FRANCE IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 421
an Englishman, Newton, who gave out the. formula
of the gravitation of bodies.
These new theories had at first an unfriendly re-
ception ; they contradicted the Ptolemaic system, hon-
ored by tradition; they shocked common sense, which
is rarely in accord with science. The professors in
the universities refused to accept them. The Inquisi-
tion forbade the teaching of the Copernican theory,
and ordered that the passages in his books, where he
advocated it, should be suppressed It declared that
the opinion of the daily revolution of the earth, and its
revolution around the sun, was an absurd and heretical
opinion (1616). Galileo was cited to appear before
Cardinal Bellarmino, and was ordered to renounce his
theory. He then wrote a book in the form of a
dialogue between three interlocutors; one explained
the theory of Ptolemy, another the doctrine of Coper-
nicus, and the third summed up the debate, without
making any decision. It was manifest that Galileo's
preference was for the second theory. The Inquisi-
tion had him appear at Rome, condemned him
(1632) to retract his theories and as an expiation
for his disobedience he was ordered to repeat the
seven penitential psalms once a week for three years,
and he was kept under strict surveillance until his
death.
Mathematics.—Elementary arithmetic, geometry and
algebra had been in use at the close of the Middle
Ages. The mathematicians of the seventeenth cen-
tury, Viete, Descartes, Leibnitz created analytical
geometry, differential and integral calculus (the higher
mathematics).