Growing Pan cyans

Nan's Nook : Archives : Misc Tek : Non Cubie Shrooms : PANS : Growing Pan cyans
  Subtopic Posts Updated Creator
Pan. Cyans/ Trops. on worm castings  11 10/03 01:53am Fishy1
Color changing Panaeolus Mycelia  4 01/19 08:50pm Fishy1

By Admin (Admin) on Thursday, August 23, 2001 - 12:13 pm:

growing Panaeolus Tropicalus and Panaeolus Cyanescens.

Version 1.0

This is a document of collected knowledge from our own experience with pans and talking with other growers. Thank you everybody for your input over the years. More to come

Its well known this is not a very easy species of mushroom to grow, but it can be done, and is done quite often. Just count on a little extra work and some TLC.

Ok, for starters, if your using a spore syringe, inoculate your substrate jars of 3:5 ratio of ground brown rice to vermiculite or 2:1 of finch or birdseed to vermiculite. If your using agar with a spore print, then your obviously experienced and we dont need to go into much detail there. After your substrate is inoculated, you will see a very thin and wispy mycelium. Its not thick and rhizomorphic and healthy looking like cubensis mycelium. On agar, it actually looks like contamination its so strange looking. Sometimes very spongy looking, and wispy looking on agar. Strange stuff man. In jars, the mycelium is almost a light grey color, yet off white, and very thin. It almost looks like cobweb mold its so thin. At times it will even grow what appears to be primodorma and pins, but its not. Its just a very strange looking mycelium at this stage. So unless you start seeing strange colors other then white or a light grey, its ok, just go with it.

Typcial colonization of 1/2 pint jars is around 3-4 weeks. Sometimes faster, but allow them to sit a week after full colonization. You'll see why when you break open the jars and pull the substrate out. It breaks apart very easy. Once again its a weak mycelium. Be sure your handa are very clean, as this mycelium easily contaminates.

The next step is to use that substrate as spawn to colonize either dung or compost. Compost is your best bet. Dung is the next choice. A lot of old books recommends straw, well straw also works but it contaminates much easier on straw then dung or compost. This is not just our opinion, but from many growers we've talked with gave up on straw and pan species. So from here, either buy or make some compost, or go out to your local cow/horse/donkey/elephant field and shuck some patties. So you know how your always leaving your girlfriend at home while you go have fun? Well you need a helper, its time to bring her on a field trip This is a great cover up for where you go on those field trips when you disappear Doh!

If you can find farms that have straw or grain fed animals you have some prime realestate to grow those pans on. If you dont know what they are feeding the cows and are not aware of what they are eating, we recommend you kneel down and sniff the patty! A prime pile of dung will have a nice organic aroma to it.

Stay away from fresh steaming patties. You want the ones that are aging a bit. There are to many micro-organisms on the fresh patties that can kill the spores, plus they 're sticky and they stink. You dont want these. There are some great pictures on our website under the panaeolus species of some Manatee County Florida Panaeolus Cyanesecens growing on dung. These are the best pictures we've seen yet showing clarity of how old the dung is when these mushrooms are growing on them.

Ok, so you and your gal are out in the field under the full moon feeling romantic collecting dung. She's happy she's out of the house, your happy because your bucket is full of dung, time for a bud. Your choice, weiser or herb.

The next step is to prepare your dung. Usually its pretty hard when you pick it right. Toss it in a big bucket and poor in a gallon of purified water or more, so its covered in water, and let it sit for day to soften up. Next step, a day later is to pasturize your dung or compost.

Pasturizing is a form of sterilizing the compost or dung in less then boiling water to eliminate many non-beneficial bacteria unhealthy to mushroom mycelia. There are many methods of doing this, but here is what we recommend. Take your dung or compost and put it in an old pillow case, then tie it in a knot. Get a large pot, something like 22-30 quart and fill it with water. We always recommend againts tap water, spend $.50 cents and buy a gallon of filtered drinking water. Fill up your pot of water to about 8-10 inches from the top, turn up the heat on your stove. You want the water temp between 160F-180F, which usually is steaming heavily, but not boiling rapidly. Put in your mother-in-laws pillow case full of dung, push it down a bit, and let the hot water absorb into it. The temp of the water will drop for a while, wait it will build back up. When it does, let it pasturize for a good 45 minutes and turn off the heat. It will take a while to cool down. When its cool enough, take it outside and let it hang for a day to drip water and cool off. Not to worry, the outside air is good and healthy for it . You can let it sit there for several days if you dont have the time to get back to it. When your ready to work, here we go with the next step.

Ok, were assuming your have knowledge of casing your substrate. Take your dung or compost from your MIL's pillow case and take handfulls and squeeze it real hard until the water is barely dripping. You dont want a lot of water in it or it will be to soggy and contaminate to easily. Squeeze it until the water is barely dripping, and place it in your casing container. Get the desired amount for the space your working with. Take those jars of substrate and start gently crumbling them up with your pasturized compost or dung. Mix it well. We recommend about 3 to 4 1/2 pints of subtrate for every 10 lbs of compost. Or, a semi-full pillow of dung or compost, add about 2 1/2 pints of subtrate worth. After its mixed well, then add a casing layer. Pans seem to like hydrated lime in the soil. The 50/50+ mix works well. They grow well with the verm/peat/lime/oyster shell mix. Within 2-3 weeks of casing they should start fruiting. Now all the old school books say they like temps around 70F-75F, well, that is not written in stone. In the tropics where they grow, the temps are much warmer. We've seen them grow at a daytime high of 93F, which means substrate temps of 95-96F, and a LOW of 70-75f. There has not been a lot of information posted about this species that is updated, and we hope what we have given you helps. There is a lot more to come, this document will continue to grow and nothing is written in stone. This species is well worth the time and efforts because the experience from Panaelus species is PHENOMENAL !!!!

By Admin (Admin) on Thursday, August 23, 2001 - 12:14 pm:

Pan Cyan 101

Substrate recipe:

5 cups of vermiculite
3 cups manure
10 tablespoons of brown rice flour
2 cups of water

This will make 10-12 half pint jars of substrate.

Since there is manure already in the substrate you will not have to worry about colonizing manure later. This greatly reduces the risk of failure(contamination) and also reduces cultivation time.

Boil/preassure cook jars of substrate as usual, and innoculate in the usual manner.

When jars are fully colonized, slice/crumble the substrate over a moist layer of vermiculite. Casing is NOT required, but I like to case with composted manure. Case them very thinly(1/8-1/4 inch), just enugh to fill in the cracks and crannies and just so you can't see substrate. Basically just enough to make a nice even layer, instead of a lumpy one. 50/50 casing mix also will work fine.

If you can grow cubes using a casing method Trops(Cyans) are a breeze! They are Faster to grow and MUCH more potent than cubes, and every bit as easy!!

Again casing is NOT required but it won't hurt, just case them thin(no more than a 1/2 inch, less is faster).

By Admin (Admin) on Thursday, August 23, 2001 - 12:14 pm:

Cultivating Panaeolus (Coplandia) Species..Trops or Cyanescens
By: ralphster44


You will find your cultivation efforts very similar to cultivating any Cubensis strain.
I have tried several different substrates and my substrate of choice is Pennington�s brand Finch seed. It seems to colonize quicker and with less problems.

Lightly boil your seed in water for 45 minutes or an hour. Let it steep, to absorb as much water as it can. Then put in a colander and rinse with tap water to wash off all the dirt and nasty sludge. A strainer would probably work better.
Let drain for 15 minutes. The seed should have absorbed all the water it can, you don't want any extra water in the substrate.

Load your jars, ½ pint jars work great. Leave room at the top for a layer of vermiculite. Pressure cook your jars for 1 hour at 15 psi. the time starts when the PC reads 15 psi.

I punch 4 holes in the lids of my jars and turn the rubber so it faces up.
Seal with aluminum foil�.now pressure cook them.

When the time is up�.turn off the heat�let your jars cool overnight.

Using the "oven-tek" remove your jars from the PC and put on oven rack.
Take your ready made syringes and..1 at a time�inoculate your jars. Wipe your needle between jars with a napkin containing alcohol. Shake the syringe between injections to distribute the spores evenly.

Once all your jars have been inoculated�store them at about 80-85 degrees until fully colonized.
The mycelia of the Pans is fine..and very fragile. Once they are fully colonized�let them sit for another week.


OK�the good part�..

Use a plastic tray�Mix all your spawn with zoodoo/compost or dung/compost. I use 8 jars to 5 pounds of that. If you use any store bought compost�strain out all the wood,�sticks..woodchips..etc.
You can nuke your dung/compost in a microwave for 10 minutes.
If you have obtained dung or compost from a garden�Pasteurize it.

Once you have done all this�cover your trays and let them sit for a couple days. Now�check out your trays�.do you see mycelium growing?
If so�what I do is�case them with a layer of the same dung/compost. Use about a ¼ inch only. Give them a GOOD misting and give them light.

Now your back to the regular Cubensis teks�.fan and mist as necessary.

This is an easy way to explain this�I have tried all kinds of substrates and compost mixes, but this will work real good for you.
I have posted my results..in pictures before�and I'm sure you have all seen them.

Fruiting temps are about 75 degrees. Some would argue�but the results show the flushes. The potency is fabulous.
Rye is also a great substrate..very good potency also.
The Pan Trops are fantastic..but I seem to find that the Cyans are more potent.

If anyone would like to see all the pics�from casing to full blown fruiting�you can email me([email protected])�Ill send you a ZIP file of all the stages.
This is an excellent shroom!!
I have sent out a couple hundred prints�trops and cyans�so �try this method and let me know the results.
I'm sure you will have success with this method�.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

By paul whisper (Soma) on Tuesday, January 29, 2002 - 03:47 pm:

Well, so far so good with the hamster feed, I have mycelium growth!
I ground in a blender the feed, then baked for 45 min. at 325 in the oven. Then mixed with verm. and water, at about the same ratio as the brown rice tek.
The growth is slow, and I did this in a flat pan, topped with verm. Then covered with cling wrap, then innoculated through the plastic wrap and verm. I am thinking that using the 1/2 pint jars would have been better though.

Anyway, soon the panaeolus from Ralph shall arrive, and I do not have a pressure cooker. Can I just throw the straw into boiling water and sterylise it?
SOMA

By quote: (Quote) on Wednesday, January 30, 2002 - 11:52 am:

normally, one does not 'sterilize' straw, but rather it's 'pasturized'. the difference is that the water temperature is regulated to about 170* and the straw is soaked in the hot water an hour or two.
then drain well cool off & use.

By paul whisper (Soma) on Wednesday, January 30, 2002 - 04:58 pm:

Thanks, so, it is okay to use the regular brown rice tek to start, then add the manure and straw?
SOMA

By Jesseb (Jesseb) on Thursday, January 31, 2002 - 12:27 am:

Hi I am needing some help, I need to find out some info for my bf, jesseb. He is out of town and asked me to inquire.
We ordered some of them pan con... prints from Ralph and he said that you have to grow them in cow dung, jesseb wants to know if you can do the cakes pf style (?? not sure that's the right wording) and can he use the rice flower to grow this type of shrooms? thanks all.
Just a clueless girlfriend who loves to shroom

By Nan (Nanook) on Thursday, January 31, 2002 - 01:12 am:

Probably should add some dung to the substrate for the best results. While it may be possible to fruit pans directly from cakes, most of them seem to do best when the jars are broken up and used to spawn a mixture of dung and compost... Does not mean there are not many different ways and approaches, but Ralph took those spores from cased beds I am sure.

By Fishy1 (Fishy1) on Thursday, January 31, 2002 - 01:46 am:

The Panaeolus cambodgeniensis or any Pan. does best on dung/compost.
The cultures can be started in jars ala PF. When the jars are done, crumble/grind up on top of dung/compost/straw/worm poop- like Nanook said. These are easy to grow, in my opinion- just an extra step or 2.
I am trying out a new method-experiment- using cat litter made from recycled newspaper. I am tring this with Pans and cubies, too. The cubies are doing GREAT so far on the litter. The Pans were done last night, so nothing is detectable yet.
If you love to trip cubies, you HAVE to try the Pans. They put me over the top- not necessarily "loosing my mind", but I have found a "connection" with the Panaeolus that I have not had with the good old cubensis'.
I wish I had a better camera, cuz I have some trays of cloned Panaeolus cyanescens that would make ya droooooooooool.
Tell Jeseeb to get on it!!! Good to hear from ya--fishy1

By Jesseb (Jesseb) on Thursday, January 31, 2002 - 02:13 am:

thanks guys I'll let him know when he calls. Another question, can he use half rice and half dung? Or would that even be worth trying? He's teaching me all this, but I'm alittle slow.
Thanks again
clueless

By Jesseb (Jesseb) on Thursday, January 31, 2002 - 02:32 am:

okay forget the last one here's his questoin can he take and make a pf style cake out of dung then after colonization crumble the cake in a tray and cover with verm? will the dung get sterlized on a pc at 15 psi for 45 min. or is it easier to just case the things normally? He's very hard headed. his words not mine? We appreciate any advise your willing to give.
Thanks all!!
clueless

By Fishy1 (Fishy1) on Thursday, January 31, 2002 - 03:55 am:

The yields will be smallish with cakes, IMO. I would do regular PF cakes, then get some dung from zoodoo.com, or compost from http://www.shroomery.org/bluethumb/popup.html
or worm castings and/or straw and follow a tek outlined in the archives. Yields will be much higher, even though they will be small in comparison to cubies....
The dr.blue link has compost already clean in sealed bags- just smash up a cake and throw it in.Give it 2 weeks, pull out, case, and WAIT.
I will post some pix tomorrow if I can get a new camera at BESTBUY w/o leaving w/ a flatscreen tv again!!
If you can find manure locally, thats great. Or visit Homedepot and find DEHYDRATED manure, not composted....
its not hard at all! trust me!!!
Flip yer Wig- fishy1

By Stoney (Stoney) on Thursday, January 31, 2002 - 06:07 am:

Hey everybody.. I thought I saw something about rye, if this works wouldn't it smell less? I haven't tried dung yet, but I can't see talking my wife into having a little cow shit in the closet. Not being able to carry on a conversation, with out changing the conversation to more and better shooms is a strain on a relationship as it is. I like the idea of eating something that was grown on rye better also.

By Vitti (Vitticeps) on Thursday, January 31, 2002 - 07:39 pm:

You'd be surprised, the dung has little to no odor and what little odor is there is not offensive, just kinda outdoorsy natural smell.

Not that I enjoy the smell, it's just not as bad as it sounds.

By Jesseb (Jesseb) on Friday, February 01, 2002 - 02:24 am:

Hey everyone I am back. Thanks for being nice and responding to my gf/me. I guess that I will just try the dung tek. I have a copy of it archived on my computer. It will be a little while before I can try this out. I just got a new job and it requires me to be gone alot. So I am trying to teach what little I know to my gf. I may have her ask questions here will I am gone. So everyone play nice J/K I know everyone will. Again thanks for all the help.

jesseb

By paul whisper (Soma) on Saturday, February 02, 2002 - 02:32 am:

O.K. now that I have the pans. cam. I plan on using birdseed, and zoo/doo. I Have no pressure cooker, so can you more knowledgeable folks give advice on the best way to get rid of the nasties?
Also,I have the above ingredients, plus BRF. What are the best high yeild hints you all can give?

I can get straw, but the man who minds the store has no idea what kind of straw they carry("maybe wheat, maybe oat, all I know is it comes from fields in Cali." he says). How much, really of a benifit is straw? I was planning on not using it, but will if it profoundly affects production.

I have become much more relaxed in my use of the mushroom, less the rigidity of ritual, and more the expansive comfort of relaxation while walking with the spirits, as they say.

Anyone? SOMA

By onediadem (Onediadem) on Saturday, February 02, 2002 - 01:23 pm:

If your going to use birdseed, get a pressure cooker. I have had enough times with green while pc'ing, to not offer up any other advice. Maybe if you ground it up and used verm? Just a guess, and an uneducated one at that.
A little relaxation never hurt anyone Soma. I believe it opens you up to things that may have been missed.
Good luck,
pj

By paul whisper (Soma) on Saturday, February 02, 2002 - 05:04 pm:

Thanks One, I guess it is off to town with change in my pocket, it is a good things though, I have wanted a pressure cooker for a while.
SOMA

By Brettiejams (Brettiejams) on Saturday, February 02, 2002 - 07:34 pm:

Yeah, if you grind up the seeds, you can steam the jars in a regular pot like in the PF tek.

If you want any versatility in your endeavors.... a pc is a must.

Using straw can be difficult if you have never done it bfore.... Maybee you should try Nans sterile straw Tek,...it is the sixth post down in that thread.

By paul whisper (Soma) on Sunday, February 03, 2002 - 12:55 am:

Well, I could not find a pressure cooker. Pooh, is all I can say at this point. SOMA

By relic (Relic) on Sunday, February 03, 2002 - 02:31 am:

how exactly are you going to use the birdseed and zoodoo? you may want to consider using ground birdseed and/or BRF in the jars ala pf tek then apply that to a zoodoo/verm mix. you could mix dung into the jars as well, but the overall amount of substrate would be much less than if you used the cakes to spawn the zoodoo/verm. w/o a pressure cooker you may want to forego the birdseed all together.

By paul whisper (Soma) on Sunday, February 03, 2002 - 03:21 pm:

Well,last night I ordered a 22 quart cooker/canner via internet. Just want to do this right.
By the way, anyone who may have been curious about the hamster feed tek, well mycelium did start, but finally the whole project has contaminated, we'll be holding services around 2pm today. Take off yer hats please.
SOMA

By plinkerdink420 (Plinkerdink420) on Monday, February 04, 2002 - 01:02 am:

sorry to hear that soma

By ralph (Ralphster44) on Tuesday, February 05, 2002 - 06:58 pm:

Ebay has some cheap pc's...
You will need one for the birdseed.
Any grain matter of fact...

For that Pan Cam you have there...any substrate will work.
Let it fully colonise...break it up into zoodoo/compost.

Share you Pan Cam expirence with us:)
Love to hear it..hehe


Posted by: Fungusmaximus Jan 11 03, 08:25 PM GMT
JOCHEN GARTZ
OBSERVATIONS ON THE PSILOCYBE CYANESCENS
COMPLEX OF EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA
Abstract - JOCHEN GARTZ - Observations on the Psilocybe cyanescens complex of Europe and North America.


Several specimens of the Psilocybe cyanescens complex form Europe and North America were recently collected for scientific study and herbarium deposit. This paper presents an investigation of the indole derivatives of mushrooms from the Czech Republic (Psilocybe bohemica) and some collections from Germany and Austria as well as Psilocybe cyanescens from the Pacific Northwest, U.S.A. The content of psilocybin was highest in cultivated and naturally grown mushrooms from the U.S.A. Psilocybin was also found to be contained in the cultured mycelia of
this species.


The analysis of all collections revealed only very small amounts of baeocystin. It seems that the collections from Austria and Germany, Psilocybe bohemica and Psilocybe cyanescens from the U.S.A. are 3 different species with very similar microscopic features. Psilocybe bohemica was also cultivated on wet rice and on mulch in a shady outdoor bed. The alkaloid content in cultured basidiocarps was in the same order of magnitude as that found in naturally grown mushrooms.


Key words: Psilocybe - Analysis - Alkaloids - Taxonomy.
Riassunto - JOCHEN GARTZ - Osservazioni sul complesso di Psilocybe cyanescens in Europa e
Nord America.
Numerosi campioni di specie appartenenti al complesso di Psilocybe cyanescens sono stati
recentemente raccolti in Europa e Nord America, nell�ambito di studi scientifici o per essere
inseriti tra gli esemplari d�erbario. Vengono qui presentate indagini sui derivati dell�indolo,
condotte su funghi provenienti dalla Repubblica Ceca (Psilocybe bohemica), dalla Germania e
dall�Austria, oltre che su Psilocybe cyanescens proveniente dal Nord-ovest degli U.S.A. Il contenuto
in psilocibina � risultato pi� elevato nei funghi provenienti dagli U.S.A., sia coltivati, sia crescenti
spontaneamente. La psilocibina � pure contenuta nel micelio ottenuto dalla coltivazione di queste
specie.
L�analisi di tutti i campioni ha rivelato solo piccole quantit� di baeocistina. Le raccolte
dall�Austria e dalla Germania, oltre che Psilocybe bohemica e Psilocybe cyanescens dagli Stati
Uniti, sembrano essere tre differenti specie con caratteri microscopici molto simili. Psilocybe
bohemica � stata pure coltivata all�esterno, su riso umido e su terriccio, in luogo ombroso. Il
contenuto alcaloidico dei basidiocarpi coltivati era dello stesso ordine di grandezza di quelli
naturalmente tallificanti.
Parole chiave: Psilocybe - analisi - alcaloidi - tassonomia..210
In the last 20 years ethnomycological and botanical research established that
Psilocybe semilanceata (FR.) KUMM. is the most important psilocybian species of
Europe (GARTZ, 1991, 1993a, 1996; GUZMAN, 1983).
At least one other psychoactive Psilocybe species in addition to Psilocybe
semilanceata is known to exist in various European countries. These strongly
blueing mushrooms can be described as belonging to the �Psilocybe cyanescens
complex� (KRIEGLSTEINER, 1984, 1986).
They grow on raw compost and plant debris in Europe and therefore act as
a primary composer (GARTZ, 1993 a, 1996). According to KRIEGLSTEINER (1984,
1986) six taxa including Psilocybe bohemica SEBEK and Psilocybe serbica MOSER
& HORAK are merely synonyms for Psilocybe cyanescens WAKEFIELD emend.
KRIEGLSTEINER (see also GARTZ, 1996), but the differentiation of single species
within the Psilocybe genus is subject to considerable controversy among taxo-
nomists (GUZMAN, 1983; GUZMAN & BAS, 1977; KRIEGLSTEINER, 1984, 1986; MOSER
& HORAK, 1968; STAMETS, 1993).
Some papers have also been published about the occurrence of psilocybin,
psilocin and baeocystin in Psilocybe cyanescens from the Pacific Northwest, U.S.A.
(BEUG & BIGWOOD, 1982; REPKE et al., 1977; UNGER & COOKS, 1979).
According to KRIEGLSTEINER (1986) and STAMETS (1993) these collections
possess abundant, capitate pleurocystidia in contrast to mushrooms from Eu-
rope (KRIEGLSTEINER, 1984; DENNIS & WAKEFIELD, 1946).
But some doubts still exist about the significance of this single microscopic
difference regarding a differentiation of species (KRIEGLSTEINER, 1986).
Additionally, only a few collections of Psilocybe cyanescens from Europe
and North America were studied at all (GUZMAN, 1983; KRIEGLSTEINER, 1986).
In continuation of earlier studies of Psilocybe bohemica (GARTZ, 1993 a, 1996;
GARTZ & MUELLER, 1989; SEBELK, 1980; SEMERDZIEVA & NERUD, 1973; SEMERDZIEVA
& WURST, 1986) in this work analysis of various collections from the �Psilocybe
cyanescens complex� including some additional experiments on cultivation is de-
scribed.
EXPERIMENTAL
Mycelium from Psilocybe bohemica (GARTZ & MUELLER, 1989) on 4% malt
agar was used to inoculate a rye grain/water mixture identically to the cultiva-
tion of other Psilocybe species (GARTZ, 1995).
The cultivation on sawdust soaked with water in plastic bags and later on
commercial garden mulch was already described in the case of Psilocybe
azurescens STAMETS & GARTZ (GARTZ, 1995). The duration of the rye based spawn
was 6 weeks and of the sawdust mixture 8 weeks..211
Then the mulch was spawned in March 1988. In October/November 1989
22 mushrooms appeared on the garden mulch without casing. For additional 5
years 10 up to 33 mushrooms were harvested each year from this German loca-
tion always in November.
The mushrooms were dried or analysis and analysed as described earlier
(GARTZ & MUELLER, 1989).
Laboratory cultivation for the production of fruit bodies of �typical� Psilocybe
cyanescens from the Pacific Northwest U.S.A. was also attempted. Mycelial cul-
tures were isolated from spores of a dried mushroom (Mason County, 1984) as
described earlier for Psilocybe bohemica (GARTZ & MUELLER, 1989).
After a 4 weeks cultivation of the mycelia on a 4% malt agar a sterile mix-
ture of 100 g soft rice and 180 ml water was inoculated. The cultivation tem-
perature of 23� C was decreased to 10�C after 10 weeks and this temperature
was maintained until the beginning of the fruiting process (2 weeks).
The culture continued to produce mushrooms in additional 3 flushes at tem-
perature from 8 to 14 � C.
A similar fruiting of Psilocybe bohemica (GARTZ & MUELLER, 1989) produced
8 mushrooms in 3 flushes which were analysed like other psilocybian species
(GARTZ, 1991, 1995).
Analysed naturally grown fruit bodies:
a. Psilocybe cyanescens U.S.A.:
collection from 1984, 1992 and 1993.
b. Psilocybe cyanescens Germany:
area of the Rheinland: 1993, 1994 and 1995
town Schwerin: 1995.
c. Psilocybe cyanescens Austria: 1992
location near border to Czech Republic.
RESULTS
The investigation showed the occurrence of psilocybin, psilocin and
baeocystin in Psilocybe bohemica from the garden culture (Table 1). The con-
centrations of these indole derivatives were similar to the levels found in natu-
rally grown fruit bodies (GARTZ & MUELLER, 1989) or in mushrooms from the
cultivation on wet rice grain (Table 1)
In contrast to Psilocybe semilanceata (GARTZ, 1991) or Psilocybe azurescens
(GARTZ, 1995), Psilocybe bohemica contains very low amounts of baeocystin.
According to KRIEGLSTEINER (1984, 1986) all studied collections of the
Psilocybe cyanescens complex had identical spores. In my experience it was also
impossible to differentate the collections from Germany, Austria, U.S.A. as well.212
TAB. 1 - CONCENTRATION OF ALKALOIDS IN DRIED FRUIT BODIES OF
PSILOCYBE BOHEMICA FROM THE GARDEN CULTURE (SAMPLES 1-6) AND FROM
THE CULTIVATION ON RICE GRAIN (SAMPLES 7-12).
Sample Psilocybin Baeocystin Psilocin
(%)
1 0.34 0.03 �
2 0.55 0.01 �
3 0.91 0.02 0.02
4 0.87 0.02 0.02
5 0.62 0.03 0.01
6 0.54 0.05 0.03
7 (1.Flush) 0.44 0.03 0.01
8 (1.Flush) 0.82 0.02 0.03
9 (2.Flush) 0.81 0.03 0.04
10 (2.Flush) 0.62 0.02 �
11 (3.Flush) 0.34 0.02 0.02
12 (3.Flush) 0.53 0.01 �
TAB. 2 - CONTENT OF INDOLE DERIVATIVES IN DRIED MUSHROOMS
OF PSILOCYBE CYANESCENS FROM THE U.S.A. (%).
(SAMPLES 1-5, 1984; 6-10, 1992; 11-15, 1993).
Sample Psilocybin Baeocystin Psilocin
1 0.72 0.03 0.93
2 0.52 0.03 0.23
3 0.41 0.02 0.32
4 0.83 0.04 0.41
5 0.98 0.01 0.28
6 0.88 0.02 0.65
7 0.68 0.04 0.75
8 0.78 0.02 0.62
9 0.55 0.05 0.71
10 0.41 0.04 0.62
11 0.78 0.03 0.58
12 0.59 0.02 0.72
13 0.69 0.01 0.68
14 0.78 0.02 0.71
15 0.48 0.02 0.91.213
as in mushrooms of Psilocybe bohemica with the form and size of the spores. But
the macroscopic feature of Psilocybe bohemica differs sharply to the fruit bodies
from the other locations. I never found any wavy caps in Psilocybe bohemica and
there were also differences in the colour of the stems as well as in the striate
margins which were seen only in this species. In contrast to KRIEGLSTEINER (1984,
1986) I was able to study Psilocybe bohemica and the other collections from
Europe and the U.S.A. as fresh fruit bodies at the locations and think that there
are three different species. Additionally, during crossing experiments, complete
reproductive barriers have been found between monokaryons of Psilocybe
bohemica and Psilocybe cyanescens, U.S.A.
Both are autonomous species which do not form hybrid dikaryons. In con-
trast to these results, monokaryons of the collections from Austria and Ger-
many formed dikaryons together and all features were also identically.
High concentrations of psilocybin and even higher amounts of psilocin were
detected in all extracts of Psilocybe cyanescens from the U.S.A. (Table 2). The
results confirmed the opinion that collections of Psilocybe cyanescens from North
America are very potent hallucinogenic mushrooms (BEUG & BIGWOOD, 1982).
In contrast to the relative Psilocybe azurescens (GARTZ, 1995) only minor amounts
of baeocystin were found. These concentrations were similar to other published
results (REPKE et al., 1977). It seems that the levels of the unstable substance
psilocin decreased during storage. The samples form 1984 were analysed 3 years
later, the others only a few days after harvesting. I was also able to find the
abundant, capitate pleurocystidia only in the collections from the U.S.A.
The content of the alkaloids in cultured basidiocarps of Psilocybe cyanescens
(U.S.A.) was in the same order of magnitude as that found in naturally grown
mushrooms (Table 3).
A photo of such a cultivation was already published (GARTZ, 1993 cool.gif
The amount of psilocybin ranged form 0,22% to 0,34% by dry weight in 5
different mycelia of Psilocybe cyanescens (U.S.A.) grown on 4% malt agar. In-
terestingly, in contrast to the fruit bodies from wet rice grain no other indole
derivatives could be detected in extracts.
These differences in the indolic composition of mycelia without fruiting and
in cultivated mushrooms were also found earlier in Psilocybe bohemica (GARTZ
& MUELLER, 1989), Conocybe cyanopus (ATK.) KUEHNER (GARTZ, 1991), Galerina
steglichii BESL and Psilocybe natalensis GARTZ, REID, SMITH & EICKER (GARTZ,
1995).
Like Psilocybe cyanescens from the U.S.A. all collections from Europe dis-
played a strong blueing reaction, despite the fact that levels of psilocin in these
mushrooms are very low (Table 4). From 1960 on, it was found that only psi-
locin can be oxidized into products of bluish-green colour (GARTZ, 1996). The
phosphate group in psilocybin and baeocystin prevents direct oxidation of the.214
Fig. 1 - Psilocybe bohemica from the garden culture. (photo: J. Gartz).
Fig. 2 - Mushrooms of the Psilocybe cyanescens complex from Austria. (photo: J. Gartz)..215
Fig. 3 - Psilocybe cyanescens in the Pacific Northwest, U.S.A. (photo: J.W. Allen).
alkaloids. However, the typical blueing phenomenon does occur when this pro-
tective group is removed by enzymes, such as various phosphates, which are
very common also in mushroom tissue. Apparently, the enzymatic removal of
the phosphate group from the psilocybin occurs quite quickly. This is how psi-
locin is formed after injuries of the fruit bodies. Immediately after wards psi-
locin continues to break down into blue-coloured compounds.
In comparison to Psilocybe cyanescens from the U.S.A. it seems generally
that the naturally grown mushrooms of this species complex in Europe contain
smaller amounts of alkaloids especially in the case of psilocin (Table 1-4).
However it should be point out that this clear difference will be invalid in a
few years.
Beside this new location in the town Schwerin I know from other collections
in recent years:
Hamburg 1993, Berlin 1994 (3 locations) and some locations in Frankfurt
for about 5 years.
It is now well known that some new locations in Germany or the Nether-
lands are really artificial cultivations on wood material or mulch mainly in parks
and gardens of large towns (STAMETS & CHILTON, 1983; GARTZ, 1993)..216
Even in Europe the spawn for these cultivations derived from spores of
Psilocybe cyanescens from the Pacific Northwest, U.S.A.
In the past mycologists have experienced that North American species can
spread very quickly across Europe, for example Stropharia rugoso-annulata
FARLOW (the Giant Stropharia).
Generally, we can expect that the genuine Psilocybe cyanescens complex from
Europe will achieve a remarkably wide area of distribution in the future because
of the modern use of mulch in parks and gardens. But because of the �under-
TAB. 3 - THE DRY WEIGHT VARIATION OF PSILOCYBIN, BAEOCYSTIN AND
PSILOCIN LEVELS IN CULTIVATED PSILOCYBE CYANESCENS (U.S.A.) AS A
FUNCTION OF FLUSH NUMBER.
Flush Psilocybin Baeocystin Psilocin
N. (%)
1 0.68 0.03 0.72
2 0.51 0.02 0.63
3 0.81 0.02 0.41
4 0.71 0.03 0.92
TAB. 4 - INDOLE ALKALOIDS IN MUSHROOMS OF THE PSILOCYBE CYANESCENS
COMPLEX FROM EUROPE (% DRY WEIGHT).
Sample Psilocybin Baeocystin Psilocin
Rheinland 1993 1 0.61 0.01 0.05
� 2 0.48 0.02 0.03
1994 3 0.51 0.01 0.02
� 4 0.71 0.02 0.03
1995 5 0.43 0.03 0.02
� 6 0.38 0.01 0.05
Schwerin 1995 7 0.45 0.02 0.03
� 8 0.33 0.03 0.04
� 9 0.62 0.01 0.05
� 10 0.52 0.02 0.04
Austria 1992 11 0.51 0.02 0.02
� 12 0.44 0.03 0.05
� 13 0.43 0.01 0.02
� 14 0.38 0.01 0.03
� 15 0.45 0.03 0.04.217
ground� cultivation which produce huge amounts of spores we can expect simi-
lar or even larger distribution waves of Psilocybe cyanescens from the U.S.A. in
the wake of environmental changes including the use of fertilizers and wood
substrates in Europe.