Incan Indians - Part 3 - Articles

Incan Indians - Part 3 - Articles

Skulls from Ica, Peru

These skulls were photographed by Robert Connolly on his trip around the world during which he was collecting materials about ancient civilizations. The discovery of unusual skulls was thus an unintended "spinoff" of his efforts. Robert Connolly published his photographs on a CD-ROM, titled The Search For Ancient Wisdom, Cambrix, 1-800-992-8781.

The data about the skulls is incomplete, and that makes the correct assessment of their age, context with other hominids, as well as placement of their origin extremely difficult. Some of the skulls are very distinct, as if they belong to entirely different species, remotely similar to genus Homo. The first thing that attracts attention is the size and shape of the cranium in all the specimens. There are 4 different groups represented in the pictures. As a matter of convenience, I labeled them "conehead", "jack-o-lantern" or "J" and "M" based on the shape of the skull, except the first and possibly earliest type of skull, which I call "premodern".

When some of these pictures (the first two) were posted on CompuServe more than year ago, the majority of people assumed that they represented an example of binding of the head, well known to be in fashion in ancient Nubia, Egypt and other cultures. The problem with this theory is that the inside of the cranium of the mentioned skulls, although elongated and with a back sloping, flattened forehead, have the same capacity as normal human skulls; the only difference is the shape achieved by frontal and side deformations. They are actually more similar to the first type of skull (premodern) with the rounded back, than the conehead type. The cone-shaped types of skull are not found amongst the usual skull-binding samples.

The first skull presents problems of its own. The frontal part of the skull seems to belong to an individual of the pre-Neanderthal family, but the lower jaw, though more robust than modern human type, has a modern shape and characteristics. The shape of the cranium does not have any comparison with the Erectus, Neanderthal types, nor the modern human type. Some minor Neanderthal characteristics are present, as is the occipital ridge on the bottom back of the skull and the flattened bottom of the cranium, other characteristics point more tovards Homo Erectus. The angle of the cranial bottom is, though, unusual. We cannot exclude the possibility of a deformed individual in this case, but it is highly unlikely that the angle of the frontal part would require a modification of the lower jaw in the process of growing to resemble modern human types with their projected chin rim. The answer seems to be that the skull belongs to a representantive of an unknown premodern human or humanoid type.

As is obvious from the comparison with a modern human skull, the cranial capacity lies within the modern human range. This is not surprising, since the late Neanderthals and early modern humans (Cro-Magnon) had larger cranial capacities (both roughly 1600 ccm to 1750 ccm) than modern humans (av. 1450 ccm). The decrease of the cranial capacity (sudden at that -- the specimens of modern humans after about 10500 BCE have smaller craniums) is a puzzling matter, but that's another story.

No less puzzling is what a representative of a premodern human type is doing on the South American continent. According to the orthodox anthropology, this skull simply does not exist, because it cannot be. Textbooks' oldest date of appearance of humans in North America is about 35000 BCE and much later for South America, based on the diffusion theory assumptions. The only accepted human types entering the continent are of the modern anatomy. There are some other sources that place all types of human genus in both Americas at much earlier dates based on numerous anomalous finds, but the academe sticks to its preconceived notions, no matter what. It's safer.


The "premodern" skull and the following three specimens were found in the Paracas region of Per. It does not necessarily mean that they are related. There is some possibility that the "premodern" is in fact a precursor of the "conehead" type, but since we do not have any dating analysis at hand, we may only speculate in this regard.

The "conehead" type is very unusual because of the cranial shape. Here we have three specimens, which exclude the possibility of random or artificial deformation (the already mentioned Nubian deformations had quite a number of individual variations). They have individual characteristics within the range of overall morphology. There is no doubt that they are closely related and possibly represent quite a distinct branch of the genus Homo, if not an entirely different species.

The comparison of the C1 with a modern human skull has slight inaccuracies, caused by a degree of distortion when rotating the skull shape into position. As is obvious from C2 and C3, the angle of the bottom part of the cranium does not deviate from normal. However, the general proportions are correct.

The enormity of the cranial vault is obvious from all three pictures. By interpolation, we can estimate the minimum cranial capacity at 2200 ccm, but the value can be as high as 2500 ccm. The shape of the skull may be a biological response--a survival of the species mechanism--to increase the brain mass without the danger of relegating the species to extinction and keeping a viable biological reproduction intact. However, since we do not see the representatives of the "conehead" type in modern population, something prevented the type becoming as widespread as it is in the case of present-day moderns.

The "J" type of skull presents different sets of problems. It is an equivalent of the modern type of skull in all respects, with only several factors out of proportion. Less significant is the size of eye sockets which are about 15% larger than in modern populations. More significant is the enormity of the cranial vault. The estimated cranial capacity ranges between minimum of 2600 ccm to 3200 ccm.

UFO's over Peru . . . March 1999

UFO Roundup

The UFO flap in Peru intensified last week with more sightings and more videos taken in Lima and elsewhere in this ancient South American land. On Wednesday, March 3, 1999, for forty minutes, five glowing silver discs flew over Lima, the capital city. Two OVNIs (Spanish acronym for UFOs) flew off by themselves and performed maneuvers while the remaining three darted away to the east. Home videos taken of the overflight were broadcasted on Canal (Channel) 2, Television Frequencia Latina following the incident.

In Lindera, a small town 440 kilometers (264 miles) south of Arequipa, near Peru's border with Chile, local residents were astonished to find several crop circles in a wheat field. The crop circles were described as "tripods," i.e. three circles joined by straight lines. "There are sections of the circles where the grain was squashed flat but not broken."

The strangest report came from Chilca, however, a small town 64 kilometers (40 miles) south of Lima. Residents of Chilca claim that aliens altered the mud flats in town, giving them miraculous healing powers.

"A lot of ailing Peruvians are turning up in Chilca, a dusty desert town on the Pacific coast 40 miles southeast of Lima. They came to wallow in the mud of three small ponds thought to have healing powers."

"Mayor Ruma Nueda says, ' Lots of people claim to have seen UFOs and strange lights in the night sky over Chilca. People here believe in UFOs." "Locals say that space ships come to harvest an unknown material from the (ocean) area off Chilca's beach. The UFOs supposedly leave behind substances that leach into the ponds and give them curative powers."

"Townspeople cite an abundance of twins in Chilca-- more than 100 pairs in this town of 10,000, Nueda says, as proof of the power of the 'Twin Maker' pond."

Archaeologists have found evidence to show that the Incan culture grew out of a long slow development of civilization in the valley of Cusco and neighboring areas. The ancestors of the Incans lived in Peru as early as 2000 BC. Beginning about 400 AD several different groups in the region developed advanced ways of living. They built towns, worked metals, and made beautiful pottery..

The Incan culture began as a small tribe in the southern highlands of Peru before the coming of the white man. This was in the Andes Mountains. Their civilization had well-organized armies, good communications, and a strong political and social system. At the peak of the Incan civilization, from 1400-1532 AD the Empire stretched more than 2,500 miles (4,020 kilometers0, from norht to south. It centered in the Andes Mountains of present-day Peru, and extended northward through Ecuador and southward to central Chile. It also included about half of Bolivia and part of north-west Argentina. The Incan capital was Cuszo. It lay about 11,000 fett above sea level near the middle of the Empire. Cuszo served as a ceremonial center with many palaces, temples and government buildings.

Here stood the Temple of the Sun, which gleamed with gold and precious stones. A huge fortress called Sacsahuaman guarded Cusco.

Other famous Incan sites included Machu Piccu CLICK HERE and Ollantayatambo in the highlands, and Pachachmac in the lowlands near present-day Lima.

Frozen mummies of sacrificed Incas found on Peruvian volcano top

Arequipa, Peru --September 30, 1998--Reuters

Archaeologists said Wednesday that a group of preserved frozen mummies sacrificed to the Inca gods 500 years ago has been discovered on top of a snow-clad volcano in Peru's southern Andes.

The unearthing of the six mummies, wrapped in alpaca wool and surrounded by silver and gold figures, is one of the biggest finds in a mountainous region that over the last few years has revealed a treasure-trove of well-preserved Inca corpses. They are six mummies which were found near the crater of the Misti (volcano). This is the mountain which features the greatest number of human offerings in the world.

The find in the crater of the 19,096-foot volcano by U.S. archaeologist Johan Reinhard and Peruvian Jose Chavez comes after the same scientists discovered in 1995 the first so-called "ice maiden" on a nearby mountain close to the southern city of Arequipa. That mummy, also wrapped in fine alpaca wool and nicknamed "Juanita" and "The Lady of Ampato," drew thousands at exhibitions in the United States in 1996.

The vast Inca empire, with its advanced culture and powerful armies, spanned most of the Andes along South America's western coast at the time of Spanish conquest in the early 16th century.

The discovery of the Inca "ice women" -- believed to have been sacrifices to the Incas' mountain gods -- has brought comparisons with the 1991 find in the European Alps of a 5,000-year-old frozen corpse dubbed the "iceman." Although many "dry" Inca mummies have been found in the Andean region, these frozen ones are expected to reveal unique information about Inca lifestyle.

Secret Cities of Old South America

by Harold T. Wilkins, 1952, reprinted 1998 by Adventures Unlimited Press, pages 151 and 152


Tales of tunnels under the Andes are very old... and quite Ecuador. And one of these tales dates back to before the Spanish conquest and involves Huayna Capac, the ninth Inca emperor.

In 1485, then-prince Huayna Capac was given command of the army and ordered by his father, Inca Tupac Yupanqui, to extend the borders of Tawatinsuyu (the Incas' name for their South American empire--J.T.) northward from Quito.

After much campaigning, Huayna Capac laid siege to Otavallu (modern Otavalo, Ecuador, 100 kilometers north of Quito).

"The war lasted for two years. It was a very modern war, in duration, and none got the upper hand."

Otavallu, you see, was a fairly advanced civilization, like the Incas. The city was already thousands of years old when Manco Capac and his sister-wife, Mama Ocllo Huallpa, left their home in Bolivia to wander the Andes, eventually founding the Inca capital of Cuzco around 900 A.D.

The city was ruled by a young and beautiful woman named Quillago. She was a heichera-colla (Quechua for sorceress-queen--J.T.) and, in addition to her queenly duties, presided with the high priestess over a religion devoted to a goddess of the moon, whose name, unfortunately, is lost to history.

"At last the queen was captured. The Inca sought to gain her over with rich presents, which she would not accept. Then he ordered her to be liberated."

Returning to Otavallu, Quilloga plotted with the elderly high priestess, Pichamba, to assassinate the Inca prince. She told Pichamba to hide a knife in the temple's subterranean chamber and then invited the Incas to a feast at her palace.

During the feast, Quilloga invited Huayna Capac to the temple to see their magical cenote (sacred well), which was supposed to lead to Uru Ticsi, the world below. The catch was, only the three of them could visit the subterranean chamber--the Inca prince, Quilloga and her high priestess.

Huayna Capac was no fool. He had Quilloga and Pachimba searched by Inca "chosen women," just as the queen knew he would, and when they were found to be unarmed, he agreed to accompany them to the temple.

"Hand in hand, Inca and Amazon queen descended the stairway to the inner chamber where the snare was all set."

There was something strange and eerie about the dank, stone-rimmed cenote. Strange hieroglyphics marked the well. At Quilloga's invitation, Huayna Capac leaned over and peered into the well. And surprisingly, a soft perfumed wind blew into his face. He couldn't believe it. A wind? This far below the ground?

The circular well seemed to fall away into infinity. At the bottom was a queer glimmer. Almost like a pinprick of daylight. As he looked into the well, the Inca felt disoriented. He later told his friends that he felt as if he were at the bottom of the well, looking upward towards a tiny spot of sunshine.

He struggled against a surge of vertigo. Seeing her chance, Quilloga glanced at the priestess. Pichamba's gaze darted to a nearby stone altar. The queen went directly to the spot, lifted a chahuar (alpaca shawl) and found the knife.

Maybe it was ESP or fate, or maybe it was just dumb luck, that saved the Inca. Closing his eyes, Huayna Capac stepped away from the cenote, then turned just in time to see Quilloga coming at him with the knife.

He "caught the lintel of the door, with his left hand, and fixing his feet strongly against the top of the well, heaved his body against the Amazon queen and caused her to stumble and pitch headlong," screaming, into the cenote.

"A shouting virago," Pichamba, "came at him with tooth and nail, but she, too, he siezed around the waist and sent her to join the queen at the bottom of the well."

The women's screams lasted for minutes, faded to whispers, and then there was silence. Hayna Capac listened carefully, but he never heard them hit the bottom. He also had no further desire to peer into Quilloga's magic well.

Instead, he marched out of the temple and took possession of Otavallu for the Inca empire.


Crystal Tower emanates a mysterious energy

The Incan Ruins of Machu Piccu yielded many archealogogical treasures. The most mysterious is the Crystal Tower. Wall paintings at Aztec sites also mention the Tower.

To this day, the Crystal Tower emanates a mysterious mystical energy. Archeologists think that the Tower was stolen by the Incans from the Aztecs. The Incan civilization "stole the power of the Aztecs" leading to the extinction of the Aztecs and the rise of the Incas.

"We think the tower allowed the high priests to tune into the channels of conciousness emanating from the heavens, specifically from Beta 5," says archeologist Rocky Clavicle, "Quite possibly learning the secrets of buying real estate for no money down." Thus allowing the Incans to acquire the wealth of the Aztecs.

Though the "Tuning Sticks" no longer exist, due to shoddy construction, the Tower is of high quality and remains unblemished, to this day.