the Supreme Court Did
bad law on racial preferences.
by Jared Taylor
June 23 the US Supreme Court handed down its long-awaited decision
on affirmative action. This thoroughly bad ruling
is likely to set racial preference policies for the next generation,
so it is important to understand it. With the slimmest possible
majority of five to four, the court ruled that racial diversity
in education is such an important part of learning that it justifies
outright discrimination against whites (and sometimes Asians).
The decision is an amalgam of assertion, fantasy and self-righteousness
that was easily picked apart by the dissenting justices.
The enshrinement of diversity as
a paramount national goal is a radical new interpretation of the
Constitution, yet it is based on nothing more than bald assertions
about its value. Justice Sandra Day OConnor, who wrote the
decision, cited business leaders who have made clear that
the skills needed in todays increasingly global marketplace
can only be developed through exposure to widely diverse people,
cultures, ideas, and viewpoints. She has decided that this
sort of exposure is so vital to the future of the country that
it justifies an exception to the equal protection
clause of the 14th Amendment that rules out group preferences.
Arranging the student body of a college or graduate school so
that there are plenty of students who dont look like you
is now a compelling governmental interest.
It is worth considering just what
this worship of diversity means. If, for example, you went to
college in Maine or Idaho with a bunch of white people, you do
not have what it takes to function in the increasingly global
marketplace. Presumably, the Chinese, who have lived all
their lives among other Chinese, dont have what it takes
either, but they still somehow manage to run huge trade surpluses
with us. Likewise, the Japanese and the Germans have somehow overcome
the terrible handicap of not living and studying amidst the invaluable
stimulus of blacks and Mexicans, and seem to do very well in the
global marketplace, too.
This diversity-equals-exports argument
is simply silly, but the justices cited another from retired soldiers
that is no better: a highly qualified, racially diverse
officer corps . . . is essential to the militarys ability
to fulfill its principle mission to provide national security.
Please note that racial diversity is essential to national
security. Are we to think that the overwhelmingly white command
structure in Afghanistan and Iraq is a threat to national security?
How did an army with no black field commanders manage to win the
Second World War? The real wonder is that officers and businessmen
actually make diversity arguments with a straight face.
As was pointed out in the June cover
story about these cases, the most careful study so far of campus
diversity has found that the more diverse a campus is, the less
satisfied the students are with the quality of their educations.
Even the University of Michigans internal evaluation of
its own diversity programs found that blacks, in particular, do
not want to confer the benefits of diversity by mixing with others
but want to stick to themselves.
Diversity-worship is particularly
jarring because the legal setting in which these decisions have
been handed down requires that diversity have
many demonstrable benefits. This is because, as Justice OConnor
placidly admitted, racial preferences violate the equal
protection clause. She genuflects before the ideal of equal
treatment, and approvingly cites Justice Lewis Powell in the 25-year-old
Bakke decision: when governmental decisions touch
upon an individuals race or ethnic back-ground, he is entitled
to a judicial determination that the burden he is asked to bear
on that basis is precisely tailored to serve a compelling governmental
interest. In other words, if the government or a state
institution is going to practice racial discrimination, it had
better have very good reasons for it. Astonishingly, Justice OConnor
and the other four concurring justices think the unmeasured and
probably illusory benefits of campus diversity are so vital to
the nations future they justify a clear departure from equal
bad ruling is likely to set racial preference policies
for the next generation, so it is important to understand
To their credit, the justices appear
to be a little worried by race preferences, and look forward to
the day when they end: [R]acial classifications, however
compelling their goals, are potentially so dangerous that they
may be employed no more broadly than the interest demands. Enshrining
a permanent justification for racial preferences would offend
this fundamental equal protection principle [of the 14th Amendment].
Consequently, wrote Justice OConnor, the Court expects
that 25 years from now, the use of racial preferences will no
longer be necessary to further the interest approved today [namely,
Also, the justices pride themselves
on not giving the green light to just any kind of racial preferences.
They issued the usual denunciations of quotas and racial balancing
(patently unconstitutional), arguing that preferences
cannot be applied mechanically but must be holistic,
giving serious consideration to all the ways an applicant
might contribute to a diverse educational environment. Race
can be an important factor but it must be handled mysteriously
and not openly.
It is because of this distinction
that the racial preferences practiced by the University of Michigan
undergraduate college were found unconstitutional, but those practiced
by the law school were not. As noted in ARs earlier cover
story, the college had a rating system with a range of 103 points,
and simply added an automatic 20 points to the scores of all blacks,
Hispanics, and American Indians. (Having perfect SAT scores was
worth only 12 points more than getting every question wrong.)
No good, said the court. That smells
of quotas. They liked the way the law school did it better. There,
the admissions committee mulled and communed and pondered, and
considered, and devised a system in which all factors that
may contribute to diversity are meaningfully considered alongside
race. The law school bureaucrats conceded that only 27 percent
of the preferred minorities could have gotten in without race
preferencesabout the same percentage as in the undergraduate
schoolbut since they conferred preference less mechanically,
the justices blessed the process.
The justices were pleased that the
law school did not necessarily make race the only or primary diversity
plus factor, but asked all applicants to highlight
their own potential diversity contributions through the submission
of a personal statement, letters of recommendation, and an essay
describing the ways in which the applicant will contribute to
the life and diversity of the Law School. Maybe even white
people can be carriers of diversity. But, as black commentator
Elizabeth Wright asks, what about students who just want a law
degree and think this is all rubbish? Clearly, Michigan is no
place for them.
In fact, if we really must have
racial preferences, the undergraduate system was better than the
law schools. It was clearly numeric, and everyone knew how
it worked (although U of M tried to hide their system, and divulged
it only when forced). However, a transparent 20-points-for-blacks
scheme is too open and straightforward; our rulers like their
racial preferences veiled, mysterious and subjective. They want
people putting thumbs on the scales in the back room, not out
where everyone can see.
With a secret system, everyone is
in the dark. If whites know that at U of M the deck is stacked
against them by 20 points, they can apply to some other college
where the anti-white bias was set at, say, 15 points. Blacks and
Hispanics want to know where they get the most preference, too.
The Supreme Court has now forbidden that kind of openness, so
applicants take their chances with systems that, by law, must
be whimsical and inconsistent.
In effect, the undergraduate college
had a version of race norming, which is the cleanest, most open,
and in fact the fairest way to discriminate against whites
(see next article). However race norming, like the point system,
has been banned. It is not mysterious and subjective enough.
In addition to enshrining diversity
as a vital national goal, the Supreme Court has given its blessing
to a trendy new bit of sociology called critical mass.
According to this doctrine, it is not enough to have just a
few blacks, Hispanics, etc. A handful of non-whites could
be admitted without racial preferences at all but the most demanding
campuses, but the court says thats not good enough for three
reasons. First, there must be enough of them so they wont
be lonely, or pressured to think they are spokesmen for their
races. Second, there must be enough to go around: whites must
not have to stand in line for doses of diversity. And finally,
there have to be enough of each kind of non-white for whites to
realize they dont all think the same: racial stereotypes
lose their force because nonminority students learn there is no
minority viewpoint but rather a variety of viewpoints
among minority students.
This last is interesting on several
counts. First, can we really expect sharp disagreement among blacks
about the legacy of slavery, 400 years of oppression,
or institutional racism, which are, presumably, the
areas on which their privileged perspective is meant to throw
special light? How many blacks are going to join the campus Republicans?
How many Hispanics are going to demonstrate for closed borders?
In fact, the more non-whites show up on campus the more likely
whites are to realize just how large a role racial solidarity
plays in their views on all subjects.
On the other hand, if, as the Supreme
Court tells us, there is no minority viewpoint what
is the point of violating the equal protection clause in order
to get them on campus? They are supposed to be valuable because
they are different, not because they are just like whites.
As for the second purpose for critical
masshaving enough non-whites to go arounddoes
this mean whites have a right to demand the kind of personal exchange
that is supposed to be so enriching? No one will ever speak these
words, but theoretically whites at U of M have the right to say:
Hello, black person. Better qualified whites were denied
admission so that your presence here would benefit me. Now, do
something to enrich my campus experience.
But does anyone really believe there
is going to be lots of stimulating interracial intellectual cross-fertilization?
Everyone knowsand campus administrators better than anyonethat
students stick to their own kind. Most universities even encourage
minority self-segregation in black-theme dormitories, Hispanic
student unions, and sometimes separate graduation ceremonies.
Even if contact with people of different races actually did improve
us in some way, it rarely happens spontaneously, even on the most
rigorously tutti-frutti campuses.
It is hard not to suspect there
is a different reason academicsand Supreme Court justices
who are careful not to rule in ways that offend academicswant
preferences. Today, moral fashion requires hatred of racism,
ostentatious sympathy for the Negro, and the appearance of solicitude
for all non-whites. As Lino Graglia of the University of Texas
Law School has pointed out, the people who run universities would
be embarrassed if their campuses were overwhelmingly white
(Asians dont seem to count). A certain number of whites
therefore have to be kept out so our rulers can look around the
campus, see black and brown faces, and preen themselves on their
Minorities must be
made to feel at home.
Of course, the most important practical
effect of racial preferences is to give protected minorities a
better shot at the brass ring at the expense of whites. Needless
to say, Justice OConnor puts it a little differently: In
order to cultivate a set of leaders with legitimacy in the eyes
of the citizenry, it is necessary that the path to leadership
be visibly open to talented and qualified individuals of every
race and ethnicity. She is willing to knock whites off the
path to leadership to make it look open to every race.
Justice OConnor then follows
with a very hearty pat on the back to her own profession. Getting
non-whites into law school, she says, is particularly important
because so many of Americas leaders are, ahem, lawyers.
She notes that half the state governors, more than half of US
senators, and a third of congressmen are lawyers (she modestly
forebore to mention that every Supreme Court justice is a lawyer).
The message is clear: blacks and Hispanics must be hauled bodily
up the ladder of success, qualified or not, since effective
participation by members of all racial and ethnic groups . . .
is essential if the dream of one Nation, indivisible, is to be
If their consciences ever prick
them because of the wrongs they are doing whites, our rulers need
only contemplate the rosy vision on which so many are fixated:
that of a raceless world in which people of all kinds live in
joyous harmony. Promoting non-whites beyond their capabilities
is a step towards the utopia we are all taught to crave.
Justice OConnors delusions
are underlined by her suggestion that racial preferences need
last no more than 25 years. In the meantime, she suggests, universities
should consider sunset provisions in race-conscious admissions
policies and periodic reviews to determine whether racial preferences
are still necessary to achieve student body diversity.
Like the rest of the country, the
Supreme Court deliberately closes its eyes to the reality of race.
If the court knew anything at all about race and IQ it would realize
blacks and Hispanics will be no smarter in 25 years than they
are now. Harvard Law School recently celebrated 35 years of racial
preferences. Another 25 will make it a full 60 years. Let us go
on the record with a prediction: In 2028even after 60 yearsblacks,
Hispanics and Amerindians will need just as much special handling
to reach critical mass in elite institutions as they
do now. Racial utopia will seem even more distant than it does
The path the Supreme Court has chosenhanding
over privilege and power to non-whitesleads not to utopia
but to dispossession. Sandra OConnor has probably never
heard of C.G. Tracey, the white Zimbabwean farmer AR reported
on in the previous issue. Mr. Tracey was an enthusiastic collaborator
in the transition to black rule in 1980, and is now said to be
heartbroken and confused after being thrown off his
farm along with other whites. The non-whites who acquire power
with the help of foolish white Supreme Court justices will use
it to advance their interests even further at the expense of whites.
Sandra OConnor will not live long enough to meet the same
fate as Mr. Tracey, but she is ensuring something similar for
her grandchildren. We cannot know exactly what form dispossession
will take, but it will be as unpleasant as it is certain, and
it will help forge a newly-awakened awareness among whites of
the crisis they face.
Although the press has not quoted
from them at length, the racial preferences decisions prompted
several sharp dissents. Chief Justice William Rhenquist scoffed
at the new doctrine of critical mass, asking why it
takes 90 blacks to achieve it, but only 40 Hispanics. In one recent
year, he pointed out, the law school had only three Amerindians.
What happened to critical mass?
What the law school really did,
he pointed out, was admit protected minorities in almost exactly
the same proportions as their numbers in the applicant pool. Stripped
of its critical mass veil, he wrote, the
Law Schools program is revealed as a naked effort to achieve
racial balancing, and is therefore precisely the kind of
program the majority says is patently unconstitutional.
There have to
be enough to go around: whites must not have to stand
in line for doses of diversity.
He was also very suspicious of the
25-year sunset provision: These discussions of a time limit
are the vaguest of assurances. In truth, they permit the Law Schools
use of racial preferences on a seemingly permanent basis.
Justice Antonin Scalia wrote sarcasticallyeven
angrilyabout the alleged benefit derived from a racially-mixed
This is not, of course, an
educational benefit on which students will be graded
on their Law School transcript (Works and Plays Well with Others:
B+) or tested by the bar examiners (Q: Describe in 500 words or
less your cross-racial understanding). For it is a lesson of life
rather than lawessentially the same lesson taught to (or
rather learned by, for it cannot be taught in the
usual sense) people three feet shorter and twenty years younger
than the full-grown adults at the University of Michigan Law School,
in institutions ranging from Boy Scout troops to public-school
He referred bitterly to the majority
opinions assertion that getting to know people of other
races makes us better citizens: And surely private employers
cannot be criticizedindeed, should be praisedif they
also teach good citizenship to their adult employees
through a patriotic, all-American system of racial discrimination
in hiring. The nonminority individuals who are deprived of a legal
education, a civil service job, or any job at all by reason of
their skin color will surely understand.
Justice Scalia is also contemptuous
of the hair-splitting distinctions the majority draws between
preference programs that are constitutional and those that are
not: Unlike a clear constitutional holding that racial preferences
in state educational institutions are impermissible, or even a
clear anticonstitutional holding that racial preferences in state
educational institutions are OK, todays Grutter-Gratz
split double header [law school preferences good, undergraduate
preferences bad] seems perversely designed to prolong the controversy
and the litigation. He predicts fat times for the lawyers
who will haggle over which discrimination programs are legal and
which are not.
Justice Clarence Thomas also scoffed
at the idea racial diversity is a compelling state interest,
arguing that what the University of Michigan really wants is something
Justice Scalia: knows
when he sees it.
I refer to the Law School
s interest as an aesthetic. That is, the Law
School wants to have a certain appearance, from the shape of the
desks and tables in its classrooms to the color of the students
sitting at them. He goes on to point out that if this aesthetic
is so important, the law school can get it without racial preferences,
simply by lowering standards for everyone. In his view, it is
better to throw out selectivity rather than resort to dangerous
and demeaning government-mandated racial categories.
Justice Thomas even cited the study
quoted in AR two months ago, which pointed out that the more diverse
the campus, the less satisfied the students. He also noted research
suggesting that blacks do better at historically black colleges
than they do at largely white ones, which likewise undermines
the rationale for diversity.
In a particularly astute comparison,
he pointed out that the same court that now allows race discrimination
at U of M, banned sex discrimination at the Virginia Military
Institute. VMI argued that its adversative method
of education was a worthy goal that would be sacrificed if it
admitted women. Not good enough, said the court, even though sex
discrimination is subject only to intermediate rather
than strict scrutiny, that is to say, it is permitted
to attain goals far less urgent than compelling state interests.
Campus race diversity is so important it justifies the judicial
equivalent of nuclear weapons: racial discrimination. The advantages
of VMIs martial, male-only education are so insignificant,
they cannot even justify sex discrimination, which the Supreme
Court holds to be legally far less objectionable.
Is there anything to like about
this set of decisions? Theoretically, yes. It does not require
racial preferences in the name of diversity. It only permits them.
Also it says, essentially, that aside from compensation for recent
acts of direct discrimination, achievement of diversity is the
only grounds for preferences.
The states of California, Texas,
and Florida have either passed laws or voted referenda to outlaw
racial preferences by state universities. These rulings do not
strike down those laws, nor do they provide grounds for legal
challenge. However, by endorsing diversity so enthusiastically,
the Supreme Court has given tremendous support to opponents of
those laws. It will be interesting to see whether state houses
maintain their independence or whether they all flock to the courts
What will be the effect on private
companies? Many diversity officers are already jumping for joy;
they have a clear mandate to discriminate against whites. Preferences
are not obligatory, but big companies will keep at them because
they are often the only way to hold off lawsuits. Only by discriminating
against whites can an employer hire enough non-whites to appearin
the eyes of our obsessively egalitarian societynot
to be discriminating.
However, there is interesting material
in these opinions for any company that wants to buck the trend.
It is now on the official Supreme Court record that a company
cannot have a critical mass of top-level blacks or Hispanics without
racial preferences. If, as so often happens, an employer is in
the dock because he doesnt have enough dark faces in management,
he can argue that this was simply because he didnt practice
racial preferences. The court encourages them but doesnt
require them, and the record is clear: critical mass
cannot be had without them. We shall see if any American company
is bold enough to mount such a logical defense.
Finally, there is a deeper lesson
to be learned from the Supreme Court that goes beyond whether
these are good or bad decisions: they would not be necessary in
a homogenous society. The current decisions happen to be bad.
There may be good decisions in the future. But even good decisions
are worse than the fact that decisions must be made. For as long
as the United States remains the aggressively multi-racial country
it has chosen to become, it will be cursed with the consequences,
legal and otherwise.
• BACK TO TOP • •
on the Curves
norming was a practice that arose as part of the tortured his tory
of affirmative action. Supreme Court decisions of the early
1970s banned the use of employment criteria that had a disparate
impact, which means that they weeded out more non-whites
than whites. For example, in the past, many police and fire
departments would not consider a job applicant who had been
dishonorably discharged from the military, but since blacks
were more likely to receive dishonorable discharges than whites,
this had a disparate impact and was therefore found
that if employers set high standards, it was just a cover for
racism. If a company decided its secretaries should
have college degrees, this was not a legitimate attempt to get
capable secretaries. Racists were trying to screen
out blacks by using artificial standards.
Clearly, just about any meaningful
job qualification has a disparate impact. Whether
it is a college degree or a high test score or the ability to
fly a 747, whites are more likely to meet the standard than
blacks. Were all standards therefore illegal, since they all
had a disparate impact? No. A standard with a disparate
impact could be maintained only if it was a bona fide
occupational qualification (BFOQ). For example, truck
drivers had to know how to drive trucks, and it was permissible
to hire a white driver who could drive better than a black.
Disparate impact ruled out general qualifications, or
tests that could not be shown to be narrow evaluations of precisely
those abilities necessary for a specific job.
Naturally, there was tremendous
confusion over what constituted a BFOQ. It had been customary
to check the credit ratings of potential employees who were
to be handling company money. Blacks and Hispanics have worse
credit ratings than whites, so a credit check has a disparate
impact, but arent personal finance habits a BFOQ? Lawyers
grew fat determining that they are not. Responsible personal
finance is not a BFOQ because it does not have a direct
relationship to job performance, even in a companys finance
department. The law took the position that jobs require discreet,
definable skills and only those skills should be considered
by employersif considering anything else would have a
Needless to say, this was a huge
bother for employers. If they wanted to test applicants they
had to design a specific and limited test for each job. Often
they hired civil rights specialists to vet the tests
to make sure they were not inadvertently testing some unrelated
skill. It also meant companies had to junk a very reliable employment
test called the General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), which
had been used since 1947. The GATB gave employers an excellent
overall assessment of a candidates abilities for many
different kinds of job, but like all tests it had a disparate
impact, and it was a general rather than specific job
Employers loved the GATB, and
in 1981, the US Department of Labor figured out how to salvage
it by curing it of disparate impact. The trickwhich came
to be known as race normingwas to make ethnic adjustments
to all applicant scores so that all races were equally represented
at all ability levels. It took a lot of adjusting to get rid
of disparate impact. If a black, a Hispanic, a white, and an
Asian each got the same GATB raw score of 300, the black would
be ranked in the 87th percentile, the Hispanic in the 74th,
and the white and Asian together at the bottom in the 47th percentile.
The test could then be used to give the job to the black. He
was, after all, in the 87th percentile for blacks, and
was therefore a better candidate, after race norming, than the
white who got the same score but was only in the 47th percentile
for whites. With race norming, the trusty old GATB no
longer had a disparate impact, and could still be used legally.
By 1986 about 40 state governments
and hundreds of private companies were race norming test scores,
but they kept it a secret from the estimated 16 million candidates
who went through the process. Companies that hired through state
employment agencies often got race-normed candidate profiles
whether they knew it or not.
About this time, whites got wind
of what was happening and raised a stink. The National Academy
of Sciences did a thorough scientific evaluation
of the GATB, and concluded in 1989 that it had no internal racial
bias, but that race norming was a statistically valid way to
eliminate disparate impact. By then, though, it was fashionable
to oppose race norming, and in July 1990, then-Secretary of
Labor Elizabeth Dole suspended use of the GATB for a two-year
review period. The Civil Rights Act of 1991 banned race norming
(but did not lift the ban on disparate impact), so that finally
put an end to the ancient and honorable GATB.
that if employers set high standards, it was just
a cover for racism.
Employers were unhappy. They like
standardized tests, because they are an objective way to compare
candidates. With race norming, at least the candidate rankings
within the same race were meaningful, and if companies had to
have a certain number of non-whites to avoid discrimination
suits, a test like the GATB was a good way to hire the best
black or Hispanic. Had race norming been publicly acknowledged,
it would have been a transparently unfair, but at least transparent
preference system. It was this very transparency that Congress
could not stomach in 1991 and that the Supreme Court cannot
stomach in 2003. Then as now, racial preferences had to be subjective
and kept out of sight.
Whites do not know what is good
for them. It is far better to have open, quantifiable discrimination
than secret discrimination. Open discrimination is a standing
insult to whites, and a constant reminder that blacks and Hispanics
cannot meet standards. It raises the question of racial differences
in IQ, and forces whites to recognize what their country is
doing to them. If Congress and the Supreme Court want discrimination
against whites, they should require a full, pubic accounting
• • • BACK TO TOP • •
Through the Ages
Nordics the most beautiful race?
reviewed by H. A. Scott
272 pp., $24.95
londe women, both natural
and contrived, are disproportionately represented in film,
fashion, advertising, and television. Blonde women are generally
thought of as the most beautiful, not only in northern Europe
and North America where many natural blondes live, but also
in those parts of the world where blondes are rare. Tens
of millions of womenand not just in America and Europelighten
their hair, while only a few darken it.
Many would dismiss this almost
universal passion for blondeness as a recent fashion, or
as a consequence of the ubiquity and power of American culture,
but Joanna Pitmans new book On Blondes shows
that it is much more. Although racial correctness prevents
her from drawing the conclusions to which all her evidence
points, her book makes it clear that in female beauty there
is a hierarchy of races, in which Nordics stand at the top.
Mrs. Pitman, who is the photography
critic for the Times of London, reports that brunettes
have wanted to be blondes since at least Classical times.
The ancient Greeks, for example, clearly thought blonde
women were the most beautiful. The poet Homer described
the goddess Athena as having gray eyes and Aphrodite, the
goddess of love, as having blonde hair. One of the most
famous and most visited sculptures of the ancient world
was the Aphrodite of Knidos, sculpted by Praxiteles in 360
B.C. She had blonde hairthe Greeks painted their statues,
so there was no mistake about thisas did the myriad
copies of this statue that decorated the temples, gardens,
and villas of the Greek city-states. Pliny the Elder wrote
that people traveled great distances to marvel at this beautiful
and even erotic sculpture. One man was so overcome with
desire for the blonde Aphrodite, that late one night he
sneaked into the temple to be alone with the statue: He
embraced it intimately; and a stain bears witness to his
Praxiteles is said to have
modeled Aphrodite after his mistress Phryne, who was said
to be the most beautiful woman in Greece. She had long,
flowing blonde hair, and she was the star attraction at
the festival of Poseidon in which she emerged from the sea
gods temple, disrobed, and waded into the ocean to
offer a sacrifice.
The Greeks longing for
blondeness is revealed in Aethiopica, a tale about
a royal Ethiopian couple who gave birth to a blonde girl,
Charicleia, because they conceived under a painting of the
naked blonde goddess Andromeda. This tale represents what
may be the near-universal desire of parents to have children
with lighter complexions than their own. How many parents,
of any race, hope for darker children?
Mrs. Pitman reports that the
Romans were no less enamored of blonde hair than the Greeks.
They, too, portrayed their goddess of love, Venus, with
light skin and blonde hair. The Romans had long known of
the fair-haired Celts, and military conquests in Gaul and
Britain brought them in contact with even more Celtic and
Germanic tribes. The result was a wave of blonde envy among
the aristocratic ladies of Rome, an envy no doubt prompted
by the admiration Roman men showed for the fair-haired women
of the north. Roman women took to wearing blonde wigs, made
from the hair of captured or slain northern European women,
or dyed their own hair blonde with expensive saffron dyes.
Other bleaching agents included such things as sapo
(goats fat mixed with beechwood ashes), Batavian pomade
(a dying soap), lees (sediment of wine or vinegar), and
have wanted to be blondes since at least Classical
This passion for blondes offended
the pride and patriotism of some Roman men. Mrs. Pitman
quotes the poet Ovid, who castigated Roman women for using
rinses and dangerous concoctions in their
quest for blondeness. There were safer ways to seek beauty:
[A]fter our German conquests a wig is easily come
bya captive Mädchens tresses will
see you through, . . . eliciting admiration galore.
However, he warns women to remember, The praise (like
the hair) has been bought. Once you really deserved it.
Now each compliment belongs to some Rhine maiden, not to
The epigrammatist Martial
wrote of a Roman lady: Her toilet table contained
a hundred lies, and while she was in Rome, her hair was
blushing by the Rhine. Tertullian, a Carthaginian
Christian theologian, complained that Roman women are
even ashamed of their country, sorry that they were not
born in Germany or in Gaul. Thus, as far as their hair is
concerned, they give up their country.
It is understandable that
women might want to look more like rulers or conquerors,
but the women of Rome wanted to look like enemies who had
been defeated and enslaved. Surely, only blondes have been
envied and imitated even in defeat. Southern belles had
no desire to resemble their African slaves, nor did English
lasses imitate the features of the subject races of the
British empire. Nor did American girls during the 1960s
try to look Vietnamese. The Roman preference for blondes
seems to have been more than a matter of fashion or a passing
desire for the exotic.
During the Middle Ages women
continued to dye their hair blonde, despite exhortations
to the contrary by clerics, who pointed to the blonde tresses
of the temptress Eve (perhaps thereby making blonde hair
even more attractive). For the Europeans of this period,
blonde hair represented dangerous eroticism, sexual temptation,
and beauty, but also sexual purity, moral goodness, and
spirituality. In Christian art, angels were usually blonde,
as were the chaste heroines of chivalric romance. The French
court poet Chrétien de Troyes of the twelfth century
filled his Arthurian legends with beautiful blondes like
Guinevere and Soredamor, who had flowing hair and blue or
green eyes. Likewise, the blonde Iseult from the twelfth-century
tale, Tristan and Iseult, was described as the
most beautiful woman from here to the Spanish Marches.
In Roman de la Rose, a thirteenth century French
poem, the hero encounters a bewitching beauty with grey-blue
eyes, a straight nose, snowy breasts, and blonde hairfeatures
that represented the pinnacle of female beauty in the Middle
Mrs. Pitman has found that
if European men of the Middle Ages had a passion for fair-haired
women, so did the Arabs who were their principal foreign
foe. During the Crusades, the twelfth-century Arab historian
Imad ad-Din records the arrival of three hundred lovely
Frankish women, full of youth and beauty, . . . loving and
passionate, pink-faced and unblushing . . . blue-eyed and
grey-eyed, who had come to offer comfort and companionship
to their male countrymen. Mrs. Pitman also cites the account
of Ibrahim ibn Jaqub, a tenth-century Spanish Jew who converted
to Islam, and traveled in northeastern Europe. He wrote
that one of the purposes of his journeys was to purchase
blonde prisoners for Turkish and Arab customers. By contrast,
European knights did not bring home dark-skinned Middle
Renaissance Italy and England
continued to admire blonde hair. When Italian painters depicted
what they conceived to be the highest female beauty, they
chose blondes, as in Botticellis Venus
(1486), Carpaccios The Two Courtesans
(1495), and Titians Venus of Urbino (1538).
Venetian ladies devoted their Saturday afternoons to blonding
their hair (they could choose from at least 36 recipes for
bleach), and a contemporary noted that just as the
women of old time did most love yellow hair . . . the Venetian
women at this day, and the Paduan, and those of Verona,
and other parts of Italy practice the same vanity.
Mrs. Pitman writes that the
next 200 years were an anomaly in an otherwise blonde millennium,
as dark hair came into fashion, at least among the upper
classes. This may have reflected the rise of France as the
preeminent power. The ideal beauty now had dark brown or
black hair with a fair complexion. During this period, natural
blondes actually sought to conceal their true color by wearing
wigs or dying their hair. Women from poor families could
not afford these artifices, and the aristocracy and upper
bourgeoisie associated blondness with lower-class promiscuity.
During the Romantic age of
the nineteenth century, blonde hair began to win back its
ascendancy, helped in part by the publication of fairy tales.
In France, the Baroness dAulnoy and, in Germany, the
Grimm brothers crafted stories based on the ancient folklore
of the common people, in which the heroines were blue-eyed
blondes with rosy cheeks and milky-white complexions. The
growing prestige throughout Europe of German culture also
encouraged a greater appreciation of the Nordic look.
More encouragement for blondness
came from the poetic and artistic fascination with the early
Middle Ages. Artists and authors revived the Arthurian romances,
Germanic mythology, Scandinavian epic poetry, and the history
of the ancient Germans and Celts. Sir Walter Scott wrote
Ivanhoe (1819) to celebrate the virtues of the ancient
Saxons. His hero and heroine, Ivanhoe and Rowena, both have
blue eyes and fair hair. In Coningsby (1844), Benjamin
Disraeli, who later became Prime Minister, praised the Saxons
for their pure Nordic features: You come from the
shores of the Northern Sea, land of the blue eye, and the
golden hair. In his next novel, Tancred (1847),
he ascribed Englands greatness to its predominant
Saxon race. All is race, Disraeli
wrote; there is no other truth.
In the twentieth century,
blonde hair has reigned supreme as the pinnacle of beauty.
During the Second World War, even Germanys enemies
shared certain Nazi ideals. As Mrs. Pitman notes, The
top wartime box office female film stars in all three [belligerent]
countries were blondeKristina Soderbaum in Germany,
Lyubov Orolova in Russia, and Betty Grable in America. Soviet
art, both before and during the war, uniformly portrayed
Soviet citizens as blonde and Aryan-looking. Stalins
ideal [Soviet] citizen was definitely an Aryan, writes
Mrs. Pitman. American soldiers decorated their Quonset huts
and B-29s with posters of Betty Grable and other Hollywood
blondes, as well as with Varga girls (known later in Playboy
magazine as Vargas girls), most of whom were blondes. (Alberto
Vargas painted stylized watercolors of beautiful women for
calendars and posters).
Regrettably, Mrs. Pitman devotes
little space to the last several decades. The triumph of
multiculturalism and anti-white ideologies has failed to
displace blondes from their pre-eminence in fashion, film,
and even pornography. The blonde continues to be sought
after by men worldwide. In Brazil, for example, the two
provinces in the southeast that have large German ethnic
populations supply the vast majority of models for the local
Mrs. Pitman notes that even
in so successful a country as Japan, light skin and Caucasian
features are at a high premium. In the streets of Tokyo
every fourth or fifth woman seems to lighten her hairsome
going all the way to full blondeand even men are beginning
to dye their hair. As one blonde Japanese 20-year-old explains,
Its a form of rebellion, rejecting my Japaneseness
in order to look more Western, to look better. It
is fashionable for Japanese women to have their epicanthic
folds removed surgically, to take the slant
out of their eyes and make them look rounder and more Caucasian.
Although Mrs. Pitman does
not mention this, Africa and the Caribbean are large markets
for hair dyes and skin bleaches, even for crude, caustic
products that harm users. Likewise, most of the women who
appear on Mexican television could almost be mistaken for
to be blonde?
Mrs. Pitman, herself an attractive
English blonde, draws few lessons from her illuminating
study but she does ask a few tantalizing questions. She
notes that many whites who are not natural blondes dye their
hair in the hope of passing, and wonders: Are
those who blonde themselves still subconsciously seeking
to distinguish themselves from darker and less powerful
ethnic groups? Mrs. Pitman concedes that non-white
women have often turned themselves blonde but never permits
herself to wonder whether at some level they may wish they
Mrs. Pitman disapproves of
the racialist . . . belief that the blonde and fair-skinned
should not marry a member of a darker race. Yet how
else are Nordics, whose hair color ranges from red and brown
to blonde, whose physical traits are generally recessive,
and who make up only a small percentage of the world population,
to survive in a world of mass migrations? Mrs. Pitmans
book suggests that blonde women will continue to be sought
after as wives by successful men of all races. Without strong
sanctions against miscegenation, the natural blonde will
We would do well to remember
the wisdom of the English racialist G. P. Mudge who wrote
in the aftermath of the terrible European Civil War of 1914-18:
England still contains a large percentage of the tall,
well-built, blond, blue- or grey-eyed type. . . . This is
the type that must at all costs not only preserve itself
against extinction, but must multiply until all the needs
of the Empire are met. We might not today wish to
define our target population quite so narrowly, but if we
substitute the term racial reawakening for Empire
we find an almost perfect expression of the pressing duty
of our age.
H.A. Scott Trask is a freelance
writer and historian from St. Louis. He is currently working
on a history of the northern antiwar movement during the
Civil War and a study of William Graham Sumner.
• • •
BACK TO TOP • •
O Tempora, O Mores!
After 13 years of doing nothing
while Liberians slaughter each other, the United States has suddenly
decided to bring peace. The current warlord, Charles Taylor, has
agreed to seek asylum in Nigeria, and the Pentagon has plans to
send 2,000 soldiers to tramp around Monrovia. Why, after announcing
during the 2000 elections that he had little interest in Africa,
is President George Bush now determined to liberate Liberia? He
says failed states, of which Liberia is certainly
one, are breeding grounds for terrorism. This is an odd argument,
given that there is very little anti-Americanism in Liberia, and
that the country that supplied 15 of the 19 Sept. 11 hijackersSaudi
Arabiais not exactly a failed state. Condoleezza
Rice, Colin Powell, the Black Congressional Caucus, and other
highly-placed blacks are said to be pushing the president to pay
more attention to their co-racialists. [Karl Vick, Liberias
President Agrees to Leave, Washington Post, July 7, 2003, p. A1.
Michael Dobbs, Trip Marks Presidents Turnabout on Africa,
Washington Post, July 7, 2003, p. A1.]
One wonders whether it will occur
to the presidents black advisors to propose a change to
the Liberian constitution in exchange for the uplift we propose
to apply. Chapter IV, Article 27b is unambiguous:
In order to preserve, foster
and maintain the positive Liberian culture, values and character,
only persons who are Negroes or of Negro descent shall qualify
by birth or naturalization to be citizens of Liberia. We
note also, in Chapter III, Article 22, that only Liberian
citizens shall have the right to own real property within the
Needless to say, no one in Liberia
pays any attention to the constitution, and most Liberians cannot
read it and probably have never heard of it. However, once we
have established democracy, which will no doubt be our goal, this
little matter of Negro descent might require attention.
The presidents father tried
to bring peace and prosperity to Somalia and failed. President
William Clinton tried to restore democracy in Haiti
and failed. Mr. Bush will fail in Liberia. Let us hope this futile
mission to Africa never gets out of the planning stage.
Meanwhile, Mr. Taylor is reported
to be clinging to power with the same techniques that got him
to the top: black magic. He is known to have drunk the blood of
prisoners when he was a rebel in the bush war, and now that he
is besieged in Monrovia by two enemy armies, he is said to be
drinking blood and casting spells like never before. Right
now he is surrounding himself with the strongest zoes [witch doctors]
and using the strongest ju ju [magic] to keep power, says
a Monrovian expert on magic. There is no way you can be
at his level and not do rituals. These guys deal in blood.
One Taylor associate used to keep the bones of a murdered rival
in his desk drawer. [Tim Butcher, Taylor Turns Back to Cannibalism,
Telegraph (London), June 23, 2003.]
West Africa, of which Liberia is
a part, is reported to be a large market for imported ingredients
for magic rituals. At a recent international business fair in
Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, the government set up a gruesome exhibit
of products the country would prefer not to export. All parts
of the human body appear to have some value for witch doctors,
but complete human skins are especially prized. Southern Tanzania
has had a rash of murders in which corpses have been found without
their skins. In 2001, Tanzanian police broke up a skin-smuggling
ring and charged 13 people with murder.
The Dar es Salaam exhibit includes
skulls, arms, and legs, but the main attraction is the skins.
A spokesman for the exhibit says its purpose is to alert people
in the skin trade that the authorities are on to them, and to
educate people that they do not have to use human skin to become
rich. However, the price of a skin can be as high as $9,600,
and so long as the West Africans want them that badly, there will
be suppliers. [Tanzania Fights Human Skinning, BBC News (bbc.co.uk),
July 4, 2003.]
A Washington, DC, organization called
the National SAFE KIDS Campaign reports that unintentional injury
is the leading cause of death among children age 14 and under.
More than 5,600 children die in accidents each year, an average
of 15 per day. In 2000, automobile accidents accounted for 28
percent of accidental deaths, followed by drowning at 16 percent
and choking at 14 percent.
The SAFE KIDS study shows significant
racial differences in death rates (see chart). American Indian
and black children have the highest ratesnearly twice that
of whitesand Asian children have the lowest. While the overall
accidental childhood death rate declined 39 percent from 1987
to 2000, among Asians it declined 52 percent. American Indians
saw the smallest decline at 20 percent, followed by blacks at
36 percent and whites at 39 percent. The study did not look at
Hispanic children as a separate racial category.
The authors are quick to claim that
racial and ethnic disparities in unintentional injury rates
have more to do with living in impoverished communities, a primary
predictor of injury, than with biological differences. [Report
to the Nation: Trends in Unintentional Childhood Mortality, 1987-2000,
National SAFE KIDS Campaign (Washington, DC), May 2003, p. 6.]
Luis Alberto Jimenez is an illegal
alien from Guatemala who was severely injured in a head-on car
crash in Florida three and a half years ago. Since then, he has
had more than $1 million in medical treatment from Martin Memorial
Medical Center in Stuart, Fla. Since Mr. Jimenez has no money
or health insurance, Martin Memorial has asked a federal judge
to send him back to Guatemala.
According to federal guidelines,
hospitals accepting Medicarelike Martin Memorialmay
not discharge illegal aliens unless they have arranged to have
a hospital in the home country give the patient adequate care.
Martin Memorial has worked closely with the Guatemalan government,
and has received assurances from the minister of public health
that Mr. Jimenez will be well treated.
That isnt good enough for
Montejo Gaspar, Mr. Jimenezs cousin by marriage and court-appointed
guardian, who is fighting Martin Memorial to keep his cousin-in-law
here. Mr. Gaspar says he will agree to Mr. Jimenezs removal
only if he approves the hospital, the treatment, and the doctors.
[Pat Moore, Hospital Seeks to Send Immigrant Home, Palm Beach
Post, June 6, 2003.]
AIDS, the Ebola virus, monkeypox,
and SARS are all diseases that probably started in wild animals
and switched to humans. It now appears likely that the recent
outbreak of SARS got its start from the close contact between
Chinese animal merchants and their wares. The people of Guangdong
Province in southern China are famous for eating everything
with four legs except a table, everything that flies except an
airplane, and everything that swims except a submarine,
and support a brisk trade in cats, snakes, bats, dogs, civet cats,
pangolins, and anything else hunters can get their hands on. People
like the taste, but also claim a daily dose of snakes blood
or powdered pangolin scales can cure disease. Another reason for
the popularity of bush meat is its price. South China is full
of wheeler-dealers who like to flaunt their wealth by eating tiger
penis or filleted cobra.
for the barbie.
The Xinyuan market in Canton is
the perfect place to get diseases from animals. The floor is littered
with dead cats, birds, fish, frogs, and rats, and the place stinks
of blood and feces. Animals of every description are crammed into
tiny cages, where they gnaw at and defecate on each other. People
in the trade are always around animals, and get up to their elbows
in blood when they butcher them. Patient zero in the
SARS outbreak is thought to have been a Canton animal handler,
and Chinese scientists report that up to 50 per cent of the people
who work with wild animals in Canton have antibodies to the SARS
The authorities have outlawed the
animal trade, but enforce the ban only half-heartedly. Western
reporters have had no trouble finding the usual assortment of
animals for sale in the usual filthy conditions. The animal handlers
say the link to SARS is a myth. As one explains:
We are not afraid of any disease
in our market. Chinese people have been eating wild animals for
thousands of years. We eat and sleep among our animals, and not
a single one of us has ever caught SARS, and neither have any
of our friends or relatives. In any case, he adds, I
think our jobs are more important than SARS.
The World Health Organization reports
that if the trade in animals continues, there could well be another
outbreak this fall or winter, when the weather is more favorable
for transmission. [Geoffrey York, Chinese Taste for Exotic Flesh,
Globe and Mail (London), June 28, 2003.]
Too white-bread for
Movie cowboy Roy Rogers, his wife
Dale Evans, and his horse Trigger all used to be American cultural
icons, and there is still a museum that celebrates their lives.
For years, people visited the Roy Rogers-Dale Evans Museum in
Victorville, California, to view Roy Rogers memorabilia, including
his gun, boots, and Trigger himselfstuffed and on display.
As the Roy Rogers generation passed
on, and immigrants moved in, attendance dropped, and last April,
the museum decided to relocate to Branson, Missouri. Branson has
become a major resort area catering to bluegrass and country music
fans, who are overwhelmingly white, and the museum hopes to be
more popular there.
Victorville mayor Terry Caldwell
is sad to see the museum go. Its left a big hole in
the heart of Victorville. There was a wholesomeness synonymous
with Roy Rogers and now that the museum has gone, it marks the
end of an era here. Thats just fine with immigrant
Rosalina Sondoval-Marin. Roy Rogers? He doesnt mean
anything, she sneers. Theres a revolution going
on, and it dont include no Roy Rogers. . . . [Charlie
LeDuff, Roy Rogers Museum Hits the Trail, New York Times, June
Over the past year, Iraqi Kurdish
refugees have been moving into the northern Wales town of Wrexham.
There are now about 70 of them, and most live in a public housing
project called Caja Park. On the night of June 22/23, the town
had its first full-scale race riot, as 40 Kurds and young Welshmen
battled it out near the project, swinging baseball bats and metal
poles. Two men were taken into intensive care with serious head
injuries, and police arrested four Iraqis and two Welshmen. Rumor
had it that busloads of Kurds bent on revenge were rolling in
from Stoke and London. Eirian Jones works at a late-night convenience
store and witnessed the violence. I am not surprised,
she says. There has been tension for the last week. If the
police dont sort it out therell be more trouble.
Of course, it is the immigration authorities, not the police,
who should sort it out. [Faisal al Yafai, Race Riot Rocks Welsh
Estate, Guardian (London), June 24, 2003.]
Now that blacks have taken over
the country whites built in South Africa, they are demanding reparations
for apartheid. The reasoning is as follows: Whites kept blacks
out of certain jobs and certain areas. Whites were (and still
are) richer than blacks. Therefore whites owe blacks money. This
ignores the fact that although blacks in South Africa were certainly
poorer than whites, they were far better off than the neighboring
blacks who had no whites to run their countries. Under apartheid,
South Africa had a big problem with illegal African immigrants
who wanted a piece of the good life under apartheid. Now that
blacks are in charge, immigrants are less eager to come.
Activists have sued companies, foreign
and domestic, for reparations because they propped up
apartheid. The United States has the best laws for this sort of
shakedown, and the South African Council of Churches was planning
a big meeting in July to report on the suits. Blacks were looking
forward to the big payday when it began to dawn on a few people
that South African companies and South African subsidiaries of
American companies might be liquidated if courts award damages.
This would mean the end of many of the best jobs in the country.
Companies doing business in South
Africa have instead agreed to contribute voluntarily
to a reparations fund if the suits are dropped. Justice Minister
Penuell Maduna wants everyone in South Africa to contribute. The
fund will be run by a committee that will decide who are the most
deserving victims of apartheid and which groups should be specially
rewarded for their part in ending white rule. [Christelle Terreblanche,
Business Pledges Reparations for Apartheid, Sunday Independent
(London), June 29, 2003.]
Majesty of Law
Cheating on examinations is a tradition
in India, especially on law school examinations in the eastern
Indian state of Orissa. Brazen cheating is so widespread that
the state supreme court issued an order banning it, and the authorities
got tough. On frisking in the presence of the police, we
found almost all students carrying books and photocopied notes
hidden on their body, explains education official Radhanath
Mishra in the state capital of Bhubaneswar. The students refused
to hand over their crib sheets, and instead turned violent, finally
leaving the examination halls in protest. The boycott spread to
20 law colleges in eastern India and involved more than 3,000
Aspiring lawyers at the University
Law College of Bhubaneswar and Madhusudan Law College of Cuttack
blocked the Calcutta-Madras national highway for more than three
hours and burned tires to protest the ban on cheating. Angry students
told local television reporters they wanted the examinations rescheduled
and demanded that cheating be allowed, as it has been for
years. [Shaikh Azizur Rahman, Students Riot Over Cheating
Ban, The Courier-Mail (Brisbane, Australia), July 10, 2003.]
India is the fourth most common
country of origin for immigrants to the United States.
On May 1, a gang of 18 black and
Hispanic children, ages nine to fifteen, attacked a 13-year-old
white girl as she walked home from Wilbur Wright Middle School
in Cleveland, Ohio. The victim, identified only as Melissa, says
her attackers were calling her white trash and other
names when one girl grabbed her from behind by the hair and pulled
her to the ground. The others joined in, beating, kicking and
choking her. When police asked the young perps why they did it,
they said simply, Its May Day. Asked to elaborate,
they explained, Thats the day black students beat
up on whites.
Blacks at schools on Clevelands
West Side have reportedly been assaulting white classmates on
May Day since the 1970s, after the imposition of court-ordered
busing. School officials claim tales of May Day violence are largely
apocryphal, but teacher Michael Charney disagrees: If you
look through the history of Cleveland schools, theres been
incidents on May Day. It exists. Its not a figment of imagination.
Parents are taking no chances. Many
whites, like JoAnn Nelson, keep their children home on May Day.
Im not going to have them getting beat, she
explains. Her daughter Amber, who attends the same school as Melissa,
says shes glad she didnt go to school that dayfellow
students later told her she was on the hit list. On Thursday,
May 1, Wilbur Wright reported 224 student absences; on Monday
of the same week, there were only 115 absences.
Elsie Morales knows about May Day.
The Puerto Rican mother of two says that when she was a student
in the late 1970s, she joined in attacks on whites, which she
saw as payback for their treatment of non-whites. She now thinks
this was retarded, and forbids her children to attack
whites. Her daughter Jasmine says there is pressure to join in
the violence: Its like if you dont jump this
person with us, youre a wimp and well get you next.
Since her attack, Melissa experiences
blackouts, and remains under medical care. Police are charging
her assailantstwelve girls and six boyswith felonious
assault, ethnic intimidation, and aggravated riot. [Brian Albrecht,
18 Kids Are Charged With Racially Motivated Beating of Teenage
Girl, Plain Dealer (Cleveland), June 14, 2003. Rachel Dissell
and John F. Hagan, May Day: Fact and Myth, Plain Dealer,
June 22, 2003.]
A new study by the Brookings Institution
shows that many foreign-born residents cannot speak English proficiently.
Here are the data for the 10 metropolitan areas with the largest
[Mary Beth Sheridan, D.C. Regions
Immigrants Faring Better than Others, Washington Post, June 12,
Orange County (CA)
On June 8, Ford Motor Credit Co.
filed a lawsuit in Manhattan against Democratic presidential candidate
Rev. Al Sharpton to collect money he owes on a 2001 Ford Explorer.
Mr. Sharpton last made the $1,127.95 monthly payment in November
2002. In February, he wrote Ford a check for $3,600it bouncedand
now the repo men are after him. According to a spokesman, this
is all news to the reverend. Rev. Sharpton personally does
not drive, nor does he have a drivers license, she
says. [Missing SUV, New York Post, June 11, 2003, p. 10.]
The aspiring chief executive has
a long history of skipping out on debts. After the Sept. 11 attacks,
he got nervous about his offices in the Empire State Building,
and cleared out despite a ten-year lease. His landlord sued. State
and federal authorities are often after him for unpaid taxes.
He did a midnight flit on $30,000 rent on his 1996 campaign headquarters,
and tried to stiff the Millennium Hotel for $25,000 in expenses
for a Jan. 2000 conference timed to celebrate Martin Luther Kings
birthday. His refusal to pay a $65,000 libel judgment for accusing
a former prosecutor of raping Tawana Brawley became so embarrassing,
a group of black businessmen finally paid the fine for him. [Lois
Weiss and Andy Geller, Rev. Deadbeat Bounced, New York Post, July
Last Nov. 12, California Polytechnic
State University student Steve Hinkle walked into a lounge in
the schools Multicultural Center to post a flyer announcing
a speech by black conservative Mason Weaver. Mr. Weaver was to
discuss his book, Its OK to Leave the Plantation,
which argues that government programs are bad for blacks. Several
students in the lounge said Mr. Hinkles flyer was racist
and violated the Multicultural Centers posting policy. They
said they would call the police if he posted it.
Mr. Hinkle left without putting
it up, but students called the cops anyway, and told them a suspicious
white male was distributing racial material. On Jan. 29, Mr. Hinkle
was charged with disrupting a campus eventthe students told
police they were holding a Bible study meeting, though they had
not yet started and there was no sign asking for privacy. According
to one of the students Mr. Hinkle was in the room for no
more than five minutes.
On March 12, the offender was hauled
before Cal Polys Office of Judicial Affairs, and Vice Provost
W. David Conn found him guilty of disruption and ordered him to
write a formal apology. Mr. Hinkle is fighting back. An organization
called the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education is demanding
that the university overturn the disruption conviction, remove
it from his record, and apologize. If not, they may sue. [Michael
Carney, California Student Struggles Against Disruption
Finding, Washington Times, July 2, 2003, p. A3.]
City officials in Lewiston, Maine,
are reporting a significant downturn in the number of new Somali
refugees moving there. Since September 2002, new arrivals have
averaged fewer than ten a month. During the previous year, the
number was 40 a month. Some say the Somalis no longer feel welcome
in Lewiston since last October when Mayor Larry Raymond wrote
a letter asking them to go somewhere else (see AR, Nov. 2002).
Others say the winters in Maine are too cold for Somalis. Still
others think its because there arent many jobs in
Lewiston (the Somali unemployment rate is 50 percent). Whatever
the reason, Lewistons respite may be short-lived. Somali
leaders say as many as 200 Somalis may move to Lewiston from Columbus,
Ohio, this summer. [Somali Immigration into Lewiston Drops Significantly
Since Fall, AP, June 26, 2003.]
Only two percent of the London Metropolitan
Police forces 28,000 officers are Muslim, so clearly the
city needs more. On June 16, assistant police commissioner Bernared
Hogan-Howe announced a new recruiting tactic: Muslims may wear
turbans instead of the traditional bobby helmet. Sikh
policemen have worn turbans for years, and last year Muslim women
got permission to wear headscarves on duty. [Muslim Police in
London May Wear Turbans, AP, June 16, 2003.]
In just two years, 2000 to 2002,
the number of Hispanics living in the United States increased
by 3.5 million, and now stands at 38.8 million. The Hispanic population
more than doubled in the 1990s, and in 2001 Hispanics officially
surpassed blacks to become the largest minority (13.5 vs. 12.7
percent). According to the Census Bureau, Hispanics are increasing
nearly four times as quickly as the general population, and almost
ten times faster than non-Hispanic whites.
Two thirds of all Hispanics are
Mexican, and one third are under age 18. Forty percent are foreign-born.
Forty percent of Hispanics 25 and over have failed to complete
high school, and 21 percent live in poverty. For the Census Bureau
Hispanic is a cultural, rather than racial category.
Of the 38.8 million Hispanics living in our midst, no fewer than
36.3 million93.5 percentsay they are white.
[Genaro C. Armas, Hispanic Population Up 10 Pct. Since 2000, AP,
June 18, 2003.]
Its our responsibility
as Republicans to communicate our message better to Hispanic communities,
says Republican Congressman Gerald Weller of Illinois. In
the past, we have not been as aggressive as we should have in
conveying that Republican values are Hispanic values. . . .
In order to get the message across, Rep. Weller has organized
a 10-week course of Spanish classes for about 20 Republican congressmen
and 50 staffers.
It is great that they are
taking language classes, and its about time, says
Ciro Rodriguez (D-TX), chairman of the Congressional Hispanic
Caucus. But they also need to understand our concerns and
issues . . . . Hispanics vote Democrat two to one. For that
to change, says Cecilia Muñoz, vice president of the Hispanic
pressure group National Council of La Raza, the GOP must change
some of its policieslike the post-Sept. 11 restrictions
According to the Pew Hispanic Center,
Hispanics are about eight percent of registered voters and 500,000
more become eligible to vote each year. Both major political parties
want their votes. They are the jump ball in American politics,
says Rep. Henry Bonilla (R-TX). [Alex Kingsbury, How Do You Say
Vote GOP?, Dallas Morning News, June 17, 2003.]
At 32, Detroit Mayor Kwame Kilpatrick
is one of the youngest mayors of a major American city. He also
sports a diamond stud is his left ear and rides a Harley. Mr.
Kilpatrick comes from a black political familyhis mother
is Rep. Carolyn Kilpatrick (D-MI) and his father is a former Wayne
County, Mich., commissionerand his rapid rise to power in
the nations 10th largest city has won national attention.
The Los Angeles Times calls him a politician who
runs on hip-hop, the Democratic Leadership Council named
him one of 100 Democrats to watch, and BlackVoices .com hailed
him as one of Americas New Kings and a possible
future presidential candidate. He was the inspiration for the
2003 film Head of State (produced by and starring comedian
Chris Rock), in which a black city alderman becomes president
of the United States.
There have been rumors of orgies
at the mayors mansion, but Mr. Kilpatrick says its
just talk: I think the reason it comes out is that we are
sexy. I think this is a very sexy administration because of the
youth. Rumors started again in May, when Mr. Kilpatrick
fired Deputy Police Chief Gary Brown. Mr. Brown says he got the
axe because he was investigating the mayors 20-man security
force for falsifying overtime records and covering up DUIsand
because he was looking into a coverup of an assault at a wild
party at the mayors mansion involving the mayor and nude
Mr. Kilpatrick says he fired Mr.
Brown because he betrayed the trust of his chief.
The Michigan State Police and Detroits US District Attorney
are investigating. [Patricia Montemurri, Alejandro Bodipo-Memba,
and Chris Christoff, Mayor Didnt Roll Off Assembly Line,
Knight-Ridder News Service, May 18, 2003.]
In 1803, an army of Haitian former
slaves drove the French army out of Haiti (the soldiers were dying
of yellow fever) and massacred the remaining whites. Toussaint
Louverture, the hero of the revolution, died in a French prison
a few months later. Thirty-five years later, the French government
agreed to recognize Haitian independence in exchange for 90 million
francs in gold to compensate French landowners who lost property.
The Haitian George Washington.
The government of Jean-Bertrand
Aristide is now using the bicentennial of Louvertures death
to mount a PR campaign aimed at shaming the French government
into giving the money back; they say its worth $21,685,135,571.48.
The French have no intention of paying, pointing out that Haitis
corrupt government is the real source of its problems.
Nevertheless, the Haitian government
is acting as though they expect the French to pay up any minute.
Haitian TV and radio stations run ads calling for payment, and
banners and bumper stickers demanding money are all over the country.
Headlines in newspaper give the impression the check is virtually
in the mail. In a recent interview, Haitian Foreign Minister Joseph
Philippe Antonio said the French are embarrassed by colonialism,
and are refusing to pay restitution because they are afraid of
setting a precedent, which other former colonies could follow.
But, he says, France will pay restitution for the monies
it owes Haiti. [Carol J. Williams, Quixotic Haiti Seeks
French Restitution, Los Angeles Times, June 14, 2003.]
The Hmong are perhaps the most unsuccessful
people to wash up on our shores because of misadventures overseas.
They are Southeast Asian hill people whom the CIA recruited to
fight Laotian Communists during the 1960s and 70s. They
are extremely primitive even by south Asian standards, and have
formed knots of unemployment, poverty, and school failure in the
three states in which they have congregated: Minnesota, Wisconsin,
and California. After a well-publicized rash of teenager suicides,
the California legislature decided it should do something about
Hmong self-esteem, and passed one of those meaningless laws of
which Americans are so fond. The bill, shepherded through the
statehouse by Sarah Reyes (D-Fresno), encourages California
schools to teach students about the role of Southeast Asians during
the Vietnam war. (Even if schools do this, the example of blacks
shows that stuffing them full of Hmong history and happy mumbo-jumbo
will not change their behavior.)
Hmong. . . or are they
Alas, the bill does not mention
the Hmong by name, something many believed would be a huge boost
to self-esteem. The trouble is, it turns out there are all manner
of different kinds of Hmongblue, green, white, even stripedand
they couldnt agree on what to call themselves. The distinctions
seem subtle to outsiders, but the biggest split is apparently
between the Hmong Der (white Hmong) and the Mong Leng (green or,
sometimes, blue Mong). The Mong, who insist they are not Hmong,
are even more backward and failure-prone than the Hmong, and have
learned to blame this on oppressors, including the Hmong. The
Hmong say Hmong is inclusive and covers them all,
but Mong say no, they want to be mentioned specifically by name,
too. There was such a wrangle that Rep. Reyes threw up her hands
and put Southeast Asians in the bill. Now the Mong
are getting hate mail from Hmong who accuse them of sabotaging
the bill. [Lee Romney, Whats in a Name? For Hmong Disappointed
by Bill, Everything, Los Angeles Times, July 5, 2003.]
Ward Connerly is the black man who
has made a career of banning government-sponsored affirmative
action. As one of the regents of the University of California
system, he played a key role in eliminating racial preferences
in college admissions in the state, and was the most prominent
backer of Proposition 209, the ballot initiative that abolished
preferences state-wide. He was promoting a similar initiative
in Michigan, but when the Supreme Court agreed to hear the two
University of Michigan cases (see cover story), the effort came
to a halt in expectation of a victory.
Now, Mr. Connerly is back in Michigan
to revive the initiative. His formal announcement on the U of
M campus was met with boos and heckling from dozens of affirmative
action supporters who dont want to let the voters decide.
Within the state, both the Republicans and the Democrats are siding
with the hecklers. I fear that this proposed ballot initiative
would only serve to further divide people along racial lines,
says state GOP Chairwoman Betsy DeVos. Presumably affirmative
action unites them.
Encouragingly, the Supreme Court
decision has stimulated action from others who may have held off
in anticipation of sanity from Washington. In Colorado, lawmakers
have proposed a bill to eliminate or greatly restrict race as
a factor in college admissions. Gov. William Owens says he favors
such legislation. [David Runk, Group Takes Race Issue to Mich.
Voters, AP, July 9, 2003.]
Last January, former Rochester,
New York, police officer Clint Jackson was convicted on 15 counts
of third-degree sexual abuse for groping eight women while on
duty. The women claimed Mr. Jackson, who is black, fondled their
thighs and breasts as he searched them following traffic stops.
The city fired Mr. Jackson in January 2002, after less than two
years on the force, and he is now serving a two-year prison sentence.
In July, Mr. Jackson said he may
sue the city alleging malicious prosecution, and charging the
department failed to train and supervise him properly. I
was being inadequately supervised leading to my loss of employment,
he wrote. I had been poorly trained to do my job.
Rochester City Attorney Linda Kingsley calls Mr. Jacksons
claims absurd, and notes that as for malicious persecution, a
jury found him guilty. This [suit] is an offensive waste
of taxpayers money, she says. Mr. Jackson has already
cost the citizens of Rochester $44,000 in payments to the eight
women. [Rick Armon, Ex-Cop, A Convicted Molester, Blames Training,
May Sue City, Democrat and Chronicle (Rochester), July 3, 2003.]
On June 24, 19-year-old Kevin Johnson
and his 16-year-old cousin Nafeese Holton left a birthday party
at a house in largely black southwest Philadelphia and were waiting
at a stop to catch a trolley home when five teenage boys approached
them. They demanded that Mr. Johnson hand over the custom Philadelphia
Seventy-Sixers basketball jersey he was wearing. When Mr. Johnson
refused, 15-year-old Raymond Ferguson shot him in the neck. Another
15-year-old, Robert Chisholm, shot Mr. Holton, hitting him in
the jaw. Both shots were fired from less than a foot away.
Philadelphia detective Michael Chitwood
says the two shooters had been at the party with the victims,
and had noticed they were not from the neighborhood, were dressed
well, seemed to have money, and were chatting up girls. The two
rounded up some friends and decided to rob them partly, police
speculate, as punishment for coming onto their southwest Philly
The victims remain hospitalized.
Mr. Johnson will probably be paralyzed from the neck down and
Mr. Holton has a bullet lodged near his carotid artery. [Thomas
J. Gibbons, Jr., 5 Teens Charged in S.W. Phila. Shootings of Two,
Philadelphia Inquirer, June 27, 2003.]
Looks like a shoplifter.
Lauren Ellison says she had to quit
her job at the Victorias Secret lingerie store in the Oxford
Valley Mall in Langhorne, Pa., in 2001 because co-workers and
managers made offensive remarks and engaged in practices
that were insulting to her race and religion. Miss Ellison
is black, and a Baptist. She says she was forced to work when
she wanted to attend church, and was told to assume black shoppers
were shoplifters. Miss Ellison complained to the Equal Employment
Opportunity Commission, which sued Victorias Secretpart
of Limited Brands, Inc.on her behalf. The company settled
for $179,300. [Victorias Secret to Settle Suit, Bloomberg
News, June 27, 2003.]
In June, after a gang of a dozen
young blacks attacked and slashed a 23-year-old white man in suburban
Ottawa, Canada, city councilor Jan Harder told a local newspaper,
The problem arises when a large group ofIm going
to say itnon-whites comes into our community looking to
cause trouble. Miss Harders remarks set off the usual
shrieking about racism, but she is sticking to her
guns. Im not defining race, she says. Its
police terminology, not mine. Thats how the police report
it and thats why I use that terminology. In that particular
case, it was non-whites, so Im reporting accurately.
She says her constituents support her: Ive had so
many e-mails and calls from people saying Were really
glad youre working on this, Jan. Were nervous about
letting the kids go out in the evening.
Young whites in the area agree with
her. I have been chilling here since I was 12. It was a
safe haven, but theyre [non-whites] going to keep coming
and its getting worse, says Andrew Racine. She
may be racist, but shes truthful, adds J.L. Jarvis.
[Jason Fekete and Adam Grachnik, City Councillor Blames Non-Whites
for Violence, Ottawa Citizen, June 20, 2003.]
Meanwhile, in Toronto, on June 11,
police and social workers took four of a Jamaican Rastafarian
womans five children into custody. She had not sent them
to school for eight months, and Childrens Aid Society (CAS)
officials feared for their health and safety. Immediately after
the police took her children, the woman forced her way into a
neighboring townhouse and attacked Madelene Monast with a machete.
She had been feuding with Miss Monast for more than a year, and
was already the subject of an arrest warrant in connection with
an assault on Miss Monast. She mistakenly believed Miss Monast
had called CAS about her children, and in revenge fractured her
skull, broke her arm, cut up her face, and nearly severed both
Her hands were basically just
hanging by the tendons, says Anthony Barnes, a neighbor
who helped the white 44-year-old mother of five until paramedics
arrived. It was awfulgruesome, terrible, terrible.
Miss Monast underwent hours of microsurgery to reattach her hands,
but doctors think only one can be saved. [Jim Wilkes, Slashing
Horrifies Community, Toronto Star, June 13, 2003.]
the Fifth Column
On July 6, Manuel de la Cruz of
Norwalk, California, became the first American citizen to win
a seat in Mexicos Congress. Jose Jacques Medina of Maywood,
California, was waiting for late returns to determine whether
he would join the 500-seat Mexican legislature. Four other US
citizens ran for office and lost. All six are all among the two
million Mexicans with dual citizenship living in the United States.
No fewer than 10 million Mexicans living here are eligible to
vote in Mexican elections, and one of the campaign issues Mr.
Medina and Mr. de la Cruz both pushed was measures to make even
more Mexicans living here eligible to vote in the 2006 Mexican
Will they give us a
new flag, too?
Beyond this, both men have another
goal: to make the United States Mexicos sixth electoral
district. The country now has a complex system with five districts,
but with 20 percent of all Mexicansmore than 20 millionliving
in el norte, why shouldnt they have formal representation?
Mr. de la Cruz envisions a kind of virtual Mexico, north of the
border, with amnesty for illegals and easy guest-worker status
for millions more.
Mr. Medina, a labor leader who fled
to the US in the 1970s because of alleged political crimes,
says that if he has won a seat, he will stay in Maywood. I
am Mexican, he says, but I will always live in California,
fighting for the emigrant Mexicans who live here. [Ken Bensinger,
Mexican Lawmaker Sees Voting in U.S., Washington Times, July 10,
2003, p. A1.]
Mr. Medina makes it refreshingly
clear where his loyalties lie, and his goal for the United States
is entirely consistent with those loyalties. Nothing could better
symbolize the debased nature of American citizenship and Americas
colonial tie to its neighbor than to make it a voting district
of a foreign country. Whether this happensand the necessary
arrangements could be made before the 2006 electionsis entirely
up to the Mexican authorities and the Mexicans who live among
us as citizens but whose loyalties lie elsewhere.
What is the US high school dropout
rate? This is a surprisingly difficult question; no one really
knows. One simple calculation is to count the number of 11th graders,
count the number of students who graduate the next year, and call
the difference the dropout rate. That ignores students who dropped
out before the 11th grade, as well as the fact that the US population
is growing because of immigration.
Different calculations result in
big differences. The federal government says the high school graduation
rate for 2000 was 86.5 percent, while Jay Greene of the Manhattan
Institute says the figure is 69 percent. The feds include people
who get a high school equivalency diploma while Mr. Green does
not. More important, Mr. Green counts students who end up in prison
as dropouts whereas the feds do not.
Racial differences are also unclear.
According to some studies, the black dropout rate has fallen from
21 percent in 1972 to 11 percent in 2001a considerable decrease.
However, at the same time, the number of high school-age blacks
behind bars has shot up, and if jailbirds are counted as dropouts,
graduation rates decline. Bruce Western of Princeton University
says imprisonment accounts for about half the fall in dropout
rates, and that the decline is really from over 20 percent to
about 15 percent. He says that in 1980 14 percent of black men
aged 22 to 30 who had dropped out of high school were in jail.
By 1999, just under 20 years later, that figure had jumped to
40 percent. No doubt the gentlemen pictured on the previous page
will add to that figure.
No matter how the rate is calculated,
Hispanics are the group least likely to graduate. The government
says that in 1972 their dropout rate was 34 percent but declined
to 27 percent by 2001. US-born Hispanics appear to be more likely
to graduate than the foreign born. Richard Fry of the Pew Hispanic
Center says that during the 1990s their dropout rate dipped from
15 to 14 percent. [Marjorie Coeyman, The Story Behind Dropout
Rates, Christian Science Monitor, July 1, 2003.] No one appears
to have calculated the effect of imprisonment on the Hispanic
rate, and it may be that if prisoners are counted as dropouts,
the rate for the US-born has actually risen.
if by Land . . .
Paul Westrum likes to think of himself
as a modern-day Paul Revere, warning fellow Minnesotans of the
dangers of mass immigration. Mr. Westrum heads a group called
the Steele County Coalition for Immigration Reduction, which wants
fewer legal immigrants, deportation for all illegals, and English
as the official language. He recently mailed letters to officials
in Steele County informing them that we are watching
how they handle immigration policy.
Thanks to immigration, the number
of Hispanics in Minnesota increased by 166 percent during the
1990s, and Mr. Westrums organization is growing. It has
27 branches in southern Minnesota and four in Iowa.
The coalition has run into the usual
opposition. On June 12, Omar Jamal, executive director of the
Somali Justice Advocacy Center in St. Paul, held a press conference
to denounce the group as racist. It sounds like
a group of citizens who are misinformed about the contributions
of immigrants to this country, he explained.
For his part, Mr. Westrum says,
This is not an anti-immigrant group. Its not anti-immigration,
and this has nothing to do with race. The group is nothing more
than trying to cut back on immigration. [Renee Ruble, Groups
Draw a Bead on Immigrants, AP, June 15, 2003.]
• BACK TO TOP • •
| L E T T E R S
F R O M R E A D E R S
SirI found the July cover
story about Robert Mugabes anti-white Zimbabwe too depressing.
I do not think it is helpful to write on and on about whites being
beaten, raped, murdered and humiliated by blacks. This only promotes
the lie that our situation is hopeless. Also, I dont like
the articles reference to a time when whites did fight back,
when armies from Britain or colonial India would be assembled
to face down anti-white despots. This longing for the good
old days is a sign of having too many old conservatives
around. Everything was not better for whites in the good
old days. Compare white attitudes to Africa now with those
of 30 years ago. The tide has turned: whites no longer view despots
like Mr. Mugabe with rose-colored glasses.
Now is not the worst of times for
whites. White were not safer when white governments in America
and the UK were carpet bombing German cities, slaughtering tens
of thousands of whites. Also, I grew up on the South Side of Chicago
in the 60s and 70s at a time when the federal government
was giving millions to black street gangs like the Blackstone
Rangers. I lived through pre-Guiliani New York Citytotal
hell. Life is much better in New York now, also in Chicago. The
best news is that whites around the globe are putting aside their
foolish differences and starting to close ranks against the Muslims,
black Africans, and the Third World.
The whites in Southern Africa are
certainly in severe danger. Lets try to think of ways to
help them there or help them escape to new lives in places like
Australia, Canada, North Dakota, Russia, Poland etc. It does no
good to go on crying and moaning about thugs like Mr. Mugabe and
then not act. Lets build on small victories and aim for
big ones. Please, lets not push the line that the hate-whitey
terrorists are winning everywhere and there is nothing we can
do to stop them.
SirYour otherwise excellent
June article, The Hollow Debate on Race Preferences,
contains a factual error. In the third paragraph on page 5 you
point out correctly that only 16 percent of blacks have IQs above
100. However, the next assertion is mistaken: Whites are
about six times more likely than blacks to have IQs of 135 or
higher . . . .
Because the standard deviation for
IQ is 15 points, for mathematical convenience let us consider
IQs of 130 or greatertwo standard deviations (SD) above
the white mean. Since the black mean, 85, is one SD below the
white mean of 100, a black with an IQ of 130 is three SD
above the black mean. The percentages of populations at various
SDs above or below any given mean are well known. Two point three
percent of a population have IQs two SD above the mean, but only
0.15 percent have IQs three SD above the mean. The ratio
of 2.3%/0.15% is 15. Therefore 15 times as many whites, per
capita, have IQs above 130 as compared to blacks, per capita.
This is not the end of the story.
There are 200 million whites and 37 million blacks in America.
Therefore there are 4.6 million (2.3% x 200M) whites with IQs
above 130, but only 56,000 (0.15% x 37M) blacks at the same level.
Therefore the ratio of whites to blacks in America with IQs over
130 is 4.6 million/56 thousand = 82. The ratio of 82, not six,
is the relevant number. On the college campus of meritocracy,
we would expect to find 82 white professors for every black professor,
assuming that professors should be drawn from societys top
At the other extreme of low IQs,
2.3 percent of whites have IQs of 70 (2 standard deviations below
the mean) or lower, while 16 percent (1 SD) of blacks are in that
category. The per capita ratio is therefore seven (your
article says six, which is close enough).
Perry Lorenz, Fort Collins. Colo
SirWhen I grew up, the idea
of a woman like Missy McLauchlin (Missy McLauchlin, RIP,
March 2003) having sex with three black men she didnt even
know was inconceivable. Parents told their daughters of the dangers
of consorting with blacks, and of the loss of status that would
result. Attending racially integrated schools in Prince Georges
County, Maryland, in the 1970s, I never saw a white girl even
date a black boy.
Today, however, it is commonplace
to see white girls and women openly consorting with black men.
In my own county, which is still 85-90 percent white, it is not
uncommon in a supermarket or department store to see young white
women shopping with their mulatto children.
What has changed since the 1970s?
Todays young women are indoctrinated in our schools that
it is wrong to discriminate in their romantic lives.
American Pop culture celebrates the masculinity of the black male.
Because so many of todays marriages end in divorce, many
girls are raised without fathers, who would reinforce the strictures
against interracial dating. And of course, these days one is met
with instant condemnationpublicly, and increasingly privately
as wellfor even hinting at thinking racially,
despite the fact that it was natural to do so only a generation
or so ago.
Missy McLauchlin was the product
of a society that failed to protect her from those who would prey
upon her. Perhaps she can be blamed for the behavior that led
to her death, but there are many others who are responsible for
making her the kind of person susceptible to that behavior.
Derek Leaberry, Queenstown, Md.
• BACK TO TOP • •