GRAVITATIONAL CONSTANT VARIATION WITH TIME from Chapter 21 Physics of the Universe, Copywrite (c) 1998 by Gerald Grushow BSEE (Summa Cum Laude) In Chapter 20 the entire spectrum of coexisting universes was briefly discussed. In particular the series C= 1, 2, 4, 8 ..... with Q= 1.0, 0.5, 0.125, 0.0625..... and Mn= 1.0, 0.25, 0.0625, 0.0156.... was for the constant radius, constant energy per universe solution. In this solution the time from the center of the univeres to its outer border formed the series Tu=1, 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, 0.0625..... Thus as the speed of light increases to about 1024C, the time of the universe is 0.000976 of our time clock. As we head toward light speed infinity, we get no mass and standing waves of energy only. The total mass of the entire universe for the constant radius solution is: Mu = Mu (C) = Mu(2C) + Mu(4C) + Mu(8C) +..... (21-1) Mu = [Mu(C=1)] (1 + 0.5 +0.25 +0.125 +0.0625 +....) (21-2) Mu[total] = 2 Mu [C=1] (21-3) Thus the total mass of the entire universe including all the coexisting higher light speed universes equals twice our mass. In calculating the oscillation of the universe from a mechanical perspective one must double our mass to see the oscillation. The entire universe can be described electrically or mechanically. Since: MnC = [(16 pi e)/ 137] pi Q (21-4) where Mn is the mass of the neutron in Coulomb seconds per meter, the entire universe can be described in MCS units, meters coulombs and seconds or MKS units, meters kilograms and seconds. Thus the oscillation of the universe should be able to be seen by physicists and astronomers in addition to electrical engineers who see it readily by the electrical equations of gravity. Thus in this Chapter let us look at the variation of the gravitation constant with time. The present universe oscillates as an exponential sinusoid with the following equation: Ru = Ruo e^ (t/To) sin (wt + a) (21-5) Where Ru is the radius of the universe, Ruo is the radius of the univere at time equal to 0, and To is the time of the universe. To has been normalized to a numeric value of: 4 pi To Q = 1* (coulomb meters) (21-6) Equation 21-6 is a normalization equation which states that the product of time and charge or coulomb meters is a constant of the universe. Thus the time clock can be set or normalized in terms of this equation. This produces a time of universe of 15.74 billion years. This is in agreement with astronomical dats. The normalization accuracy does not make too much difference because since the universe follows an e^x function, the basic equations of the universe remain the same no matter where you start. However when you want to calculate the exact cycle time of the universe in terms of your normalized To, the non linerities due to the hysteresis loop of the universe demand a greater accuracy. However, from all the calculations over the years, the 15.74 billion years does produce excellent results. We see in equation 21-6 that the charge Q drops with time. Thus the universe loses DC electrical energy as time goes by. The AC charge Q* which is part of Q has the formula: Q* = (9.026E-19) Q (21-7) As shown previously, the RMS (root mean square) value of Q* is 9.026E-19 times as much as Q. Thus it is very small but is responsible for the mechanical world. This oscillation about Q comes with a phase angle for each galaxy producing a net zero effect for the total gravitational field of the universe. Thus some galaxies attract while others repel and the total sum is zero. For our galaxy we have a reference angle of zero degrees. Thus what happens to our galaxy with time is the primary importance. The electrical equivalent circuit for the universe is shown below: + - + +Vd + - -Vd - . . .................................. + . . - Virtual Ground The diagram shows a dot of voltage Vd in the center of the universe surrounded by a sphere of + charges at the outer shell of the universe. It also shows a second dot of voltage -Vd in the center of the universe surrounded by a shell of (-) charges at the outer shell of the universe. The voltages are: Vd = KQ/Ru (21-8) We see in equation 21-8 that the dot voltage depends upon the radius of the universe. At the beginning of the book the number of dots per neutron was calculated assuming that the universe was some sort of closed space time entity. For the most part all the equations of the universe fit a perfect sphere. So it appears that the 4 pi term which was added to the original equations may or may not be correct depending upon whether the perfect sphere we live in is an actual perfect sphere or an Einsteinian perfect sphere. Thus the number of dots per neutron and per universe varies by the 4 pi factor. This does not change the equations for the electron, proton, etc. It merely changes the quantization of the energy levels used by a factor of 4 pi. Let us now calculate the number of dots in the neutron by this model. The neutron has an energy level of: Energy Neutron = 939.5 MEV (21-9) The energy per dot is KQ/Ru. Since K = 8.987E9, Q=1.602E-19, and Ru = 1.4892E26, we get: Energy per dot = 9.6677E-36 electron volts (21-10) Dividing equation 21-9 by equation 21-10 we get: Nn= 9.719E43 dots per neutron (simple universe) (21-11) Equation 21-11 shows 9.719E43 dots per neutron for a simple universe or radius Ru. For an Einstianian space time universe the quantization factor would be 4 pi times as much. Thus: Nn = 1.2211E45 dots per neutron(Einsteinian Universe) (21-12) This book used an Einsteinian solution at the beginning and the 4 pi factor was inserted in varius places to correct ordinary relationships to space time relationships. However, things were always normalized back to our measurements. Thus all the equations represent what we see and observe from a simple spherical universe. Let us now look at the model and observe that DC dot current flow comes from the outer shell of the universe toward the dot traveling a distance of Ru, the radius of the universe and then flows to a negative dot which is nearby and then flows outward from the negative dot to the radius of the universe. A virtual ground plane exists between the plus dots and the minus dots. This plane is part of the space time hysteresis loop of the universe. If we look at the outer shell of the universe, we will also find a virtual ground. Thus halfway between positive and negative, a ground plane exists.This is true for all the universes. Thus all universes match at the outer sphere of the universe and everwhere at submicroscopic distances. Thus beyond what we can see and measure lies the junction between all the universes. If you look at a lump of matter, you will see dot current flow outward toward the radius of the universe and inward toward the lump of matter. The total dot current flow outside the matter as compared to another lump of matter is basically zero. In general in the universe all the plus and minus dots when equally spaced attract and all the dot currents for an equal distribution of dots repel. Thus there always is a balance of force between the magnetic and the electrostatic fields. When the universe expands the electromagnetic field is slightly larger. When it contracts, the electrostatic field is slightly larger. Thus their is a hysteresis loop of electromagnetic and electrostatic fields which cause the universe to oscillate from Min to max. The two metal spheres on the table attract due to Q*. This is merely a small synchronized oscillation of the charge Q. Both the plus dot and the minus dot have in phase AC oscillations. This causes mass, and inertia, etc. As the universe expands the charge drops. Both the DC and AC charges drop. However, the drop in the DC charge Q is at a faster rate than the drop in the AC charge Q*. The result is that gravitational constant has a nonlinearity above and beyond its normal e^2x variation. As shown previously, the grav constant goes up with the square of the radius of the universe while the mass decreases as inverse of the radius of the universe.However the force remains constant so this does not cause the universe to stop from expanding forever. The increase of Q*/Q causes the AC forces to increase relative to the DC forces. In effect gravity increases but the binding forces of the atoms decrease, thus as time goes by the universe disintegrates into dots with high AC fields. The neutrons explode and the entire universe is reduced to dots again. As we move upward to the higher light speed universes, we see that they are not as effected as we are. As we go toward infinite light speed, there are no neutrons so the oscillation of the universe is not effected. As we move upward to the highest light speed material universes we find that they will not be affected by the destruction of our universe. We are the lowest level of existence in the total universe and we will come into existence and be destroyed eventually. Yet man can move from one level of existence to another. However that depends upon the power at the highest light speed universe.gg