bodhipakkhiya-dhamma, sila-visuddhi means viveka nissita and viraga nissita síla in accordance with:
Sammavacam bhaveti, viveka nissitam, viraga nissitam, nirodha nissitam, vossaggaparinamim.
Samma-kammantam bhaveti, viveka nissitam, viraga nissitam, nirodha nissitam, vossaggaparinamim.
Samma-ajivam bhaveti, viveka nissitam, viraga nissitam, nirodha nissitam, vossaggaparinamim. 
It does not refer to síla that has leanings towards bhava-sampatti and dependency on the round of rebirths. The sila-visuddhi of those who have consciously given up attempts at attaining the holy Paths and the Fruits in this life is not genuine adibrahmacariyaka-sila  and thus is not of the genuine bodhipakkhiya class. If effort be made, however, towards the attainment of Nibbána in the next life, it can be parami-síla, which is a part of vivatta nissita-síla.
Samma-vaca, samma-kammanta, and samma-ajiva magganga are purely of the class of síla and hence constitute genuine sila-visuddhi They are also called the three virati cetasika.'
Samma-sankappa is vitakka-cetasika. Since it is the harbinger of paññá, it is included in the paññá category. There are three kinds of sankappa, namely nekkhama-sankappa, abyapada-sankappa, and avihimsa-sankappa. Just as a person incarcerated in prison, or a person besieged by enemy troops, or a person encircled by a forest fire, or a fish caught in a net, tank, or trap, or a bird caught in a cage, is absorbed (without being able to sleep or eat) in only one thought, that is in the attempt to escape from these confinements, the attempts of those persons who contrive with sammappadhana-viriya to escape, from the confinement of the old infinitely numerous uppanna-akusala kamma and the new infinitely numerous anuppanna-akusala-kamma that are due to arise are called nekkhama-sankappa magganga. It is the sort of sankappa, which looks for the way to escape in this very life from the vattadukkha (round of rebirths).
The sankappa, which associates with mettá jhana, is called abyapada-sankappa. The sankappa, which associates with karuna jhana, is called avihimsa-sankappa. The sankappa, which associates with the remaining jhana, is called nekkhama-sahkappa.
The four magganga of samma-ditthi, samma-vayama, samma-sati, and samma-samádhi, have been dealt with under bojjhanga.
Samma-ditthi and samma-sankappa are paññá khandha. They constitute the paññá group. Khandha means group or aggregate. Samma- vaca, samma-kammanta, samma-ajiva are called silakkhandha. They constitute the síla group. Samma-vayama, samma-sati, and samma-samádhi are called samádhi khandha. They constitute the samádhi group.
The ajivatthamaka-síla that is observed and kept with the purpose of destroying the great kingdom of ditthi-anusaya is lokiya- silakkhandha-magganga. It is sila-visuddhi.
There are two kinds of ajivatthamaka-síla, namely, síla for lay folk, and síla for the Sangha. Abstention from the three kaya- duccarita and the four vaci-duccarita  comprise the ajivatthamaka-síla for lay folk. The atthanga-uposatha-sila and the dasanga-síla are síla that refine or polish the ajivatthamaka-síla.
The observance of the 227 sikkha laid down in the Vinaya Pitaka comprise the ajivatthamaka-síla for the Sangha. These 227 sikkha cover kaya-kamma and vaci-kamma, and are so classified in the commentaries. The remaining síla groups laid down in the Vinaya Pitaka constitute refinements to the ajivatthamaka-síla.
Just as trees grow in the soil, the six visuddhis beginning with citta-visuddhi develop in the soil of sila-visuddhi. In particular, síla-visuddi, does not mix with the five middle vistiddhi beginning with citta-visuddhi, but supports them by securing antecedent purity. In the case of lokuttara-nanadassana-visuddhi, sila-visuddhi operates in conjunction with it as three constituents of silakkhandha-magganga. The reason is, the objects of attention of sila-visuddhi are of a different order from those of the five middle visuddhi, while they are identical with those of the lokuttara-visuddhi, thus operating together with it as sahajata (coexistent).
This ends silakkhandha-magganga.
With reference to samádhi khandha-magganga there are two courses of action, namely, the way of the suddhavippassana-yanika (one who practices pure insight only), and the way of the samatha-vipassana- yanika (one who practices both calm and insight). After the fulfillment of sila-visuddhi and the setting up of kayagata-sati, not following the way of samatha, but following the way of pure vipassana such as that of ditthi-visuddhi, etc., is the way of suddhavipassana-yanika. If, however, the way of samatha be followed, such as the attainment of the first jhana Samapatti, etc., and thence following the way of vipassana such as that of ditthi-visuddi, etc., it is called the way of the samatha-vipassana-yanika.
Of these two ways, 1) in the case of the suddhavipassana-yanika, the three samádhi-magganga fulfill the functions of samatha- and citta- visuddhi through the three kinds of samádhi known as sunnata-samadhi, animitta-samadhi and appanihita-samadhi; 2) in the case of samatha- vipassana-yanika, however, the three samádhi-magganga fulfill the functions of samatha and citta-visuddhi by the name of three samádhi-- parikamma-samádhi, upacara-samádhi, and appana-samádhi; and thereafter at the vipassana stage, the functions of samatha and citta-visuddhi are fulfilled through the three kinds of samádhi known as sunnata- samádhi, animitta-samadhi, and appanihita-samadhi.
During the period of the proceeding sila-visuddhi and kayagata- sati, however, the three samádhi-magganga fulfill the functions of khanika (momentary) samádhi.
This ends samadhikkhandha-maggaaga.
The two-paññá khandha-magganga fulfills the functions of paññá in both of the ways of the suddhavipassana-yanika and the samatha- vipassana-yanika, after the setting up of sila-visuddhi and kayagata- sati. These remarks relate to both the lokiya-magganga and the lokuttara-magganga.
I shall now show the way of sotapatti-magga in lokuttara-magganga. It should be remembered that this book is aimed at the lowest of the ariya, namely the 'bon-sin-san' sukkhavipassaka-sotápanna. At the present time there are infinite numbers of beings such as Visakha, Anthapindika, Sakka the deva king, Cularatha Deva , Maharatha Deva,  Anekavanna Deva, the four Catumaharajika Deva kings, and the guardian devas of the sun and moon who still continue to derive pleasure and ease within the round of rebirths --inhabiting the catumaharajika deva loka, the tavatimsa deva loka, and the upper deva loka. They are beings who have seven more rebirths in the kama-loka, one rebirth each in the six fourth jhana loka or vehapphala Brahma loka. The number of rebirths in the first, second, and third jhana Brahma loka is undetermined.
Why are they called sotápanna? The five great rivers and five hundred lesser rivers that have their source in the Himalayas, do not flow up, but flow down continuously to the great ocean. Hence they are called sota. Similarly, ariya do not revert back to the state of puthujjana (worldlings) but proceed continuously (as ariya) until they attain anupadisesa-nibbana. In the case of puthujjana, although they may attain rebirth in the highest Brahma loka, they possess the liability to descend to the lowest Avici hell, but in the case of ariya, wherever they may be reborn, they do not descend and attain rebirth in a lower loka, but possess a continuous tendency to be reborn in a higher loka. Although putthujana may attain the state of tihetuka-Brahma in the rupa and arupa loka, they possess the liability to be reborn as ahetuka-duggati creatures such as dogs and pigs, whereas in the case of ariya, they do not revert back to the stage of putthujana, but ascend with each rebirth to higher states of ariya.
Thus whether it be the loka where rebirth takes place, or the status attained in each rebirth, the ariya do not regress, but proceed higher and higher from one loka to the next, or from one status to another, until after many rebirths and many worlds elapse they reach the highest loka and the highest status, when they discard the five aggregates called khandha and cross over to anupadisesa-nibbana. The process by which this single path of ascent is traversed is called Dhamma-sota. They comprise samma-ditthi-sota, samma-sankappa-sota, samma-vaca-sota, samma-kammanta-sota, samma-aijiva-sota, samma-vayama -sota, samma-sati-sota, and samma-samádhi-sota.
Samma-ditthi-sota means the establishment of the great kingdom of samma-ditthi, which can perceive the light of the Four Noble Truths. This great kingdom of samma-ditthi is established in place of the great anusaya kingdom of sakkaya-ditthi. It resembles the rising of the sun after the night is over, when the darkness is dispelled and the light is established. In the same way, the great kingdom of light of samma-ditthi remains established throughout many lives and many world- cycles until the attainment of anupadisesa-nibbana. The light increases and becomes more and more firmly established from one rebirth to another. It also resembles a person born from his mother's womb without sight through cataracts covering both his eyes, who, on coming across good medicines, is cured of the cataracts and gains sight. From the moment the cataracts disappear, the view of the earth, mountains, sky, sun, moon, and stars, etc., is opened to him and thereafter throughout his life.
In the same way, the sotápanna-ariya gain view of the three characteristics (ti-lakklhana) and the Four Noble Truths. Just as the blind man in the illustration above can see the sky, sun and moon, these ariya can perceive the Dhamma mentioned at their will. This is how samma-ditthi magga is established.
Samma-ditthassa samma-sankappo pahoti. (When samma-ditthi is established, samma-sankappa progresses.) According to this, if samma- ditthi is established, samma-sankappa, which consists of intention and design to escape from worldly ills, and to preserve others from destruction and suffering, also becomes established and thrives from one rebirth to another until the attainment of anupadisesa-nibbana. This is how samma-sankappa is established. The Commentary says: 'Pahotiti vaddhati' (pahoti means vaddhati, increase).
Samma-sankappassa samma-vaca pahoti. If the intention and design to escape from worldly ills, and to see others in pleasure and ease, is established, speech free from the vaci-duccarita appears and is progressively established. This is how samma-vaca is established.
Samma-vacassa samma-kammanto pahoti. If speech free from the vaci-duccarita is established, acts free from kaya-duccarita appear and are progressively established. This is how samma-kammanta is established.
Samma-kammantassa samma-ajivo pahoti. When views, intentions, speech and acts become pure, the forms of livelihood also become pure, and one is free permanently from low and base forms of livelihood. This is how samma-ajiva is established.
Samma-ajivassa samma-vayamo pahoti. When views, intentions, speech, acts and livelihood become pure, energy or effort free from the duccarita become permanently established. This is how samma-vayama is established.
Samma-vayamassa samma-sati pahoti. Thus also does samma-sati- magganga that has its roots in the work of síla, samádhi, and paññá, become established from one rebirth to another. This is how samma- sati is established.
Samma-satissa samma-samádhi pahoti.  Thus also does samma- samádhi, which has its roots in the world of síla, samádhi, and paññá, and which possesses great control over the mind, become established. This is how samma-samádhi is established.
This is how the eight magganga called Dhamma-sota become progressively established throughout many lives and many worlds from the moment a being attains the stage of sotápanna and until he finally attains anupaddisesa-nibbana.
Although from the moment kayagata-sati is set up there is progress such as has been shown above, so long as the state of niyama is not reached that being is not as yet an ariya. Sotapatti-magga is the starting point of ariya-sota. As soon as beings reach sotapatti- magga, they enter the domain of ariya. Hence it is said: Sotam aditopajjimsu papunimsuti sotápanna. They are called sotápanna, as they reach ariya-sota for the first time.
This ends the answer to the question, 'Why are they called sotápanna?'
Beings transcend the state of puthujjana as soon as they reach the stage of ariya. They are no longer worldlings or beings of the world. They have become beings of lokuttara. They are no longer beings subject to the suffering within the round of rebirths (vatta-dukkkha), they have become beings of Nibbána. Throughout the series of many existences and in many worlds, they no longer emerge back again from the first stage of Nibbána. They no longer possess the susceptibility to return to the ansuaya plane of sakkaya- ditthi, or to the state of puthujjana. They are permanently established in the first stage of sa-upadisesa-nibbana, and throughout many lives and worlds they enjoy at will the pleasures of humans, devas, and brahmas. For a detailed exposition see my Catu Sacca Dipani, and Paramattha Sankhitta.
These eight magganga occur simultaneously to these ariya only at the instant of the attainment of a Path or Fruition. With reference, however, to lokiya-kusala-kamma (mundane wholesome volitional actions), the three silakkhandha-magganga associate only with síla-kusala- kamma. The three samádhi khandha-magganga and the two paññá khandha- -magganga, however, associate with many kinds of kusala kamma.
Although the three silakkhandha-magganga associate only with sila- kusala-kamma, they are firmly established in ariya as avitikkama (non- contravention) throughout many lives and many worlds.
This ends the eight magganga.
The pure Dhamma involved in the thirty-seven bodhipakkhiya Dhamma are: chanda, citta, tatra-majjhattata, saddha, passadhi, paññá, vitakka, viriya, the three virati, sati, piti, and ekaggata, and are fourteen  in number.
132. Sammohavinodani Atthakatha, 1. Suttanta-bhajaniya-vannana. p. 305,
6th Syn. Edn.
133. Morality belonging to the principles of fundamentals of moral
134. The three virati cetasika are: --
samma-vaca, samma-kammanta, samma-ajiva
135. Please see the Light of the Dhamma Vol. VII. No. 2, p.10
136. Vimana Vatthu, p. 87, 6th Syn. Edn.
137. Vimana Vatthu, p. 90, 6th Syn. Edn.
138. Vimana Vatthu, p. 112, 6th Syn. Edn.
139. Digha Nikáya, Mahavagga, Mahagovinda Sutta, p. 178, 6th Syn Edn
140. Guardian devas of the sun and moon. Samyutta Nikáya, Sagatha-
vagga, Samyutta, p. 48, 6th Syn Edn.
141. Samyutta Nikáya, Mahavagga Samyutta Pali, 1. Magga-Samyutta, 1.
Avijja vagga. 1. Avijja, Suta p. 2, 6th Syn Edn.
142. Wrong doing
143. Wrong livelihood
144. Samyutta Nikáya, Mahavagga Samyutta Pali, 1. Magga Samyutta, 1.
Avijja-vagga, 1. Avijja Sutta, p. 2 6th Syn Edn.
145. 1. Chanda (desire), 2.citta (consciousness), 3.tatramajjhattata
(equanimity), 4.saddha (faith), 5.passadhi (tranquility),
6. paññá (wisdom), 7.vitakka (thought conception), 8.viriya
(effort), 9.samma-vaca (Right Speech), 10.samma-kammanta (Right
Action), 11.Samma-ajiva (Right Livelihood), 12.sati
(mindfulness), 13.piti (joy), 14.ekaggata (one-pointed-ness of mind)
IX, How to practice The Bodhipakkhiya-Dhamma
Beings who encounter a Buddha Sasana have to set up sila-visuddhi first and practice the bodhipakkhiya Dhamma in order to attain the status of ariya-sota. I shall now give a brief description of how the practice may be undertaken.
The practice of the seven-visuddhi amounts to practicing the bodhi- pakkhiya-dhamma. In particular, citta-visuddi concerns only persons who follow the way of the samatha-yanika. Maggamagga-nanadassana- visuddhi concerns only those adhimanika persons  who think that they have attained the holy Paths and the Fruits although they have achieved no such attainment. Sila-visuddhi, kankhavitarana-visuddhi, patipada-nanadassana-visuddhi, and lokuttara-nanadassana-visuddhi, relate to many kinds of persons.
Of these five visuddhi, sila-visuddhi has been dealt with under silakkhandha-magganga. It consists of keeping the ajivatthamaka-síla
Citta-visuddhi, in general, consists of setting up kayagata-sati. Some persons set up kayagata-sati through out-breath and in-breath. It may be said generally that if one's attention resides on out- breath and in-breath, whenever one wills it, no matter what the posture of the body may be, kayagata-sati has been set up. Some persons set up kayagata-sati through the four body postures in accordance with the statement in the text : 'gaccanto gacchamiti pajanati', while others set it up through sati-sampajanna (clearness of consciousness) on bodily movements. Yet others set up kayagata-sati through attention on the thirty-two parts of the body. Here, hairs of the head, hairs of the body, nails, teeth, and skin, are called tacapancaka  If attention on these parts can be firmly and steadily placed at will, whatever may be the postures of the body, kayagata-sati is set up. Attention can also be directed to the bones of the body. Kayagata-sati is set up if attention can be steadily and firmly placed on the bones of the head. If, from the beginning, the rupa and Nama groups of the body can be analytically differentiated, and if attention on such work is steady and firm, the work of kayagata-sati is accomplished. This gives concisely the method of kayagata-sati.
In the work of ditthi-visuddhi, if the six elements (dhatu) of pathavi, apo, tejo, vayo, akasa, and vinnana, can be analytically perceived, it is accomplished.
In the work of khankkha-vitarana visuddhi, if the causes for the appearance of the dhatu mentioned above can be clearly perceived, it is accomplished. It must be clearly perceived that the causes for the appearance of pathavi, apo, tejo, vayo and akasa are kammna, citta, uttu, and ahara, and that the causes for the appearance of the six vinnana are the six objects of perception.
By patipada-nanadassana-visuddhi is meant the three characteristics of anicca, dukkha, and anattá. If these three characteristics can be clearly perceived in the six dhatu mentioned above, patipada-nanadassana visuddhi is attained.
Lokuttara-nanadassana-visuddhi means the four magga-nana.
This shows concisely the visuddhi. For a more detailed account see my Lakkhana Dipani, Vijjamagga Dipani, and Ahara Dipani.
These thirty-seven bodhipakkhiya-dhamma are the heritages of the Buddha. They are the heritages of the Sasana. They constitute gems of the Sasana that are priceless and invaluable.
146. Highly conceited persons
147. Digha Nikáya, Maha-vagga, Mahasatipatthana Sutta, p. 231, 6th Syn
148. Anguttara Nikáya, Duka-Nipata, 9. Upannata Sutta, p. 53, 6th
X Heritage of the Sasana
I shall now examine what constitutes sasanadayajja. Sasanadayajja means the act of receiving the heritage of Sasana.
'Databbanti dayam'. (That which is given as heritage is called daya). Property that should be given as heritage by parents to their children.
'Dayam adadatiti dayado.' (Fit to receive heritage. hence called dayado.) Children or heirs who are fit to receive heritage. 'Dayadassa kammam dayajjam.' (The act of receiving the heritage by heirs. Hence called dayajjam.
'Sasanassa dayajjam sasanadayajjam.' (The act of receiving the heritage of the Sasana. Hence called sasanadayajjam.) It is also called Buddhadayajja (the act of receiving the heritage of the Buddha.)
First, I shall show the nature of the heritage. In the Sasana there are two kinds of heritages, namely amisa and Dhamma.
The four requisites of a Bhikkhu, namely, alms-food, robes, dwelling place, and medicines, are called amisa heritage. The three sikkha of síla, samádhi and paññá, the seven visuddhi, such as síla- visuddhi, citta visuddhi, etc., the thirty-seven bodhipakkhiya-dhamma, such as the four Satipatthána, the four sammappadhana, etc., are called the Dbamma heritage.
'There are two kinds of Dhamma heritage, namely:
1. Lokiya Dhamma heritage
2. Lokuttara Dhamma heritage.
The lokiya-sikkha of síla, samádhi, and paññá, the six lokiya- visuddhi, and the thirty-seven bodhipakkhiya-dhamma associated with the lokiya-visuddhi, are called the lokiya Dhamma heritage. The sikkha associated with the holy Paths and the Fruits, the lokuttara- nanadassana-visuddhi, and the thirty-seven bodhipakkhiya-dhamma are called lokuttara Dhamma heritage.
Lokiya Dhamma heritage may be divided into:
3. Vatta nissita Dhamma heritage
4. Vivatta nissita Dhamma heritage.
5. Niyata Dhamma heritage
6. Aniyata Dhamma heritage,
The practice of síla, samádhi, and paññá directed towards the attainment of worldly positions such as mentor and teacher of kings, or towards the acquisition of power, retinue, and property, or towards the attainment in samsára of rebirth as noble and highly placed humans and devas, is called vatta nissita Dhamma heritage.
There are three forms of rounds of rebirths (vatta), namely, kilesa-vatta, kamma-vatta and vipaka-vatta.  Vivatta means Nibbána, which is the end of these rounds of rebirth. The practice of síla, samádhi, and paññá directed towards the ending of the three forms of rounds of rebirths is called vivatta nissita Dhamma heritage.
The practice of kusala kamma directed towards the ultimate attainment of Nibbána, as of worldly benefits and pleasant rebirths in the interim before Nibbána is attained, is related to both vatta and vivatta, and hence is called ubhava-nissita. In the Pali texts, however, only vatta and vivatta are mentioned. Those who are more inclined to the attainment of vatta results may be said to perform vatta nissita kamma, and those who are more inclined to the attainment of vivatta results may be said to perform vivatta nissita kusala kamma.
With reference to the classification of niyata and aniyata, the great realm of sakkaya-ditthi anusaya that puthujjana (worldlings) possess is like a great, wide and deep ocean of hot burning embers. The síla, samádhi and paññá that occasionally occur to puthujjana may be compared to droplets of rain falling on that great ocean of burning embers. 'I fulfill síla. I possess síla. I develop samádhi. I am knowing. I am wise. I am clever. I perceive rupa and Nama. I contemplate rupa and nama' are declarations of acts of síla, samádhi, and paññá, which revolve round the sakkaya-ditthi that is 'I', and thus resemble the droplets of rain falling on the great ocean of burning embers. Just as the great ocean of burning embers scorch and dry-up the droplets of rain and cause their disappearance, so does the great kingdom of sakkaya-ditthi cause the disappearance of such síla, samádhi, and paññá. Hence, the síla, samádhi, and paññá, appearing in puthujjana are of the aniyata class. Although puthujjana may possess síla, samádhi, and paññá the possession is tadanga or temporary.
The ajivatthamaka lokiya síla of sotápanna, their lokiya samádhi which resides steadily on the noble and incomparable qualities of the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Sangha, and their lokiya paññá which perceives the Four Noble Truths are of the niyata class, Like droplets of water falling on the great lake of Anavatatta, such lokiya síla, samádhi, and paññá do not disappear throughout many lives and many world-cycles.
This shows the nature of lokiya Dhamma heritage.
The lokuttara Dhamma of síla, samádhi, kind paññá, nadassana- visuddhi, and the thirty-seven bodhipakkhiya-dhamma, which accompany the eight kinds of lokuttara consciousness are vivatta nissita. They are niyata. The lokiya síla, samádhi, and paññá, which occur to ariya who have attained lokuttara síla, samádhi, and paññá, also reach the niyata stage. In such persons there is no longer any possibility of their becoming dussila (immoral), asamahita (not composed), dupanna (unwise), and andhabala (silly).
This shows the heritage of the Sasana.
The Heirs of the Sasana are:
11. Sikkhamana (female)
Here, sikkhamana means 'embryo Bhikkhuní.'
Of the above seven heirs, the first five are called 'fellow workers' or colleagues within the Sasana. Men, devas and Brahmas who are not 'fellow workers or colleagues within the Sasana,' but who are established in the Ti-sarana, are included in Upasaka and Upasika.
Among the seven heirs, the amisa heritage of the four requisites can be received only by 'fellow workers or colleagues within the Sasana.' The lokiya and lokuttara Dhamma heritages, however, can be received by all the seven. In the receipt of such heritages, there are special considerations in respect of the heritage of lokiya síla. There are special considerations with respect- to the heritages of lokuttara síla, lokiya and lokuttara samádhi, and lokiya and lokuttara paññá.
The special considerations with respect to lokiya síla arise because the five 'fellow- workers or colleagues, within the Sasana' receive the heritages of both the Vinaya síla and suttanta-síla, while Upasaka and Upasika receive only the suttanta-síla.
14. In respect of the five 'fellow workers or colleagues within the Sasana', the síla enumerated in the Brahamajala Sutta (Digha Nikáya)
15. In respect 'of Upasaka and Upasika', ajivatthamaka-síla and dasanga-síla. I
Dhutanga-síla, and paccayasannissita-síla are also suttanta síla.
Samma-vaca, samma-kammanta, and samma-ajiva, included in lokuttara-magganga, are called lokuttara-sila. These síla can be received by the five 'fellow workers or colleagues within the Sasana' as also Upasaka and Upasika. Hence no special considerations arise respect to lokuttara-sila. The same is the case in the two kinds of heritages of samádhi and paññá. The seven visuddhi and the thirty- seven bodhipakkhiya-dhamma are included within these síla, samádhi, and paññá.
Of the seven heirs of the Sasana, the five 'fellow workers or colleagues within the Sasana' who are in the service of the Sasana, are heirs for their own benefit as well as heirs who act as caretakers of the heritages of the Sasana in order that the Tipitaka and the other requisites of the Sasana may endure for the duration of 5000 years. The remaining two are heirs of the Sasana only for their own benefit.
The status of caretakers of the Sasana, on whose shoulders rest the responsibilities of the Sasana, is much higher than that of the status of being merely Heirs. 'Thus, a householder who has been an ariya for sixty years has to pay respect, and obeisance to a young puthtijjana samanera of seven years of age who has been initiated for only a day. Thus also, a Bhikkhu who is an arahat has to pay respect and obeisance to a puthujjana Bhikkhu who was ordained just an hour before him.
This shows the heir of the Sasana.
The three sikkha, the seven visuddhi, and the thirty-seven bodhipakkhiya-dhamma, are practices that are in consonance with the nine lokuttara Dhamma,  and hence are called dhammanudhamma- patipatti. The seven heirs of the Sasana who practice these Dhamma well are called suppatipanna individuals. They are also called ujuppatipanna individuals, nayappatipanna individuals and samicippatipanna individuals. Although they may be puthujjana, they are included among the sotapatti-maggatthasekha individuals (persons in training for the sotapatti magga), who constitute the first group (or the group in the first stage) of the eight ariya. They constitute dhammanudhammapatipanna ariya. Since they are still puthujjana, they are not yet paramattha ariya (purified Noble Ones).
I shall substantiate what I say. In the Sekhapptipada Sutta, Buddha said: 'Imina ariyena silakkhandhena samannagato hoti,' meaning thereby that the practices which are comprised within the bodhipakkhiya-dhamma, such as ajivatthamaka-síla, constitute ariya síla, ariya samádhi, and ariya paññá. Hence, in the Buddha Sasana, the Upasaka and Upasika who are permanently confirmed in the ajivatthamaka-síla and in the Tisarana, are persons who are partly endowed with the suppatipanna quality, and the samicippatipanna quality and hence are dhammanudhamappatipanna ariya.
When these qualities are enumerated coupled with the name of the Sangha, such as in:
Sangham saranaram gacchami. Suppatippanno bhagavato savaka
Only the Bhikkhus and Bhikkhunis who are silavanta kalyana puthjjana (worldlings who are morally good and virtuous) should be understood. In the matter of the Vinaya, all persons other than upasampanna Sangha (ordained Sangha), that is, samanera, samaneri, sikkhamana, Upasaka and Upasika, are excluded.
A person who practices the dhammanudhamma-patipatti, which may also be called the bodhipakkhiya-dhamma, is called Samana and brahmana in the Suttanta discourses, although he or she may be only an Upasaka or an Upasika.
Thus it is said in the Dhammapada:
Alankato ce pi saman careyya
santo danto niyato brahmacari,
sabbesu bhutesu nidhaya dandam,
sa samano, brahmano, sa Bhikkhu.
[Though dressed in gay and festive clothes, if he practices an even mind, if his passions are subdued, if his senses are controlled, if he is confirmed in the four Paths, if he permanently observes conduct that is chaste and pure, that person is a recluse (Samana), he is an ariya (brahmana), he is a Bhikkhu.]
This passage shows that a person who practices the dhammdnudhamma- patipatti, which are the bodhipakkhiya-dhamma, and lives with pure mind and body, can be called a Bhikkhu even though he dons the clothes of an ordinary layman. This shows the nobility and high status of the heirs of the Sasana.
In the matter of heritages of the Sasana there are two kinds of heritages, namely, good and bad. There are also two kinds of heirs, namely, good and bad.
I shall here show the essentials in the Dhamma Dayada Sutta,  Mula Pannasa, Majjhima Nikáya.
Dhamma dayada me bhikkhave bhavattha,
ma amisadayada. Atthi me tumhesu anukampa.
Kinti me savaka Dhamma dayada bhaveyyum,
no amisa dayada ti.
(Bhikkhus: Let you be heirs of the Dhamma. Let not you be heirs of the material requisites. I have compassion and anxiety for you. How do I have this compassion and anxiety? How can my disciples become heirs of the Dhamma? How can they avoid becoming heirs of the material requisites? It is thus that I have compassion and anxiety for you.)
The meaning of this passage is as follows: The Buddha's heritage consists of the two kinds: amisa heritage and Dhamma heritage. Amisa heritage is of three kinds, namely: paccayamisa, lokamisa, and vattmisa. The benefits consisting of alms-food, robes, dwelling place and medicines, are called paccayamisa. World renown, grandeur, dignity, power, worldly positions, such as teachers and mentors of kings, ministers, persons of wealth and influence, and possession of followers and retinues, are called lokamisa. Pleasant rebirths such as rebirth in high stations, rebirth in affluent families, or rebirth in circumstances where one's wants are fulfilled, are called vattamisa. I have already expounded dhammamisa.
The Buddha foresaw that after his attainment of parinibbána the Sasana would be overwhelmed by the excessive increase of the three categories of amisa heritage, in just the same way as islands within the ocean are overwhelmed and submerged by the three waves of rising floods. Hence did he leave behind the exhortation:
Dhammadayada me bhikkhave bhavatha, ma amisadayada. 'Anukampa' means the anxiety or concern nurtured by the Buddha. The Buddha's anxiety was that, just as when the flood waters of the ocean rise, the people inhabiting the islands are submerged and cast adrift, his disciples in the Sasana would in time be submerged and cast adrift by the rise and expansion of amisa heritage, thus severing them from the invaluable heritage of the Dhamma. Hence did he leave behind the exhortation:
Kinti me savaka dhammadayada bhaveyyum, No me amisa dayada.
The three-amisa heritages are therefore heritages, which caused anxiety and concern in the Buddha, and thus are heritages that the Buddha discouraged. Hence, these three amisa heritages are bad heritages. On the other hand, the thirty-seven bodhipakkhiya-dhamma, such as Satipatthána, are heritages, which the Buddha extolled with a clear mind free from anxiety, and thus are good heritages.
Having shown good and bad heritages, bad and good heirs should also be examined.
In particular, it must be remembered that there are certain heritages in the amisa category, which the Buddha extolled. They are pindiyalopa (morsel) alms-food, pamsukula robes (robes made out of rags and cast away cloth such as from dust heaps), rukkhamala dwelling place (dwelling place constructed in a lonely place at the foot of a tree), and putimutta medicine (strong smelling urine of cattle used as medicine). These four are called Buddhadayajja. They are the four great heritages, which the Buddha approved.
If that is the case, it needs to be explained why the Buddha permitted the acceptance of atireka labha (surplus acquisition) amisa given by lay donors, as when he said:
Atireka lobho viharo addhayogo, etc,.
(Surplus monastery, dwelling place, etc.)
The pariyatti sasana  consisting of the Tipitaka is the base-- the foundation--of the patipatti (practice of the Dhamma) and the pativedha (realization) Sasana. Only when the pariyatti sasana stands firmly established can the other two Sasana be also firmly established. The burden of preserving the pariyatti sasana for 5000 years is indeed great, since these are times of a waning kappa (world-cycle) when the life-span of men is also on the wane. The physical and mental strength of the members of the Sangha, who are the servants and caretakers of the Sasana, are as a result on the wane too. The Buddha thus foresaw that it would not be possible for these servants and caretakers, in the future, to shoulder the burden of preserving the pariyatti and at the same time live in lonely places under trees--without the concession of atireka labha. This is one reason.
In the cases of those persons whose parami are yet immature, the Buddha foresaw that the opportunity afforded them of practicing the works consisting of acquiring the pariyatti, performing Dana, observing síla, and giving paccayanuggaha (assistance in kind) extensively, would secure for them escape from the apaya loka in the next birth, and enable them to obtain release from worldly ills during the next Buddha Sasana. This is another reason.
It may be argued here that if what has been said above is true, it would amount to the Buddha himself having contrived to submerge beings and cast them adrift in amisa heritage. In this particular, it may be pointed out that the Buddha prescribed and left behind the practice of paccavekkhana-suddhi (purity of contemplation or purity of review), such 'patisankhayoniso civaram patisevati', which should be observed and practiced with proper attention and care, in order that the servants and the caretakers of the pariyatti sasana who have to associate themselves unavoidably with paccayaisa and lokamsa may not be overwhelmed and submerged in amisa tanha. Hence, if such persons ride the ship, which consists of the wisdom arising out of paccayasannissita síla cetana according to the prescription in paccavekkhana suddhi that is free from the association of two kinds of amisa tanha, they cannot become submerged and be adrift in the ocean of amisa although they are obliged to live in association with amisa tanha.
The meanings of the expressions 'submerged' and 'adrift' are as follows: The non-appearance of adinava-nana (awareness of blemishes) in the three amisa of paccayamisa, luamisa, vattamisa, is what is meant by 'submerged'. To be non-aware of blemishes for a lengthy period, and to derive joy and pleasure in the three amisa throughout the whole of life, is what is meant by 'adrift'. Hence, in order to prevent being so 'submerged' and 'adrift', the Buddha said in the Dhammapada:
Tinnam annataram yamam
Dhammapada, verse 157.
(The wise man should purify himself during one of the three periods of life.)
This means that if one is 'submerged' and be 'adrift' in the first period of life, one should attempt to purify oneself during the second period. If, however, one continues to remain 'submerged' and 'adrift' during the second period of life, one should attempt to purify oneself in the third period.
Here, 'purifying oneself' means establishing oneself in the bodhipakkhiya-dhamma after ridding oneself of the attachments to amisa heritages. It means establishing oneself well in the four-ariyavamsa Dhamma (practices of the noble family of ariya), which are:
Civarasantosa-being easily contented in robes
Pindapatasantosa-being easily contented in alms-food
Senasanasantosa-being easily contented in dwelling place
Bhavanarama-deriving joy in meditation.
The Buddha said that if one remains 'submerged' and 'adrift' within the amisa heritages during the whole of the three periods of life, one will be cast into the apaya loka. Thus in the Dhammapada, he said:
Ayasava malam samutthaya
tadutthaya tameva khadati.
tani kammani nayanti duggatim.
--Dhammapada, verse 240.
(Just as rust springs from iron and eats away that self-same iron, the deeds arising out of amisa tanha of a person who lives without reflection lead him to the apaya loka.)
This discourse  was delivered by the Buddha in connection with a Bhikkhu who died in the Jetavana Monastery, and who was reborn as a louse in his erstwhile Bhikkhus robes, because he harbored an attachment to those robes just before he died. If the attachment to a set of robes can cast one in the apaya loka, what more need be said on greater attachments?
The robes were received as a share from sanghika property (property belonging to the order of the Sangha), and hence were dhammika property (righteous or lawful property). The Bhikkhu in question was also one who scrupulously observed the 227 sikkha of the Vinaya. Thus it may be said that a set of lawful robes cast a Bhikkhu endowed with the 227 sikkha into the apaya loka. What more need be said about properties acquired with lust and greed by ordinary lay folk endowed with only five sikkha? It is thus that one should contemplate and acquire agitation (samvega).  I shall now give an illustration.
There was a wealthy man who possessed many crores worth of silver, many crores worth of gold, and many crores worth of pearls. In order that these properties might not be lost during bad times, he buried the bulk of them in the ground, and kept only sixty thousand worth of money, rice, paddy, wearing apparel, and ornaments for immediate and ready use.
This wealthy man had six sons. On his death, the six heirs divided the properties among themselves in six equal shares. The properties buried beneath the earth were also similarly allocated. These buried properties could be secured by the heirs only if the owners personally dug them out the ground.
One of the sons was full of greed. he was not content with the property he could immediately use. He was satiated with the desire for the buried property and could not bear to wait long in order to get it. He therefore exerted himself and dug up the property, thus becoming a wealthy man.
One of the sons was full of energy. He did not look on the prospect of having to exert himself for days and months as burdensome. He therefore put forth effort and applied himself to the work of unearthing the buried treasure, thus becoming a wealthy man.
One of the sons was strong in his attachment. From the moment he received the heritage, his mind ways always on the property. Sleep and food were of no consequence, so greatly was his mind attached to the property. He thus put forth effort and dug up the buried property, becoming a wealthy man.
One of the sons was clever and ingenious. He contrived to construct machinery and dug up the buried property, thus becoming a wealthy man.
One of the sons lacked greed. He imagined himself to be well off with even ten thousand worth of property. He had no desire to acquire the buried property. He was satisfied with the property that he received for his immediate use.
One of the sons was a spendthrift. He squandered all the property, not even leaving the price of a spade for the exhumation of the buried property. He sank into bad ways and was eventually banished from his native place.
In this illustration, the Buddha resembles the wealthy father. Sila-visuddhi and the pariyatti Dhamma resemble the treasure available for immediate use. Jhana and abhhinna, which constitute citta-visuddhi, resemble the buried silver treasure. The four-lokiya paññá-visuddhi, such as ditthi-visuddhi, resembles the buried gold treasure. The lokuttara-nana-dassana-visuddhi resembles the buried pearl treasure. The lay folk and Bhikkhus of the Buddha Sasana resemble the six heirs.
Those persons within the Sasana who are filled with the iddhipada of chanda (desire) resemble the first son who was filled with greed. Persons filled with the iddipada of chanda are not satisfied with the mere acquisition of sila-visuddhi and the pariyatti Dhamma. They do not think that by such acquisition they have encountered the Buddha Sasana, or that they have become heirs of the Sasana. They nurture great desire for attaining the higher visuddhi and will not rest until they are achieved.
Those persons who possess the iddhipada of viriya (effort) resemble the second son who was full of effort. Such persons are happy and easy in mind only when they are engaged in the attempt to acquire the higher achievements, which they do not as yet possess.
Those persons who possess the iddhipada of citta (attachment) resemble the third son who possessed strong attachment. Whenever such persons come to know of work productive of great benefits, they invoke great attachment for it, and their minds do not wander to any other matter.
Those persons who possess iddhipada of paññá (wisdom) resemble the fourth son who was clever and ingenious. Such persons attain happiness and ease of mind only when they are engaged in the attempt to acquire great knowledge that is difficult of acquisition, deep, and productive of great benefits.
Those persons who do not possess any of the iddhipada, who possess only inferior chanda, viriya, citta, and paññá, resemble the fifth son who was easily satisfied with the unburied property. Such persons who lack saddha and chanda do not even possess the idea that the higher attainments of the visuddhi are the heritages, which they can acquire in this very life. Because they lack viriya, they are reluctant to put forth effort that requires the encountering of privations. They are liable to reject such effort as impossible. Because they are weak in their volitions, their minds are not fixed on such kinds of work. They change their minds whenever they listen to various theories and lack knowledge and wisdom; they reject such work as beyond their capabilities. It is because the Buddha had such persons in view that he said:
In these words the Buddha urged all beings to strengthen their weak iddhipada, such as chanda, etc. Then only can new desires and new thoughts arise.
In the Buddha Sasana, lay folk and Bhikkhus who are defective in their moral conduct resemble the sixth son. Among lay folk, those persons who are defective in the establishment of the Ti-sarana, and the nicca-sila of panca-sila and ajivatthamaka-síla, do not possess the qualities of an Upasaka or an Upasika, who only are the heirs of the Sasana. Among Bhikkhus and samaneras, those who commit the parajika  offences do not possess the qualities of a good Bhikkhu or a good samanera, who only are the heirs of the Sasana. If lay folk vow that they would keep the panca-sila or the ajivatthamaka-síla from today, they can immediately become Upasakas and Upasikas who are heirs of the Sasana.
This illustration shows how of the many persons who are truly in the line of heritage of the one father (the Buddha), only those who possess one or other of the four iddhipada as a foundation can enjoy the full benefits of the heritages. Persons who do not possess one or other of the four iddhipada get the opportunity to enjoy only some of the superficial benefits of the heritages. They do not get the opportunity to enjoy the real essence of the heritages. Some persons do not get the opportunity of enjoying even the superficial benefits because they squander their heritages and thus become severed from the Buddha's and the Sasana's heritages.
The heirs of the Sasana may also be classified into:
16. Niyata heirs
17. Aniyata heirs
People who have never once obtained anicca-nana and anattá-nana within themselves are called aniyata heirs. Aniyata means that they may be the disciples of the sabbannuta Buddha (Omniscient Buddha)--or the heirs of the sabbannuta Buddha--today, but they may become the disciples and heirs of another teacher tomorrow. They may even scorn and destroy the Sasana of the sabannuta Buddha. Even in the present world there are persons who have changed their faith from the Buddha Sasana to Christianity, and who scorn and undermine the Buddha Sasana. How easily they can change after death in another birth can be imagined.
One can be a disciple of the sabbannuta Buddha this month, and the disciple of another, teacher next month. One can be the disciple of the sabbannuta Buddha this year, and the disciple of another teacher the next. One can be the disciple of the sabbannuta Buddha in the first period of life and the disciple of another teacher in the second. One can be the disciple of the sabbannuta Buddha in the second period of life and the disciple of another in the third. One can be the disciple of the sabbannuta Buddha in this life and the disciple and the disciple of another teacher in the next.
Thus in the Patisambhidha-Magga, the Buddha said: Nanasattaranam mukham ullokentiti puthujjana. (A puthujjana is so called because he looks up to the faces of various teachers).
The meaning of this passage is that in the infinite past samsára, puthujjana have never been constant in the choice of the teachers in whom they have taken refuge. It has been one teacher today and another tomorrow. One teacher this month and another the next. One teacher this year and another the next. One teacher this life and another the next. The number of occasions on which they have approached and taken refuge in the Sabbannuta Buddha during the infinite past samsára is very few indeed. Sometimes, they have taken refuge in the Brahma, sometimes in the Sakka, sometimes in the various devas, sometimes in the sun, sometimes in the moon sometimes in the planets, sometimes in the spirits of the earth, and sometimes in the ogres, and they have done so as if these refuges were almighty.
In the world, the number of false teachers is very numerous. The number of existences in which puthujjana have approached and taken refuge in these false teachers is also very numerous. Sometimes they have taken refuge in the nagas, sometimes in garudas, sometimes in rivers, sometimes in mountains, sometimes in forests, sometimes in trees, sometimes in hillocks, sometimes in fire, and sometimes in water.  Thus, in nature, the number and kinds of teachers which puthujjana afflicted with sakkaya-ditthi have approached and taken refuge in are extremely numerous. The more they approach and take refuge in these false teachers, the more do they sink into the apaya and niraya loka.
If further, beginning with this life, they continue to wander and drift in samsára replete with false attachments of sakkaya-dittlii, they will continue to change the teachers whom they approach and take refuge in. How frightful, terrible, and nasty is the state of a puthujjana. This is the meaning. of the passage, 'nanasattaranam mukham ullokentiti puthujjana.'
On every occasion a puthujjana changes his teachers and refuges, a change also occurs in the doctrines and principles that he depends on for his guidance. Sometimes puthujjana have depended on the adhisadhisila-dhamma (purified morality) expounded by the sabbannuta Buddha; sometimes on gosila govata Dhamma or the practices of cattle; sometimes on the practices of dogs; sometimes on the practices of horses; and sometimes on the practices of elephants. Thus the moral practices which they have adopted and depended on are also very numerous. In the matter of ditthi (views), the number of existences in which they have adopted and depended on samma-ditthi (right views) are extremely few. On the other hand, the number of existences in which they have adopted and depended on miccha-ditthi (wrong views) are extremely numerous. The more they have adopted and depended on these wrong views and practices, the more have they sunk--deeper and deeper-- into the apaya and niriya loka.
Of the countless and infinite number of errors and perversities possessed by puthujjana wandering and drifting in samsára, the error of seeking refuge in wrong protectors (teachers) is one of the greatest errors conducive of causing them great harm. This is because the error of seeking refuge in wrong teachers leads to wrong moral principles and practices, and the difficult achievement of rebirth as human beings (manusatta dullabha), which may be compared to a great padesa  tree producing the fruits of good rebirths, becomes in its entirety a tree producing the evil fruits of rebirths in the niriya regions. This shows the future path of aniyata heirs of the Sasana.
Those persons who perceive the anicca and anattá characteristics in themselves are freed from the kingdom of sakkaya-ditthi. They become the niyata heirs of the Sasana. Niyata means that they are freed from the susceptibility of approaching and seeking refuge in erroneous teachers throughout future infinite samsára. They become the true children of the sabbannuta Buddha throughout the future succession of rebirth. They become members of the 'bon-sin-san' family, and though they may pass through many rebirths and many world-cycles in samsára, their views of the unbounded and incomparable qualities of the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Sangha, become clearer and brighter from one rebirth to another.
The three sasana of síla, samádhi, and paññá, the seven visuddhi, such as sila-visuddhi, and the thirty-seven bodhipakkhiya-dhamma of Satipatthána, sammappadhana, iddhipada, indriya, bala, bojjhanga, and magganga, are Dhamma heritages that prosper and increase in their minds from one rebirth to another. The three sasana of the pariyatti, patipatti, and the pativedha become permanently established in them throughout the succession of rebirths and the succession of world-cycles.
Although they continue to wander in samsára enjoying the joys and pleasures of humans, devas, and Brahmas, they are no longer beings of the world who change their teachers and refuges from one existence to another. They continue to wander in samsára as beings of the lokuttara, or the region of the ariya. They are no longer beings of samsára liable to the miseries inherent in the round of rebirths, and who thus are subject to being submerged, suffocated, exhausted, and cast adrift in Samsára’s great whirlpool. They have become the true beings of the first stage of Nibbána called sa-upadisesa-nibbana. They are beings that will invariably ascend to anupadisesa-nibbana through the joys and pleasure of 'bon-sin-san' existences.
In infinite samsára, all wise humans, devas, Brahmas, desire to become niyata beings that only are the true children of the sabbannuta Buddhas, and thus they hope and look forward to encountering the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Sangha. They have to perform many acts of Dana and establish the wish that such acts may lead to such an encounter. They have to perform many acts of síla and establish the wish that such acts may lead to such an encounter. They have to perform many acts of bhávaná and establish the wish that such acts may lead to such an encounter. This shows the undeviating path of the niyata heir of the Sasana.
It is to reveal this path that the Buddha, in several places of the Suttanta and Abhidhamma Pitakas said:
Tinnam samyojanam parikkhaya sotapanno hoti,
avinipata dhammo niyato sambodhiparayano. 
(Because the three-samyojana ceases, the person becomes a sotápanna. He becomes free from rebirth in states of suffering. He becomes confirmed as heir of the bodhipakkhiya-dhamma. He finds rest and support in the higher Paths and Fruits.
[Note: The three samyojana are sakkaya-ditthi, vicikiccha, and silabbataparamasa. Of these, sakkaya-ditthi is the essential or ruling factor.]
This ends the part showing the aniyata and niyata heirs.
Good and virtuous persons who perceive what constitutes good heritage and bad heritage, what is fixed or niyata heritage, and what unstable or aniyata heritage, what are good heirs and bad heirs, what are heirs of fixed heritage and heirs of unstable heritage, these good and virtuous persons did not put forth effort in past successive existences and successive worlds because they desired to become heirs of bad heritages of the Buddha Sasana. They put forth effort because it was their desire to become heirs of the good heritages. They did not practice Dana, síla, and bhávaná because they desired to become heirs of the unstable temporary heritages, but because it was their desire to become heirs of the niyata heritages.
Taking these facts into account, and taking heed of the fact that the Buddha disapproved of the bad heritages of the Sasana, those persons who have in this existence become the disciples and heirs of the Buddha should not permit themselves to become bad heirs. They should not permit themselves to become temporary, unstable heirs. They should attempt to become heirs of the good heritages, which are the bodhipakkhiya-dhamma. They should attempt to become stable heirs.
In the lengthy period of the series of rebirths known as samsára, whenever acts of Dana, síla and bhávaná are performed, it is usually because beings desire that by virtue of these good acts they may in a future existence as a human being encounter a Buddha and attain release from worldly ills, or attain the Path Knowledge, the Fruit Knowledge, and Nibbána. Thus it is usual for them to wish for the heritages of the Dhamma. It is not usual for them to desire that by virtue of these good acts they may in future existence encounter a Buddha and attain worldly riches and worldly positions. It is not usual for them to wish for these amisa heritages. It is not usual for them to desire the gaining of opportunities for the performance of good acts leading to bhava-sampatti, bhoga-sampatti, and issariya-sampatti.
But, at the present day, the bad heritages of paccayamisa-tanha lokamisa-tanha, and vattamisa-tanha constitute to be ruling factors. Modern men and women do not like to hear the mention of the four ariya-vamsa, which are the antitheses of the three tanha mentioned. The four ariya-vamsa-dhamma which are, as has already been mentioned previously, being easily satisfied with alms-food, robes, and dwelling place, and deriving joy and pleasure in the work of bhávaná. They are called ariya-vamsa-dhamma because they are Dhamma on which Buddhas, the disciples of Buddhas, and the heirs of Buddhas, should not release their hold. This is a reminder to those persons who possess wisdom.
As regards persons deficient in wisdom, the mere performance of many good and meritorious acts has to be extolled as good.
Those persons who are endowed with wisdom, however, should, if they desire to become heirs of the niyata Dhamma heritages either in this life or in the next in the deva loka, establish the ajivatthamaka- síla, set up kayagatai-sati, and try (for at least three hours a day) to achieve perception of the three characteristics of existence in the five aggregates of the body. If they perceive either of the three characteristics in the five aggregates, they can become niyata heirs and achieve the status of a 'bon-sin-san'.
For this purpose, see my Lakkhana Dipani, Vijjamagga Dipani, Ahara Dipani, and Kammatthana Dipani. For the path of niyata 'bon- sin-san' individuals, see my Catusacca Dipani, and the chapter on Nibbána my Paramattha Sankhitta.
149. 1.Round of defilements, 2.Round of kamma, 3.Round of results.
150. See the Light of the Dhamma, Vol. III, No.2, and the Brahmajala
Sutta published by the Union Buddha Sasana Council.
151. Four magga, four phala and Nibbána.
152. See Nanamoli's Visuddhimagga, p. 236 et. seq.
153. Samyutta Nikáya, Maha-vagga Samyutta Pali, 1. Magga Samyutta,
3. Sekha Sutta, p. 12, 6th Syn Edn.
154 1. Wulapariyaya-vagga, 3. Dhammadayada Sutta, p. 15 6th Syn. Edn.
155. Learning of the Doctrine
156. Dhammapada Atthakatha, 3. Tissa Thera Vatthu, p. 218, 6th Syn
157. Dread caused by the contemplation on the miseries of this world.
See The Light of the Dhamma, Vol. VII, No. 3, p. 17.
158. Offences, which entail loss of monk hood.
159. Patisambhida-Magga Atthakatha, 9. Sankharupakkha-nanadassana-
vannana, p. 245, 6th Syn Edn.
160. Cf. Dhammapada, verse 188.
161. 'Wishing Tree'
162. Abhidhamma Pitaka, Puggalapannatti Pali, P. 120, 6th Syn Edn.