Nan's Nook : Archives : Substrate : Compost Recipes
|Posted by: Mycota Dec 02 02, 04:35 PM GMT|
| HEAT (wet or dry)
......... is lethal to microorganisms, but each species has its own particular heat tolerance. During a thermal destruction process, such as pasteurization, the rate of destruction is logarithmic, as is their rate of growth. Thus bacteria subjected to heat are killed at a rate that is proportional to the number of organisms present. The process is dependent both on the temperature of exposure and the time required at this temperature to accomplish to desired rate of destruction.
Thermal calculations thus involve the need for knowledge of the concentration of microorganisms to be destroyed, the acceptable concentration of microorganisms that can remain behind, the thermal resistance of the target microorganisms (the most heat tolerant ones), and the temperature time relationship required for destruction of the target organisms.
A pasteurization temperature of no less than 140 F, UP TO -- BUT NOT BEYOND 160 F -- for a minimum of 2 hours is required for effective pasteurization of most bulk mushroom substrate growing mediums.
A high quality thermometer is REQUIRED to carry out EFFECTIVE substrate pasteurization.
|Posted by: WebMycellium Dec 03 02, 12:12 AM GMT|
|Good info bro|
|Posted by: Mycota Dec 03 02, 12:31 AM GMT|
| The preparation of mushroom compost is usually done in two stages. The breakdown of raw ingredients begins in Phase I. Phase I is characterized by building the raw ingredients into long rectangular piles approximately 2 m high called "ricks" or "windrows". These stacks are then periodically turned, watered, and formed. This phase is essentially a microbiological process resulting in release of energy and heat.
To favor the development of relatively high temperatures, aerobic conditions are maintained by aerating the compost during repeated mixing or turning. Temperature fluctuations during this phase are paralleled by similar changes in the numbers of thermophilic (heat loving) bacteria. These organisms start to grow rapidly and release energy in the form of heat. Thermogenesis by microorganisms initiates the heating of Phase I and also produces heat in Phase II.
The internal temperature of a compost pile can reach up to 80oC. Traditional Phase I composting lasts from 7 to 14 days depending on the condition of the material at the start and its characteristics at each turn. It is considered complete when the raw ingredients have become pliable and are capable of holding water. The odor of ammonia should be sharp, and the color of the compost is dark-brown in color, indicating caramelization and browning reactions have occurred.
|Posted by: Mycota Dec 03 02, 12:33 AM GMT|
| It is primarily the control of the environment that distinguishes Phase II from Phase I. Typically, compost is loaded into wooden trays, which are stacked, and then placed in specially designed rooms where the environmental conditions can be manipulated. Phase II is commonly referred to as peak-heating and may be initiated by steam. Pasteurization is accomplished early in the Phase II operation and is necessary to kill many insects, nematodes, and other pests or pathogens that may be present in the compost.
Pasteurization requires air and compost temperatures of 66oC for a minimum of 2 hours. Once pasteurization is accomplished, cool air is introduced into the Phase II room to assure adequate oxygen, and to help dissipate ammonia. An important function of Phase II microbes that survive the pasteurization process is the conversion of residual ammonia into protein. Because ammonia is lethal to the mushroom mycelium, it must be removed by the end of Phase II.
A stage is reached when the available food supplies for organisms inhabiting the compost become quite limiting, hence their activity decreases. The substrate is now set for spawning, and the substrate is said to be 'selective' for the growth of the mushroom. Once the odor of ammonia is no longer present, Phase II is over and the compost temperature can be dropped to 24oC for the addition of the grain spawn.
|Posted by: DirtyWOP Dec 03 02, 07:20 AM GMT|
| Are those pictures your own?
I'm gonna start a huge pile as soon as I make it out of town and have the time
It's just that the amount of material you need to use to make this sucessful ( ie. enough to make it heat up) is usually too much compost for a joe shmo home cultivator like me, ya know?
|Posted by: Mycota Dec 03 02, 10:42 AM GMT|
Nope, those pics are not my own. LOL, besides... one needs to be a little discrete, given what this forum is all about.
You can compost on a small scale. It just takes some preparation & more hand labor is involved. Get yourself a large plastic rubbermaid garbage can (like 40 gallon) w/wheels & a good tarp (any hardware store).
Drill lots of 1/4 inch holes in it - about an inch apart, in rows about an inch apart, from the bottom to the top. Also, drill drain holes in it, on the bottom.
Fill with wheat straw, dung, straw, dung, so on & so forth. Wet it down. Let it set. If in a garage or on a back patio, put something underneath it, to catch the runoff. Which, is about like tabacco juice & has a strong odor.
After it is full & watered. Let it set a few days. Then, dump it on the tarp, mix it all up & return it to the can. Do that every 3 or 4 days. The holes (in the can) allow air to get to it. Dumping it out (on the tarp), mixing & returning it to the can, insures it all gets air.
After about 3 to 4 weeks of doing that, you will have a fair (not great, but adiquate) compost. 2 cans, alternated will give you a continious supply.
As you stated, doing it big time makes a lot of compost. It takes a MINIMUM of 20 TONS of raw feed to do it, as in the trailing picture. But, at least you are not on the end of a shovel, every third day.
But, it requires about $200K of EQT (minimum) to do it this way, plus the space. Lets just say, this pic was taken not to far from home, LOL.
|Posted by: DirtyWOP Dec 03 02, 12:27 PM GMT|
| I tried that too
it didn't work
but I think I know what I did wrong now w/ both piles I did
My problem was using already composted horse manure.....It didn't heat up, gave off no ammonia, and just sort of flopped. I was using a laundry basket with holes drilled on the bottom....the sides already had holes.
|Posted by: DirtyWOP Nov 30 02, 12:10 PM GMT|
| I started a compost pile a long while back.....horse manure and straw....
Never heated up properly, got contamed with all sorts of shit, sat for like a year, got infested with bugs, etc.....it's just dirty
but when I look at the shit thats way down underneath, rotted right in with the dirt, it looks pretty rich....I don't know if I should try to spawn some or what. Maybe mix w/ worm castings. It's got a lot of white specks in it...I don't know what they are....little grainy things. But as long as pasturization kills all the badies it should fly right???
heres a pic
|Posted by: Nanook Nov 30 02, 12:42 PM GMT|
|Yeah that looks good. Pasteurize it throughly, spawn with ground cakes|
|Posted by: Toad Nov 30 02, 01:40 PM GMT|
| The stuff that was down by the dirt that is rich in color has been eaten by worms. It will have a certain amount of worm castings already in the mix.
The stuff in the picture looks like great stuff.
go boy go!
|Posted by: Mycota Nov 30 02, 04:10 PM GMT|
Making a good mushroom compost in an outdoor pile, can be tough to get right. For a pretty good (short) write up, on composting http://mushroomspawn.cas.psu.edu/PhaseII.htm
Sounds like the stuff on the bottom, has firefang (a good thing). The lower material appears good to go...... as a substrate. But, if not fully composted. I suggest you sterilize it. To whack any nasties that might be present.
Here is a pic of my results of composting select material. Except, this was done on a large scale, the material was ran through a chipper/shredder first, windrowed, closely monitored temps, watered & turned with high speed mechanical turner. The finished material was then screened.
Go for it. A good compost is the best substrate you can get. Mycota
|Posted by: Mycota Nov 30 02, 04:19 PM GMT|
| Here is a close up of my fresh "cube" mushroom compost. That is a sewing pin in the picture, not a 16 penny nail. Mycota
|Posted by: Mycota Nov 30 02, 04:35 PM GMT|
| Here is a pic of a couple shrooms, grown off my cube compost. They were grown in a cased tray, then set in a natural light hot house to fruit out. They got a little to much sun. But, turned out BIG. The wall plaque they are on, is a foot square, to give you an idea of scale. Mycota
|Posted by: DirtyWOP Dec 01 02, 08:06 AM GMT|
I'll give it a shot
one day I'd like to make compost the right way though....
I just don't like the phase II part.
This pile was just an attempt at something fanaticus told me about that didn't work
thanks for the link mycota
|Posted by: Mycota Dec 14 02, 06:23 AM GMT|
| What follows may be a little redundant, at points. I'm to tired to edit it all. So, it is a crude cut & paste job.
Fungi acquire their nutrients by absorption. In this mode of nutrition, small organic molecules are absorbed from the surrounding medium. A fungus digests food outside its body by secreting powerful hydrolytic enzymes into the food. The enzymes decompose complex molecules to the simpler compounds that the fungus can absorb and use.
Fungal hyphae are divided into cells by septa. The septa generally have pores large enough to allow ribosomes, mitochondria, and even nuclei to flow from cell to cell. The filamentous structure of the mycelium provides an extensive surface area that suits the absorptive nutrion of fungi:
10cc of rich organic substrate can contain as much as 1km of hyphae.
Such fast growth is possible because proteins and other materials synthesized by the entire mycelium are channeled by cytoplasmic streaming to the tips of the extending hyphae. The fungus concentrates its energy and resources on adding length rather than girth.
Given that fact, it is obvious, if you can create a nutrient rich substrate of organic matter that mycelia can quickly & easily colonize, digest & absorb. You will get rapid colonization, fruiting, repeated flushing & higher gross weight yields. That is why a compost formulated specifically for mushroom cultivation is the best substrate you can get.
Straw, either alone (called synthetic compost) or as horse manure is the starting material of most mushroom compost and provides structural and chemical properties. Straw contains about 0.6% nitrogen, while horse manure contains about 1% nitrogen. Cow manure generally contains anywhere from 2 to 4 % nitrogen.
Straw provides carbohydrates (36% cellulose, 24% pentosan, and 16% lignin) to the compost. Cellulose and pentosan break down into simple sugars, which supply energy to the microbes.
Lignin, a highly resistant material also found in wood, is changed during composting to a nitrogen-rich-lignin-humus-complex, a source of protein. Researchers claim that between 40 and 70 per cent of the nitrogen utilized by the mushroom comes from nitrogen bound in the lignin complex. Because this complex is resistant to bacterial decomposition but not to mushroom enzymes, the substrate acquires some specificity.
To make the straw or manure more efficient for the production of mushrooms, nitrogen supplements are often added during composting. These supplements are designed to provide protein (nitrogen) and carbohydrates to feed the ever increasing microbial populations. Many nitrogen sources can be used as long as sufficient carbohydrates are readily available to supply energy for the nitrogen utilization.
Because of the tough nature of cellulose, many of the carbohydrates in straw are not initially usable and energy comes from the supplements. A balanced supplement is therefore highly desirable. It should contain not only nitrogen but also sufficient organic matter to supply these essential carbohydrates. For this reason certain manure’s and animal feed meals are widely used for composting. Since composting is an alkaline process, acidic (sour) supplements are not used.
Common supplements include nitrogenous fertilizers such as ammonium sulfate (21%N), ammonium nitrate (26% N), and urea (46% N) for a rapid burst of ammonia, and plant and animal products such as cottonseed meal (6.5% N), cocoa hulls (2.5% N), dried poultry waste (DPW), sugar beet pulp (1% N), and cottonseed hulls (1% N).
Gypsum is an essential supplement in all composts. It is used to improve the physical structure of the compost by causing aggregation of colloidal particles, which results in greater air spaces and greater water holding capacity. Gypsum also supplies calcium for mushroom metabolism and counteracts harmfully high concentrations of potassium and magnesium, preventing a greasy condition in the compost.
1. Guidelines for calculating nitrogen (N) content:
Calculate the starting N content of pile to be 1.5 to 1.7% before composting.
The starting N for a synthetic compost formulas may be slightly higher than the wheat straw horse manure formulas.
The percent N will increase throughout Phase I composting and Phase II and at spawning time the N content of the compost should be 2.1-2.3 %.
Knowing the N and % moisture of the bulk ingredients and supplements will increase the accuracy of the calculated and finished nitrogen content.
If supplements are added by volume, occasionally weigh volume added to confirm calculated formula.
At the end of Phase I and again at the end of Phase II, compost may be analyzed for N, ammonia, ash and moisture.
It is important to take a representative samples, several small handfuls thoroughly mixed. When taking a sample do not shake the compost.
II. Examples of Mushroom Compost Formulas
Horse manure pile
Ingredients Wet Wt. Dry Wt. %N Tons N
Horse manure 80 T 50 T 1.2% 0.6 T
Poultry manure 7.5 T 6.0 T 4 % 0.24 T
Brewers Grains 2.5 T 2.5 T 4 % 0.1 T
Gypsum 1.25 T 1.25 T 0 0
59.75 T 0.94 ÷ 59.75 = 1.57%
Ingredients Wet Wt. Dry Wt. %N Tons N
Hay 15 T 12.8 T 2.0 % 0.26 T
Cobs 15 T 12.8 T 0.3 % 0.04 T
Poultry manure 3.8 T 2.4 T 4 % 0.09 T
NH4NO3 0.3 T 0.3 T 32% 0.10 T
Potash 0.3 T 0.3 T 0.0 0.00
Gypsum 0.6 T 0.6 T 0.0 0.00
29.2 T 0.49 ÷ 29.2 = 1.68%
Horse manure-synthetic blend
Ingredients Wet Wt. Dry Wt. %N Tons N
Horse manure 15 T 10.5 T 1.2% 0.13
Hay 7.5 T 6.3 T 1.1% 0.07
Corn Cobs 7.5 T 6.4 T 0.3% 0.02
Brewer's grains 3.0 T 3.0 T 4.0% 0.12
Poultry manure 2.0 T 2.0 T 4.5% 0.09
Urea 0.1 T 0.1 T 44.0% 0.06
Potash 0.2 T 0.2 T 0.0% 0.00
Gypsum 1.0 T 1.0 T 0.0% 0.00
29.5 0.49 ÷ 29.5 = 1.66%
III. Suggested watering procedures during composting:
Add as much water as possible without run off during pre-wet conditioning or during the first two turns.
Avoid adding too much water early during Phase I, always be able to control moisture.
Add only enough during next turn or turns to wet dry spots.
Bring up compost moisture to desired water content by adequate watering just before filling.
During pre-wet it is advisable to flip or turn the compost every day. After the rick or pile is built, the compost should be turn every other day unless pile temperatures have not peaked.
IV. Changes in organic matter, carbohydrates and nitrogen during mushroom composting.
Soluble carbohydrates are simply adsorbed by the micro-organisms and it is converted into new living mater or provides energy for the cells.
As these micro-organism grow energy in the form of heat is released.
As the pile heats to temperature above 150o F the activities occurring within the pile change from biological to chemical reactions.
It is at these higher temperatures that carmelization takes place. Carmelization is the process where water is eliminated from the carbohydrates and carbon is concentrated. This process can be compared to boiling sap down to make maple sugar.
V. Phase I is considered complete when as soon as the raw ingredients become pliable and are capable of holding water, the odor of ammonia is sharp and the dark brown color indicates carmelization and browning reactions have occurred.
Moisture content at filling should be 70-73%. Water should drip from compost squeezed in the hand. But a good rule of thumb to follow is: the longer, greener or more coarse the compost then more moisture it can take. The shorter, more mature or dense the compost the less water it should have.
The shorter or wetter the compost, the more loosely it should be filled into the beds or trays. The longer or greener the compost, the more it can be firmed into the beds. Attempt to fill uniformly in both depth and compaction. Edges or sideboards should be packed slightly tighter, whereas the center should remain looser.
VI. Phase II composting has two objectives:
Pasteurization - elimination of undesirable insect pest, microbes and pathogens.
Conditioning - Creation of specific food for the mushroom and creating a selective and suppressive compost to favor the growth of the mushroom.
VII. Insure adequate ventilation during Phase II. When in doubt, ventilate.
The higher the nitrogen content of compost, the greener the compost or the more dry weight at filling time, the greater the ventilation required.
When outside temperature is high as in summer or early fall, more ventilation is required than when Phase II occurs during the cold winter weather. This is especially important when the grower does not have a forced air ventilation system.
VIII. During Phase II keep compost in the temperature range where microorganisms grow best (115-140o F).
Microbes convert ammonia and ammonia containing salts into protein and other nitrogen compounds the mushroom uses for food.
The growth of these microbes depends on having the available food, adequate moisture, sufficient oxygen and suitable temperature. A shortage of one of these requirements will limit growth and often results in incomplete conditioning.
IX. Heat up (pasteurization) for insect kill early in Phase II (perhaps 1-4 days after filling) so as to avoid a second heating cycle of the compost.
A good indication that the compost is ready to pasteurized, is the subsiding of microbial activity, which is indicated by a decrease in compost temperature at the same air temperature.
X. After pasteurization slowly lower compost through the temperature ranges of the microorganisms. A general rule is to lower compost temperature no more than 4-5o F. per day.
Provided that enough food, water and oxygen the microbes will continue to grow.
Different microbes use different compounds and grow at different temperatures. Therefore it is important to make sure all areas of the beds and room gradually drop through all temperatures ranges.
Thermophillic fungi grow at lower temperatures and are important because they are able to grow into denser areas of compost.
XI. Composting is considered compete when no trace of ammonia odor can be detected and the compost has a uniform flecking of white colonies of actinomycetes, called fire-fang.
Compost should have less than 0.1 ppm of ammonia and the N content on a dry wt. basis should be in the range of 2.0 to 2.5.
Basic mushroom compost is made up of wheat straw, horse manure and gypsum (calcium sulfate). There are a variety of optional ingredients that may be added. A brief outline of some materials used in making composts follows:
serves as a carbon source (carbohydrate) source wheat - considered the best - contains xylan oat, barley - break down more rapidly than wheat rye - breaks down slower than wheat, etc.
Other Carbohydrate Sources:
Rice straw, molasses, brewer's grains, cottonseed meal (provides the fatty acid - linoleic acid -which is reported to stimulate yields.)
nitrogen source, provides organisms essential to composting horse - most commonly used, fresher the better poultry - higher in nitrogen and phosphorous than horse, not so rich in potash (provided in wheat straw), faster and hotter than horse, use dry pig and sheep - must be used before they become sticky - used partly dry
Other Nitrogen Sources:
Blood meal (dried blood), bone meal, urea, ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) Gypsum: calcium sulfate (CaSO4) - essential to mushroom compost preparation - prevents the compost from becoming too "greasy" - by forming an equilibrium matrix with the water, also helps the colloids to flocculate producing a compost with a more granular structure with increased water holding capacity: provides Ca++ ions; a mineral essential to mushroom growth: helps to prevent the loss of nitrogen (from the breakdown of proteins during the act of composting) by chelating the ammonia
Optional Mineral Sources:
Superphosphate; is said to promote vigorous mycelial growth, but an excess may make the beds too acid too soon which depreciate the crop. 14 lbs./ton of compost should be added at the last turn.
Sulfate of potash; used in synthetic composts. the ubiquitous calcium carbonate.
Activators; compost "activators" can be obtained from nursery and garden stores and assures the presence of the organism essential to composting.
The following recipes create about one half ton of compost. One half ton of compost will provide enough compost for about 60 square feet of beds (surface area). At least one quart of grain spawn per 15 square feet of bed surface should be used.
Sample Compost Recipes:
5 bales wheat straw, half a pickup (half ton) horse manure, third of a pickup of horse manure, 30 lbs. gypsum, 2 lbs. activator, 70 lbs. chicken manure, 4 lbs. Blood meal and 30 lbs. gypsum.
To prepare compost, the straw must be soaked for several days until it just about, but not quite, squeezes water out in your hands. The compost pile is then built by stacking alternating layers of straw, activator, manure and gypsum until all the materials are used up. The stack should be 4-6 feet high.
In about 48 hours the heap will begin to generate heat and will sink somewhat in height. By the fourth to sixth day the temperature in the interior of the pile should reach 160°F (71°C). Temperatures of up to 160°F are due to thermophilic organisms. Temperatures over 170°F are due to chemical bonds being broken as well as other chemical reactions. Temperatures over 160°F are undesirable.
After the pile reaches a peak temperature the temp will then begin to fall and the pile should be turned. The pile is turned by moving the middle half third to the bottom, the top and sides to the middle, and the bottom to the top. If any parts appear excessively dry, water should be sprinkled on those parts at this time. There should be no need to add any water after the first turn.
The heap will again heat up and be ready for a second turn after six more days. It should now be turning a rich brown color. With the second turn, no water should be given unless there are very dry patches - wet sparingly. One more turn should complete the mixing but if the temp (peak) is above 130°F a fourth turn may be necessary, (some authors recommend even another turn). If on the final turn the compost is too wet or has a greasy appearance, more gypsum may be added.
When done, the pile should be brown to gold in color, open in texture, and have a rich humus smell. The straw should break readily when twisted, and the compost should be just moist enough to bind together when squeezed in the hand. Initially the compost will have an alkaline pH.
When mature and ready for inoculation the pH should be between 7.0 and 8.0. The heating of the compost has pasteurized the compost by the action of the thermophilic organisms. These organisms will not grow at the lower temperature at which mycelium grows.
With proper composting the resulting compost will be free from competing organisms. Insects in all their forms will be absent from the medium and the rapid growth of the thermophilic composters will have also eliminated bacterial and fungal competitors.
Links below contain more than you ever want to know about composting.
|Posted by: Mycota Dec 14 02, 06:37 AM GMT|
| My compost is made from wheat straw, aged, dry horse & cow manure, fruit & vegatable produce, spent brewery grain, gypsum, superphosphate, bone meal & a few other minor additives.
Part of the "trick" to get a super fine consistancy is to run the raw material through a chipper/shredder prior to windrowing. It is then turned (repeatedly) with a mechanized sharp tined turner.
This is what it looks like, after phase 2 is completed & it is dehydrated - for storage.
|Posted by: sinoptik Dec 14 02, 09:19 AM GMT|
|thanks for the great info on composting. I've always wanted to know how to start my own pile and this should set me on the right path.|
|Posted by: DirtyWOP Dec 14 02, 02:54 PM GMT|
|Posted by: HapplyDeranged Dec 14 02, 03:20 PM GMT|
|the chipper/shredder is the key to a "quick" compost, if you dont it will take it 10-15X longer to break down. i put 1 pile of yard waste trough my chipper and put it as mulch...already broken down, put one pile as is only 30% broken down.|
|Posted by: Mycota Dec 14 02, 05:09 PM GMT|
|Posted by: DirtyWOP Dec 14 02, 05:54 PM GMT|
| Why would you poke a bunch of holes, and then turn around and suffocate it with another can?
I think I see now where my piles have went wrong in the past....thanks
|Posted by: Mycota Dec 14 02, 06:41 PM GMT|
|Posted by: OneDiaDem Dec 14 02, 06:52 PM GMT|
|Pans on Mycota's compost. Oh yeah!!!|
|Posted by: DirtyWOP Dec 14 02, 07:11 PM GMT|
| Cool, I'll build one.....
but how does it compost with no air?
|Posted by: BugaBuga420 Dec 14 02, 10:51 PM GMT|
|yo 6t err mycota, how can i go about purchasing some of your compost. As much as i would love to make my own it is just not fiesable at mt location right at the moment.|
|Posted by: Nanook Dec 15 02, 01:36 AM GMT|
| I have told Mycota he is welcome to offer his compost here. He's an upstanding guy and really contributes to the board, especially to this forum.
On top of that, if I had the means to make shroom compost... His is exactly what I would shoot for, and it should make even the more exotic dungs loving Pans much easier.
Actually I am looking forward to member reports
|Posted by: Mycota Dec 15 02, 01:40 AM GMT|
|Posted by: BugaBuga420 Dec 15 02, 02:52 AM GMT|
| Cool cool. I know im sorry but it sounds sooo good. Anyways i think you deserve to advertise a little after all the info you have provided me among others . Thanks.
|Posted by: HapplyDeranged Dec 15 02, 03:01 AM GMT|
|screw making it just get it from http://www.mycotapro.com/index.html once the company is up and running......|
|Posted by: Nanook Dec 15 02, 12:15 PM GMT|
|I did not mean to put you in a difficult position... LOL, honest|
|Posted by: Millet Dec 15 02, 12:30 PM GMT|
| Nice prices on that compost. I am gonna try some out, are you shipping yet?
What is the method you recommend for rehydration, pasteurization of the compost?
Will the nutes be leached out of the compost if it is rehydrated and pasteurized in one wack in a waterbath?
|Posted by: Mycota Dec 15 02, 03:09 PM GMT|