[This article appeared in //Gassho// vol 1 no 4 (May/Jun 1994).]


                          by Ngakpa Chogyam Rinpoche

  (Presentation for the March 1994 Conference of the Network for Western  
  Buddhist Teachers with His Holiness the Dalai Lama in Dharamsala)

  The evolution of Buddhism in the West, and what possible part I could play 
  in that, has been my primary interest and concern for over ten years. I 
  have in that time, together with my students, created an individual 
  context of practice that may be of interest here. What we have established 
  isn't perfect but it functions very happily, having evolved out of the 
  hard work and kind-hearted commitment of a small number of enthusiastic 
  people. For this reason I would like to introduce some aspects of our 
  history, and the ideas that led to the establishment of Sang-ngak-cho- 
  dzong in Britain and the US.

  Sang-ngak-cho-dzong is the name we were given by His Holiness Dudjom 
  Rinpoche, specifically for the work in establishing a Ngakphang Sangha in 
  the West. The word Ngakphang, means 'mantra holding' and applies to those 
  who take Tantric vows and live as non-celibate householders. Ngakphang 
  practitioners are usually called Ngakpas (male) and Ngakmas (female). They 
  have uncut hair, and maintain the Tantric samayas. They wear robes which 
  are more or less like monk's or nun's robes, but the skirt or shamthab is 
  usually white (Ngakphang Sangha members sometimes wear red shamtabs, 
  especially outside the Nyingma School). They also wear a red, white and 
  blue striped shawl called a Ngakphang Sen.

  Sang-ngak-cho-dzong, which has recently become a Registered Charity, is a 
  relatively small but enthusiastically committed group of Nyingma 
  practitioners who attempt to live by the principles of Kindness and 
  Awareness. We are a Ngakphang Sangha, or White Tantric Community, and 
  attempt the practice of being Vajra brothers and Vajra sisters, in terms 
  of trying always to see each other with pure-vision. In practice, this 
  means relating to what is intrinsically good in each other, rather than 
  giving undue weight to each other's confusion and neuroses.  This is a 
  quality that we endeavour to apply in the outside world as well, with 
  regard to feeling a genuine kindness and good heart towards everyone.   We 
  maintain a respect for each other as practitioners, based on the shared 
  commitment to living the View of our tradition. We place a lot of emphasis 
  on genuine kindness, and genuine friendliness; as well as sincere courtesy 
  and real tolerance. We view tolerance as that which allows for the 
  differences and opposed views of different traditions and approaches, 
  without the need to take any kind of hostile stance. The 'tolerance' which 
  has to make everything the same in order to be tolerant, we view as an 
  immature form of tolerance.   We try to take the approach in which it 
  should be possible to be friendly with anyone. We maintain that to 
  disagree with a person's view or approach to Buddhism (or anything else) 
  doesn't have to preclude an otherwise warm and humane interaction.

  We regard humour, enthusiasm, naturalness and spontaneity as crucial in 
  our approach to being a functioning Sangha. We have attempted to create an 
  atmosphere, within our Sangha, in which no one has to modify their 
  personality or language in order to be accepted. New Apprentices are 
  unconditionally welcomed and made to feel part of the Sangha. There is no 
  'inner circle' to break into by being seen to be 'special' in any way. 
  There is a continually advocated proscription against engaging in the 
  discussion of Buddhism as a method of 'making conversation'.  Apprentices 
  are encouraged only to discuss Buddhist topics when they actually have the 
  need to know something, or when the subject arises naturally in terms of 
  shared experience. The reason behind this is to eliminate the tendency to 
  gravitate to stilted forms of cultic conversation; or, to using Buddhist 
  technical vocabulary as a form of status enhancement. I encourage this 
  atmosphere of 'ordinariness' by spending a lot of informal time with 
  Apprentices. In such 'informal time' conversation can take many forms, 
  with Buddhist teaching weaving in and out of many different topics -- in 
  an atmosphere of good humour and frequent hilarity. We endeavour to create 
  an atmosphere of interpersonal acceptance and mutual support, in which no 
  one ever offers anyone gratuitous advice or criticism for any reason. We 
  try to remember that, at best, our negative subjectivity is subjective. We 
  therefore try only to express our warm and positive subjectivity. Each 
  person is considered to be responsible for their own motivation, and if 
  problems arise between students I regard it as my responsibility to help 
  them come to a kind and open-minded understanding of each other. We 
  endeavour to be good examples of what it is to be a Buddhist of any 
  School; but, at the very least, we simply try to be kind, open and 
  friendly people.

  Non-sectarianism has always been a central theme of Sang-ngak-cho-dzong, 
  and we have continued to try to establish friendly contact with other 
  Buddhist organizations. We have become a member of the 'Network of 
  Buddhist Organizations'; which is currently being founded in Britain, and 
  view this as a wonderful opportunity to overcome the suspicion that 
  sometimes exists between the Buddhist organizations of different schools 
  and traditions. We hope to see far greater exchange and co-operation 
  between groups, and are committed to participating to the furtherance of 
  this end. I feel that it is useful for students to remain as open to 
  teachers of other Buddhist traditions as possible. I feel that a broad 
  range of contact with other Buddhist traditions is essential for the 
  purpose of students having a wide and detailed understanding of Buddhism.

  We are probably quite unusual as a Buddhist organization, in that we are 
  small by design. Although our organization may possibly grow larger, it is 
  enshrined in our charitable constitution that we will never develop in a 
  pyramidal manner. As soon as there are other Ngakphang Lamas working 
  within Sang-ngak-cho-dzong, I will automatically cease to be the central 
  figure.  This is something I instigated at the outset in order that the 
  future development of Sang-ngak-cho-dzong would remain as free as possible 
  from spiritual imperialism, even if I were no longer alive. I have a deep 
  sense of responsibility for the future in terms of the organization that 
  is growing around me, and my strongest wish has been to prevent Sang-ngak- 
  cho-dzong becoming an unwieldy monolithic empire with me or anyone else at 
  its head. To this end, I have always involved my students in terms of how 
  Sang-ngak-cho-dzong has evolved.

  I have often been saddened the superstar Lama phenomena in which students 
  have almost no personal contact with their Teachers. I have been saddened 
  by the appalling accounts of sexual abuse that have come to my attention 
  from such quarters, and convinced that their must be some better way to 
  proceed. I have been especially saddened to meet people whose financial or 
  family circumstances have prevented any real sense of being involved with 
  Lamas or their Sanghas. Because of this, I felt it important to attempt to 
  establish an alternative model; at least for people who wanted to study 
  and practise with me. The model was to be one in which people were able to 
  have a high degree of access,  especially in times of crisis. The model 
  was to be one in which those who were interested in the Nyingma Ngakphang 
  tradition could gain access to someone who had some degree of experience. 
  On the basis of limited student numbers it is only possible for Sang-ngak- 
  cho-dzong to grow laterally; that is to say, with a greater number of 
  teachers, rather than one teacher with an unwieldy number of students.

  Because of the problems that I saw inherent in the large student numbers, 
  I decided from the outset to limit the total number of Students to between 
  50-60 people. I based this number on the average extended family gathering 
  at a wedding. This was a somewhat arbitrary choice, but one that was 
  established in terms of how many people it was actually possible to know 
  individually. My decision was based on the great importance that I saw in 
  being able to relate as personally as possible to each student.  It has 
  been a crucial consideration for me, especially in terms of the teaching 
  and practice of Tantra, that the teacher-student ratio be kept small. With 
  regard to my own understanding of Tantric view, meditation and action, it 
  is not easily possible to give guidance to hundreds of students; many of 
  whom may be unknown to the teacher. Perhaps for Enlightened masters this 
  is possible, but for an inconsequential eccentric yogi like me, it can be 
  quite hard work sometimes keeping abreast of the life circumstances of 
  those with whom I currently relate as a teacher. I have 49 Students at the 
  moment, and there is currently a waiting list for men, because I am 
  concerned about the experience of women living in a male dominated 
  society. For this reason I have committed myself to working with a larger 
  proportion of women students, and to giving them greater support. This is 
  one of the stated aims and objectives of our charitable constitution. I 
  correspond with all my students on a fairly regular basis, and am also 
  available by telephone and FAX almost where ever I travel. I am also able 
  to see them all individually according to personal need. They are all able 
  to visit me, and to invite me to their homes in order that our personal 
  connection is maintained and nurtured through informal domestic contact.   
  I would not feel that I was being of any real help to these people if I 
  knew any less about them than I do at the moment. I also make a practice 
  of thinking about them all every day, and sometimes write to them purely 
  because I wonder how they are getting on. On a more formal basis we have 
  established regular private group retreats for my personal apprentices 
  where I am able to teach and give short private interviews. These retreats 
  are held several times a year.

  These are all things that I would have valued myself as a student -- so 
  these are the circumstances I decided to make available for others. Some 
  of these things I experienced and appreciated very deeply with His 
  Holiness Kyabje Khordong gTerchen Tulku Chhi'med Rig'dzin Rinpoche in 
  particular, such as informal personal time and the possibility of 
  receiving letters which maintained a sense of contact. My students and I 
  have been involved in this effort together, and we have all been inspired 
  with the idea of creating something different, something that could 
  possibly serve as a model for other people wanting to organize themselves 
  around any particular Lama. We have made a practice of looking at the 
  functioning of the student-teacher relationship together over the years, 
  and what we have arrived at seems to suit our respective needs as a group.

  My needs are met in terms of being financially supported. This allows me 
  to: lead retreats;  give individual guidance and solitary retreat 
  schedules; give individual tuition to such Apprentices as our Thangka 
  painter and to others involved in art and craft work; give public 
  teachings; write books; edit teachings and interviews that have been 
  transcribed; answer Apprentice letters and telephone calls; be available 
  to receive Apprentices at my home; and, to travel to their homes. I also 
  send out periodic 'Apprentice Letters' which keep Apprentices informed 
  about my travels, plans, and ideas; interwoven with aspects of teaching 
  that spring naturally out of these topics. Their needs are met in terms of 
  allowing me to function in the ways I have described. They are aware that 
  they always have the possibility of making other needs known to me, and 
  that I will respond to the limit of my ability. We are committed to each 

  Sang-ngak-cho-dzong came into being through the interest shown in a style 
  of explaining the Tantric teachings that made them accessible to ordinary 
  people. My primary feeling has always been, that of wishing to make 
  something possible for people, that I believed was possible -- an 
  association of practitioners who could work and play together in a spirit 
  of real kindness and friendship. I believed from the beginning that it 
  must be possible to undermine the tendencies that I saw as being so 
  harmful; such as: gossip; 'Dharma' politics; the giving of gratuitous 
  advice and gratuitous criticism; the formation of clique and inner 
  circles; elitism; sectarianism; self-righteousness; the assumption of 
  artificial 'Buddhist' personality; the cultivation of a style of piety 
  designed for the enhancement of self-image; and, many types of 
  dysfunctional interpersonal behaviour. We have created an ethos within 
  Sang-ngak-cho-dzong where the adoption of an 'artificial Buddhist 
  personality' is not only not required, but which is actually practically 
  nonexistent. The adoption of an 'artificial Buddhist personality' is 
  unnecessary, when all that group acceptance depends upon -- is being an 
  Apprentice. The result of this is a wide range of personalities and styles 
  of expression, united by an interest in the practice, teachings, lineage, 
  and, a kind heart.

  I was originally called upon to be of help to people in Cardiff Wales who 
  were experiencing varying degrees of confusion in terms of their 
  experience of Tibetan Buddhism. I had returned to live in Cardiff at the 
  end of the 70's, having spent that decade in study, practice, and retreat 
  within the Nyingma School under the guidance of His Holiness Chhi'med 
  Rig'dzin Rinpoche; His Holiness Dudjom Rinpoche, and His Holiness Dilgo 
  Khyentse Rinpoche. I had also studied with other Nyingma Lamas such as 
  Lama Kunzang Dorje Rinpoche, Lama Konchog Rinpoche, Jetsunma Khandro 
  Ten'dzin Drolkar, and Lama Yeshe Dorje. My main  Transmission Lineage, the 
  Aro gTer, however came directly from Jetsunma Khandro Yeshe Rema. As it is 
  known, I am the sole surviving holder of this Lineage and so I have the 
  considerable responsibility to keeping this tradition alive for the 
  benefit of future generations.

  When I returned to the West, it was with H.H. Dudjom Rinpoche's 
  instruction to teach and establish the Nyingma Ngakphang tradition in the 
  West. The beginnings of this teaching were quite organic, and came from 
  invitations from people who came to hear of me by word of mouth -- simply 
  as 'a person who lived locally' who could explain things in ordinary 
  language. As you will know, I was recognized as the incarnation of Aro 
  Yeshe, by His Holiness Kyabje Dilgo Kyentse Rinpoche; and as the 
  incarnation of Aro Yeshe's predecessor, 'a-Shul Pema Legden, by H.H. 
  Kyabje Khordong gTerchen Tulku Chhi'med Rig'dzin Rinpoche, but this did 
  not play any part in how my role as a Lama in the West originated.

  The explanation of the Buddhist teaching in creative Western vernacular 
  idiom has always been important to me, because I am not an intellectual in 
  any sense of the term. I am also not endowed with excessive intelligence. 
  I didn't find it easy to understand many of the books that I tried to read 
  when I first became interested in Buddhism over twenty years ago; and 
  although I have now learnt to read complex language, in abstruse cultural 
  modes, I still find such books rather heavy going. Many of the available 
  books are found to be highly inaccessible or totally alien to those people 
  who study with me. I have always had immense sympathy and empathy with 
  people who find Tibetan Buddhist literature impenetrable, and so my 
  writings have been dedicated to providing material not only for my 
  Apprentices, but for others who feel intellectually and culturally 
  overwhelmed by what they try to read. I am also rather unsophisticated, so 
  I have always felt for those who wanted to remain 'ordinary' at some 
  level. I remember, with both amusement and affection, being described in a 
  book review by Stephen Batchelor as: "the working man's Lama Govinda."

  One of the main things I noticed in the West, was how people would enter 
  into practice with great fervour, and then become completely overwhelmed 
  by the nature of the commitments they had taken. Tantric commitments were 
  often entered into quite inadvertently.  Sometimes married couples would 
  find themselves to have made vows to abstain from sexual contact with each 
  other; and in the early days I was often being contacted to talk with 
  those who felt guilty about wishing to relinquish commitments that they 
  had never intended to take. Sometimes people would simply experience 
  confusion. They would find it hard to understand why they were involved 
  with in-depth studies of hell-realms when they'd originally come to learn 
  about something that would help them in their lives; to be kinder, 
  happier, more relaxed and peaceful. They were certainly interested in the 
  development of wisdom and compassion. They were certainly interested in 
  meditation, but were often simply bewildered by the cultural philosophical 
  infrastructure that dominated the presentation of the teachings. People 
  often stayed in this state of frustration for years, out of devotion to 
  the Lama -- and then  disappeared 'for no apparent reason', without ever 
  having expressed their inability to make sense of anything. It seemed to 
  me that people often suffered from some sort of 'Dharma burn-out'; they 
  would seem to make valiant attempts to enter a Tibetan Buddhist cultural 
  world-view, and then become disheartened when time and time again that 
  world-view would clash with the reality of their actual situation. The 
  'good students' tended to be those who remained with teachers, and the 
  'bad students' were those who left. The 'good students' were those who 
  didn't question much about the cultural aspects of the teaching, and the 
  'bad students' tended to be those who couldn't adapt to accepting 
  statements as a matter of faith.

  I was saddened by what I saw of Buddhism in the West, but soon realized  
  that many of these things seemed to happen by default -- no one was guilty 
  of doing anything on purpose. The interpersonal behaviour of students 
  seemed to incorporate the use of 'insider language', and the assessment of 
  others according to specific criteria, such as: extent of Buddhist 
  vocabulary; knowledge of Buddhist technical categories; Empowerments 
  received; and trips to India, Nepal and latterly Tibet. I could continue 
  at great length on this subject, but it is not my wish or interest to be 
  critical. I mention these issues simply to give examples of things I 
  encountered in the West, and among Western people in the East. It was the 
  attitudes I encountered, and the default mechanisms I saw in operation, 
  that fuelled me with the strong wish to make some other possibility 
  available. It struck me as very sad to see people with energy and 
  enthusiasm for these teachings that I held so dear, fall away through 
  inability to integrate them with their ordinary Western family lives.

  The first three people who came to see me in Cardiff in 1982 eventually 
  asked me to be their teacher. They are still my Students, and one, Khandro 
  Dechen Tsedrup, became my wife. Khandro Dechen Tsedrup is an equal partner 
  in all respects, and the fact that I am still her teacher doesn't play any 
  part whatsoever in our domestic arrangements or personal relationship. We 
  make this quite obvious in the way in which we live our lives. This means 
  that Apprentices are fully aware that we are not replicating any form of 
  hierarchic relationship which subverts her freedom and dignity as a woman. 
  I do my share of house work as a worthwhile part of my life, because we 
  regard everyday life as practice. I encourage her as much as possible in 
  terms of her giving teaching input on 'Open Retreats', and it is my hope 
  that at some point in the future we will travel and teach together as a 

  Soon other people expressed interest in working with me; and the questions 
  they asked all had the same purpose: "How can I make sense of this for 
  myself?"; "How can I relate this to my daily life?"; and "How does the 
  complex symbolism and ritual of Tantra relate to what I experience as the 
  actual nature of the world in which I live?" Because of the nature of my 
  own personality, orientation and experience (and because of the nature of 
  my own process of understanding) I found myself being able to speak with 
  people in terms of realities, that were common to our everyday experience 
  of existence. These first students organized weekend retreats under my 
  guidance, and gradually other people became interested. It was a slow and 
  gradual process, and one in which we were able to work together. I made a 
  priority of adapting according to what I perceived to be the real 
  individual needs of each student.

  It was not long before I decided that it was vital to look carefully at 
  what was coming into being around me. At one point in the evolution of my 
  relationship with these first students, I suggested that they look to 
  older, more qualified teachers in the Nyingma tradition; but they were 
  quite adamant that this was not what they wanted. These particular people 
  were all quite vocal in their unwillingness to involve themselves with the 
  recitation of lengthy Tibetan liturgies on a daily basis. They expressed 
  to me that they recognized from past experience that there was no 
  possibility of being able to maintain such practices, or even generate the 
  enthusiasm to begin them. The students who gathered around me were very 
  enthusiastic to be engaged in practices that they could maintain, and they 
  were happy about the style in which I explained the teaching. They wanted 
  to have a teacher who facilitated the adaption and essentialization of the 
  practices to their life circumstances, and who encouraged them to question 
  whatever they didn't understand. Because of this I decided to accept the 
  challenge of continuing with them as their main teacher. This caused me a 
  lot of problems in some areas of the Buddhist world, but I will not 
  address that here. Suffice it to say that I became for a period of time 
  the target of hostility, resentment, and gossip from certain factions of 
  Western people and certain Tibetan Lamas who felt that I was encroaching 
  of their territory.

  I naturally regard this challenge as the most tremendous responsibility.  
  It is also a most joyful and rewarding responsibility; but one that 
  absorbs my life completely. From that point onward it became crucial to me 
  not to fall, by default, into the problematic socio-political systems that 
  I had seen in some other places. I decided to examine as carefully as I 
  could, the 'default problems' I had seen, and organize Sang-ngak-cho-dzong 
  in such a way that these could be avoided. I am aware, when I say this, 
  that it not possible to create anything without problems; and for this 
  reason I regard the structure we have created together as being 
  continually open to adaption. It has been wonderful to see the way in 
  which my Apprentices have grown as people. They have been an inspiration 
  to me and to each other, and continually encourage me in the belief that 
  the essence of the Tibetan Buddhist teaching can really be of great value 
  to ordinary working people with families in the West. We all hope that our 
  practice, and the example we would hope to set, will be of some value to 
  the world in general.

  The most substantial factor in avoiding what I felt to be the 'default 
  problems' that I saw elsewhere, was the 'Apprenticeship Programme'. 'The 
  Apprenticeship Programme' is something that my students and I have devised 
  together over the years of our association. It includes a systematic 
  procedure for becoming an Apprentice that has the following features:

     a.  Informational booklet that explains all aspects of Apprenticeship.

     b.  Information about leaving Apprenticeship.

     c.  Details of the Ngakphang Tradition.

     d.  The mutual obligations of Apprenticeship (Entry into Apprenticeship 
  requires that Apprentices have to refrain from smoking or using illegal 

  I call my personal students Apprentices, to distinguish them from the 
  students of other teachers, and the people who attend public retreats on 
  an irregular and informal basis. I lifted the word 'Apprentice' from the 
  American Indian tradition, specifically from my friend Sun Bear, who first 
  invited to come and teach in the US. I chose this word, because I wanted 
  to establish a category of student who could be free to leave without the 
  attendant problems that many people experience if they decide to leave a 
  teacher. During my teaching over the last ten years, I have met many 
  people who have experienced incredible distress in the process of leaving 
  their teacher and their teacher's organization.  People have given me 
  tragic accounts of having lost their friends, because the had been 
  'excommunicated'. I saw this as being highly undesirable from my 
  perspective, and decided that I would do what ever I could to avoid any 
  manifestation of 'cultism' that I saw arising within Sang-ngak-cho-dzong.

  So, today we find ourselves working toward the establishment of retreat 
  land somewhere in North Wales. Up until now we have held our retreats the 
  home of one of my Apprentices -- an old farm in North Wales where we 
  regular convert a barn space into a shrine room. This would be sufficient 
  for our purposes but for the fact that accommodation and frequency of 
  usage is limited. I have avoided any move toward establishing a 'centre' 
  up until now, because I have wanted people to invest in their own practice 
  both in terms of retreat time and the acquisition of Buddhist symbolic 
  supports for practice. This has  resulted in everyone having a shrine at 
  home, and owning their own vajras, bells, drums, and other supports of 
  practice in the tradition we follow. It is wonderful to see the barn 
  become transformed into a shrine room in an hour, with thangkas and rupas 
  arriving from everyone's home.  We have our own thangka painter who 
  produces very beautiful thangkas for anyone who wishes to acquire one for 
  their practice.

  We produce a journal called 'Hidden Word', and a quarterly news-letter 
  called 'Hidden Agenda'. The name Hidden Word is a loose translation of 
  'Sang-ngak', the first two words of our name Sang-ngak-cho-dzong. These 
  publications are intended to provide information on the Nyingma Tantras, 
  and on the Ngakphang Tradition. They also provide information on the 
  Ngakphang Traditions of the other Schools of Tibetan Buddhism.

  We provide Open retreats every year which can be attended by anyone. The  
  Open Retreats have teaching input from my 7 disciples -- senior 
  Apprentices who have been ordained into the Ngakphang Sangha. There are 
  also various practice groups in Britain and the US which are attended by 
  my Apprentices, and by the growing number of 'Friends of Sang-ngak-cho- 
  dzong'. The 'Friends of Sang-ngak-cho-dzong' are people who are not my 
  personal Apprentices or disciples, but people who like to attend the 'Open 
  Teaching Retreats' and other Sang-ngak-cho-dzong events. Although we have 
  evolved in relative isolation from other groups, it has always been our 
  wish to interact with other Buddhist sanghas in the West. In the USA we 
  have very cordial relationships with Lama Tharchin Rinpoche and Chagdud 
  Tulku Rinpoche. I go to the West Coast of America twice a year to give 
  'Open Teaching Retreats' at Tharchin Rinpoche's Retreat Centre of Pema 
  Osel Ling. Students of Tharchin Rinpoche and Chagdud Tulku Rinpoche often 
  attend 'Open Teaching Retreats', and my Apprentices often attend retreats 
  and empowerments given by these two Lamas. My  Apprentices are encouraged 
  to attend the Teachings of other Lamas from all Schools of Tibetan 
  Buddhism and Bon -- and from Buddhist Teachers in general; whenever they 
  have the enthusiasm opportunity, interest or inclination. My Apprentices 
  are particularly encouraged to study with my Vajra Brothers, Tharchin 
  Rinpoche and Sonam Sangpo Rinpoche; and with my Vajra Sister Jetsunma 
  Khandro Ten'dzin Dolkar. Tharchin Rinpoche will be coming to Britain this 
  Summer to give some Teachings, and our British sangha are looking forward 
  very much to meeting him. Unfortunately we do  not as yet have such good 
  relationships with other Lamas and their Sanghas in Britain, but we hope 
  that our affiliation to the 'Network of Buddhist Organizations' in Britain 
  will facilitate a more open and accepting atmosphere for all the 
  organizations who are part of it. We are very keen to promote a sense of 
  openness, kindness, tolerance, and mutual respect within Buddhism; because 
  if we fail to be able to befriend each other as Buddhists, what purpose is 
  there is dedicating practice to the benefit of all sentient beings?

  I would like to conclude by thanking Your Holiness, and every one here 
  very much indeed for listening to my account. I would like to offer my 
  warmest appreciation for having been invited here, and for this marvellous 
  opportunity to participate in what ever way I am able. I look forward to a 
  happy and creative future of friendly contact with you all.

  Ngakpa Chogyam Ogyen Togden Rinpoche,
  Spiritual Director of Sang-ngak-cho-dzong


  1. This article will also be published in the Summer 1994 edition of 
  "Hidden Agenda".

  2. Sang-ngak-cho-dzong is spelt with an umlaut over the "o" in "Cho" this 
  has been removed in this version as have various other accent marks.

  3. For more information about Sang-ngak-cho-dzong, please contact: the 
  Secretary, Sang-ngak-cho-dzong, 5 Court Close, Whitchurch, Cardiff, CF4 
  1JR, Wales, U.K. tel: 0222 620332.

  4. Sang-ngak-cho-dzong is a Registered UK Charity, No. 1019886.


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  TITLE OF WORK: Sang-Ngak-Cho-Dzong & the Evolution of the Apprentice
  AUTHOR: Venerable Ngakpa Chogyam Rinpoche
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          Cardiff CF4 1JR, Wales, UK
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