Nan's Nook : Archives : Spores
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Spore Germination and Dikaryotic Mating (Pics) 1   Uda Kegg

Posted by: Wa7sum Nov 11 02, 11:37 PM GMT
I was browsing the net recently (erowid), just reading up on some mushroom experience reports when it occurred to me that I didn't know exactly what a 'spore' was, (is). I mean, I know what spores do, where they come from, etc.. But I still had a few questions.

Now the dictionaries definition: A small, usually single-celled reproductive body that is highly resistant to desiccation and heat and is capable of growing into a new organism, produced especially by certain bacteria, fungi, algae, and nonflowering plants.

I didn't feel I gathered enough information from that simple definition. I guess one of my questions is, does a single spore go through mitosis, creating parental chromosome after parental chromosome? I guess I want to know how spores work... What is the exact mechanism that allows them to spread?

Are they (spores), each and everyone of them, independent 'thinking' single celled organisms? Do they each work for themselves, or together and bond (mycelium) for a collective gain. -- Of course they do, thus reproducing their fruit and sporlating all over again... But, how and why? Do they communicate with each other? Are there spore sexes? etc, etc, etc, etc....

I guess I just want more information on spores (if there is any)... They are fascinating to me.. Does anyone else know anything else about the life givers of mushrooms? I'm not sure if this post is of any point or purpose, I hope so... But any information from some more experienced mycophiles would be appreciated...


Posted by: bubba Nov 12 02, 12:59 AM GMT
woah unsure.gif


Posted by: sooshane Nov 12 02, 01:27 AM GMT
Whoa is right.

A spore is much like a seed, any seed.
It contains all the genetic info that well grow and produce
fruit, that grows to produce spores or "seed". So that it
can produce more fruit and release more spore.
lol this hurts my head. You might as well ask what is water
or If god made everything, who made god.



Posted by: Nanook Nov 12 02, 01:28 AM GMT
This is an interesting subject. It also relates to shroom genetics. Cubensis spores are really kind of strange.

When spores germinate a thread emerges from the spore casing. When two threads from different spore bodies intersect, they attempt to mate through a hook and clamp connection. A tiny pipe is opened between threads and genetic material is exchanged. The genetically complete threads become hyphae and begin to grow.

Spores have four combinations of sexes. Not all intersecting threads are able to mate, not all matings will produce fertile mycelia.

That's my 2 cents for the night wink.gif Ion has good info on this topic. Also check the archives under: Spores wink.gif


Posted by: sooshane Nov 12 02, 01:32 AM GMT
Spores form as swellings on one or more subtending hypha in the soil or in roots. These structures contain lipids, cytoplasm and many nuclei. Spores usually develop thick walls with more than one layer and can function as propagules. Spores may be aggregated into groups called sporocarps. Sporocarps may contain specialized hyphae and can be encased in an outer layer (peridium). Spores apparently form when nutrients are remobilised from roots where associations are senescing. They function as storage structures, resting stages and propagules. Spores may form specialized germination structures, or hyphae may emerge through the subtending hyphae or grow directly through the wall.


Posted by: ion Nov 14 02, 05:53 PM GMT
A single spore contains a half set of chromosomes (known as haploid), much like any reproductive cell (ova or sperm). The spore has a protein sheath (the colored part that we can see) which encases the cell. When optimal conditions surround the spore, it will germinate. This is when it pushes its cellular mass through the protein sheath (at the germ pore) by expansion from re-absorbed water. This mass is a fine filament called the monokaryote (aka: the primary mycelium). It still has a half set of chromosomes. This monokaryote grows (still a single cell with a single nucleus) until it finds a compatible monokaryote to mate with. It does this by touching and dissolving its cell wall while the mate does the same. They effectively just merge to become one cell with 2 nuclei. The clamp connection Nan described serves a different function.

This is where things get strange. After the mating, the resultant cell can now reproduce by mitosis, but the cell still has 2 nuclei, as I mentioned. So, when it mitoses, the 2 nuclei split for a total of 4 nuclei, but still only 2 cells. Speed of growth is much greater in these [I]di[I]karyotic mycelial threads, because they don't have to stretch a single cell over a long gap... they simply split into more cells to spread.

Clamp connections form between 2 dikaryotic mycelial masses. This is how one of those white patches in the jar mates with the other white patches. The dikaryotic mycelia "clamps" together.

There are folks who attempt to interbreed mushroom species by these clamps, and it is quite possible to do. This forms new variants of a species, depending on which has the stronger genes. If Ps. cubensis was clamped with Pan. cyanescens, for instance, one may get very skinny cubensis fruits at the intersection if cubensis has the stronger form, color, size, potency, and other traits, but its "fatness" trait is weaker than that of the cyans.
Granted, this kind of breeding can really only be done on agar with very specific spore placements, but it can happen.

That's all for now. Hope it helped you understand.



Posted by: Justin Nov 14 02, 06:46 PM GMT
Well i dont know but my two sents are that mushrooms engadge in bothe asexual and sexual reproduction. Interant the spores are one of 2 possible reproductive systemes...


Posted by: ion Nov 15 02, 08:58 AM GMT
Fungus only engages in asexual reproduction on a cellular level, like all multicellular organisms. The major difference is that the thallus (body of fungus) is so uniform (all made out of the same stuff, no truly specialized cells but spores) that it can be mechanically separated (by humans or a cow stomping a cow-pie in half) and still grow to be the same, healthy fungus. If I got cut in half, I could not function because differently specialized cells exist in each half. My right would lose a partial stomach (and lots of intestine), spleen, and heart, and my left would lose a lung and liver. This is very simplified, but you see my point...

If we could find a way to keep humans healthy and alive after being cut in half, the cells would eventually mitose and begin to re-form the lost half. This would almost have to be done in a floatation tank, and the wounds must never be allowed to actually heal, so they continue to grow the organs. For fungus, this vitality is easily maintained with a warm, moist environment.




Posted by: OZZ Nov 15 02, 05:44 PM GMT
Very interesting !!! Great thread ...


Posted by: Smerd Nov 17 02, 01:18 AM GMT
Funny. I was just telling my wife how we humans tend to underestimate other forms of life - fungus, trees, etc. They're admirable little buggers.


slightly out of context...

Posted by: Peroxide Feb 26 03, 04:57 AM GMT
Actually the very last entry in that discussion is the key to cross breeding species. It is best done by sprouting individual spores and introducing them to member of the other species. When a fusion occurs this is a hybrid, it would have to be propagated, fruited and restarted from spores to be sure it was a viable strain.

This was discussed in great detail on the shroomery, Teonan posted the following;

A hybrid would result from the mating of a monokaryon of one strain with a monokaryon of another strain. This paired Dikaryon would be a hybrid between the two strains. The true success of the hybrid would be if it produced fruits that had spores. Only at this stage would the true hybrid STRAIN be accomplished. No genetic information is exchanged between the two strains until their separate haploid nuclei have fused and then undergone meiosis. Recombination would then occur between the two separate strains forming a third strain. It's offspring(spores) would be new combinations of the two donor strains.

Hybrids can also be formed by Anastomosis between two dikaryons of different Strains, but it will happen at Far less frequency then mating monokaryons.

Anastomosis occurs at a higher frequency between substrains of an individual strain. I.E. between different spore matings resulting from a single syringe. When you multispore innoculate a jar of substrate, this is Happening with a high degreee of frequency. A dominant mating will fuse with other matings, incorporating them into it's mycelial network. It can even rewire a false mating into a good mating. It can overcome an incompatible mating, by replacing one of the nuclei within another strand with one of it's own.

A Fertile dikaryon A1B1 A2B2 can run into an infertile A1B2 A2B2 and replace the A1B2 nuclei with a A1B1 nuclei. Creating a fertile A1B1 A2B2 dikaryon that joins the colony. Subsequent fusion could replace the A2B2 nuclei with it's own A2B2 nuclei, which would completely rewire the hyphal strand to it's exact genetic makeup. Or it could leave it partially rewired.

This process can be seen on a Nutrient agar plate. Not all substrains within a strain will fuse, some are completely incompatible. There will be a zone of zero growth between them on the petriplate. They just will not fuse.

In essence hybrids can be formed between substrains of a single strain or between different strains of the same species.

This is the theory, this has been scientifically demonstrated on other species of Basidiomycetes that have been studied!!! I know of know studies that have been done on CUBENSIS, relating to this information. But it must exist. Because it has been Clearly stated in several texts, that Psilocybe cubensis is heterothallic and tetrapolar. And all the above information relates to that type of breeding system in the Basidiomycetes.

You ask why this is not being done, because not much MONEY goes into this type of research in the legitamite world.

Anastomosis has been studied extensively in the edible mushroom world. Agaricus bisporus is homothallic and two spored, not four. Each and every spore it produces already contains both haploid nuclei to make a dikaryon. But fusion(Anastamosis) between these dikaryons produces more productive Dikaryons!!! The majority of High yielding bisporous are a result of HYBRIDIZATION within a STRAIN or between Strains of this species. So if it occurs between DIKARYONS of this species,it has been viewed occurring between monokaryons of other species, WHY WOULD anyone Doubt that it can occur within the Species Psilocybe cubensis.

The major factor to overcome with mating monokaryons is the proximity with which they germinate. Spores tend to clump. So simply placing spores of two different strains in a single syringe, will not overcome the clumping of spores of like strains, and hence their close proximity to each other upon germination.

Probably still occurs, when injected into a substrate, and some of the resulting fruitbodies might actually be hybrids, between Strains, and the resulting offspring (spores) from that mushroom will be different looking then both the mushroom it came from, and all of the mushrooms from both the Donor strains.

Much easier to DILUTE spores from each strain separately, plate them, isolate slower growing monokaryons, and try mating as many of these from each strain as possible, with as many as possible from the other strain. All matings that fruit, are hybrids!!! If they produce spores, you now have a new STRAIN. Simply cloning the original matings that fruited, will be a Hybrid as well, but not a true hybrid, because their has been NO Recombination between the two strains, NO MIXING OF GENES. There has simply been a successful coexistence of two haploid nuclei, one from each Strain, acting independently, but together to create fruits!!! The real genetic swap occurs during Karyogomay and the subsequent meiosis.


Posted by: eblakfrost Aug 07 03, 09:27 PM GMT
I've been reading up on the flatcake tek, the lazy mofo bag, and a few others, and I've seen mentioned "multispore". What does that mean?

Posted by: 01010 Aug 07 03, 10:09 PM GMT
When individual spores germinate, they produce monokaryotic mycelium. Two of these must eventually come together to form dikaryotic mycelium, which is the type (possibly) capable of fruiting and therefore desired. When you inject a spore syringe into a substrate, you're using thousands if not millions of spores, so this mating occurs many times in many different places producing many different unique substrains. When you grow out this "multispore" innoculation you will see several very different-looking shrooms pop up, each with different genetic characteristics (size, shape, etc.).

BUT, if one isolates mycelium into a "pure strain", all mushrooms produced from that mycelium will be identical (genetically, anyway). A Pure strain can be isolated through agar/petri dish work, or by simply cloning a mushroom from the living tissue inside the stem.

That was probably more long-winded than necessary, but do you see what it means now? tongue.gif

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