Gods and Goddesses

Many people believe that these Gods were of a reptilian nature.

Sumerian Pantheon

Information about Sumerian Gods and Goddesses is found on the Sumerian King List as well as Sumerian clay tablets and cylinder seals.

The Sumerian King List records all the rulers of Earth back over 400,000 years. This huge stretch of time coupled with reigns into the thousands of years has caused most historians to reject its accuracy. However all the early rulers were gods - immortals. The King List does record the reign of Enmeduranki whose name meant 'ruler whose me connect Heaven and Earth.'

These Gods were called the Nephilim - or Nefiim - the Elohim - the Annunaki meaning "Those who from Heaven to Earth came." In Sumerian Mythology they were a pantheon of god gods and bad gods all of who came to Earth to create the human race. The main gods are listed below - Anu, Ninhursag [female], Enlil, Enki also called Ea.

A Sumerian tablet shows Enmeduranki, a prince in Sippar, who was well loved by Anu, Enlil and Ea. Shamash, a priest in the Bright Temple, appointed him then took him to the assemblyof the gods. They showed him how to observe oil on water and many other secrets of Anu, Enlil and Ea. Then they gave him the Divine Tablet, the kibdu secret of Heaven and Earth. They taught him how to make calculations with numbers." [This is a reference to Sacred or Creational Geometry]

The peoples of ancient civilization, Sumerians, Egyptians, Akkadians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Hittites, Hebrews etc., in their sacred writings all describe gods that physically dwelt on Earth. This was aside from their writings on philosophy and mysticism.

According to the Sumerians these gods came from the planet Nibiru 'Planet of the Crossing.' The Assyrians and Babylonians called it 'Marduk', after their chief god. Sumerians said one year on planet Nibiru, a sar, was equivalent in time to 3600 earth years. They also said Anunnaki lifespans were 120 sars which is 120 x 3600 or 432,000 years. According to the King List 120 sars had passed from the time the Anunnaki arrived on Earth to the time of the Flood. However when the Lofty Ones came to Earth their lifespans began to sync with Earth's faster orbit and they faced rapid aging compared to that on Nibiru.

The Sumerians never called the Anunnaki, 'gods.' They were called din.gir, a two syllable word. 'Din' meant 'righteous, pure, bright;' 'gir' was a term used to describe a sharp-edged object. As an epithet for the Anunnaki 'dingir' meant 'righteous ones of the bright pointed objects.'

Sumerian texts break up history into two epochs divided by the great Deluge - the Biblical Flood. After the waters receded the great Anunnaki who decree the fate decided that the gods were too lofty for mankind. The term used - 'elu' in Akkadian - means exactly that: 'Lofty Ones;' from it comes the Babylonian, Assyrian, Hebrew, and Ugaritic El - the term to which the Greeks gave the connotation 'god'.

From Genesis;

After the sons of God took human wives there were giants in the Earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them, the same became the mighty men which were of old, men of renown. The Nefilim were upon the Earth, in those days and thereafter too, when the sons of the gods cohabitated with the daughters of the Adam, and they bore children unto them. They were the mighty ones of Eternity - the people of the shem.' Nefilim stems from the Semitic root NFL, 'to be cast down.'



The head of the family of Gods of heaven and Earth was An - (or ANU in the Babaylonian / Assyrian yests).

He was the Great Father of the Gods, the king of the Gods, the God of the Sun (Creation).

His realm was the expanse of the heavens. His symbol was a star.

He lived in Heaven and - according to Sumerian texts came to Earth either at times of great crisis, or in cenermonial visitations - when he was accompanied by his spouse ANTU.

At Uruk - the biblical Erech - and domaine of the Goddess Inanna - a temple was erected for him. Parts of its remains can still be found in the ruins of Urak. The temple of Anu was called E.ANNA (house of An).

The insignias of Anu were - the tiara (devine headdress), the septor (symbol of power), and the staff (symbolizing the guidance provided by the shepard. This is siiimilar to the Gods of Egypt, who were to follow later.


Ninhursag -Mother of The Gods - Queen of the mountainhead.

She was the daughter of Anu but her mother was not Antu.

She was on the heavens having come here before Mankind. Texts record that when Earth was divided up by the Gods - she was given Dilmon.

Her lover was Enki. According to Sumerian texts Man was created by Ninhursag following procesess and formulas devised by Enki. She was the chief nurse, the one in charge of medical facilities. In that role that the Goddess was called NINTI (lady-life). She was considered the Mother Goddess. She was nicknamed 'Mammu' - now called 'mother' 'mom'.

Ninhursag bore a male child to Enlil. His name was NIN.UR.TA (lord who completes the fountain). He was the son who to do battle for his father using bolts of lightening.

In Egypt she was the Goddess Maat.


Ea stands in his watery home the Apsu.

Enki walks out of the water to the land.
Enki is attended by a god with two faces called Usmu (Isimud).

Enki with the Gods and the Initiate.
The Water of Life flowing into the aboratory glassware
indicates alchemical circulations.

Within his sacred precinct 'Mound of Creation' in Eridu, Enki unraveled the secrets of life and death.

His emblem was two serpents entwined on a staff - the basis for the winged caduceus symbol used by modern Western medicine.

Enki was the god who created the first humans: In those days, in those years, The Wise One of Eridu, Ea, created him as a model of men. His name was Adapa, Adam in the Old Testament: Elohim created the Adam in His image - in the image of Elohim created He him.

Enki is a god of water, creation, and fertility (semem). He was once known as En-kur, lord of the underworld, which either contained or was contained in the Abzu. He struggled with Kur as mentioned in the prelude to "Gilgamesh, Enkidu, and the Underworld", and presumably was victorious and thereby able to claim the title "Lord of Kur" The Realm.

Enki had a fun loving and mischievous nature. His sacred number is 40.

He also holds dominion over the land. He is the keeper of the 'me' - the Divine Laws - the Rules of the Universe. The 'me' were assembled by Enlil in Ekur and given to Enki to guard and impart to the world, beginning with Eridu, his center of worship. From there, he guards the me and imparts them on the people. He directs the 'me' towards Ur and Meluhha and Dilmun, organizing the world with his decrees.

Later, Inanna comes to Enki and complains at having been given too little power from his decrees. In a different text, she gets Enki drunk and he grants her more powers, arts, crafts, and attributes - a total of ninety-four 'me'. Inanna parts company with Enki to deliver the 'me' to her cult center at Erech. Enki recovers his wits and tries to recover the 'me' from her, but she arrives safely in Erech with them.

Enki was the leader of the first sons of Anu that came down to Earth. He played the pivotal role in saving humanity from the global Deluge. He defied the Anunnaki ruling council and told Ziusudra (the Sumerian Noah) how to build a ship on which to save humanity from the killing flood. Ea would have been over 120 sars old at that time, yet his activity with humanity continued to be actively reported for thousands of years thereafter.

Creation of first man by Anunnaki.
Laboratory vessels and Tree of Life.

Anu sent Enki and his followers to Earth to live.

The sons of the gods fell in love with the daughters of men, married them and had children by them. Then not wanting their lovers to die they taught them the secrets of immortality that Ea had discovered. Those secrets were the secrets of alchemy.

Enki' youngest son was Ningizzida, Lord of the Tree of Truth, in Mesopotamia. He was revered as Thoth in Egypt and Hermes in the West. Thoth is the Scribe. As Hermes he is the Magician - the Alchemist. The ancient Mystery School Teachings of thoth were past down to his Initiates who became the priests. They hid the secret knowledge passed it down secretly through the ages. This knowledeg os creation is now called Sacred Geometry.


The second and most powerful deity of the Sumerian patheon was Enlil.

He was God of Heaven and Earth, firstborn of the main God Anu (Heaven) in union with Ki (Earth) , Dispenser of Kingship, Chief of the Assembly of the Gods, Father of Gods and men, Granter of Agriculture, Lord of Airspace,

His name meant 'lord of the airspace' - the prototype and father of the later Storm Gods that were to head the pantheons of the ancient world.

He supposedly arrived on Earth before the human race was created.

He was considered a supreme God by the Sumerians and by the Sumerian Gods.

At some point in the early times he descended to Earth, and was thus became the principle God of Heaven and Earth.

When the Gods met in Heaven he sat beside his father.

When the Gods met for assemly on Earth, they met at Enlils court in Nippur, the city dedicated to Enlil.

Even though Enlil was considered 'the Father of the Gods', he was banished to the world of the dead by the assembly of the gods for having raped the grain goddess, Ninlil, his intended bride.

Some say that she seduced him. With his misdeed, Enlil had impregnated the grain goddess. To let him to witness the birth of his own child, Ninlil decided to follow him to the underworld. This thoughtless decision could have obliged the newborn moon god Sin to be imprisoned forever in the world of the dead.

Thus, Enlil and Ninlil copulated again and offered their three future children to the infernal deities. Thus, their child, the moon god Sin could finally ascend the heavens in order to light the night sky.

The Sumerian revered Enlil out of both fear and gratitude.

Enlil made sure that decrees made by the assemlby of the Gods were carried out against Mankind.

Some say he was responsible for the great Deluge.

He helped mankind by bestowing the knowledge of farming, using the plow and the pick-ax.

Enlil also selected the kings who were to rule over Mankind not as sovereigns but as servants to the Gods.

From earliest recorded times, Nippur was a sacred city, not a political capital. It was this holy character which allowed Nippur to survive numerous wars and the fall of dynasties that brought destruction to other cities. Although not a capital, the city had an important role to play in politics.

Kings, on ascending the throne in cities such as Kish, Ur, and Isin, sought recognition at Ekur, the Temple of Enlil, the chief god of the Mesopotamian pantheon . In exchange for such legitimization the kings lavished gifts of land, precious metals and stones, and other commodities on the temples and on the city as a whole.


Father of Anu and all the other gods. His consort is his sister, Kishu. Anshar is the male principle, Kishu the female principle. Anshar is the sky, Kishu the earth. Anshar led the gods in the war against Tiamat.



Goddess of the underworld, consort of Nergal. Some consider her a dark side or aspect of Ishtar. When Ishtar descended into the underworld to save Tammuz, Ereshkigal tricked her into leaving some part of her clothing or insignias at each of the underworld's seven gates as she passed through them. Standing naked at the seventh gate, Ishtar threw herself on Ereshkigal; but like Samson shorn of his hair she was powerless. Ereshkigal confined Ishtar in the underworld until the wily Ea contrived her release with a trick.


The goddess Inanna (Innin, or Innini) was the patron and special god/goddess of the ancient Sumerian city of Erech (Uruk), the City of Gilgamesh. As Queen of heaven, she was associated with the Evening Star (the planet Venus), and sometimes with the Moon. She may also have been associated the brightest stars in the heavens, as she is sometimes symbolized by an eight-pointed star, a seven-pointed star, or a four pointed star. In the earliest traditions, Inanna was the daughter of An, the Sky, Ki, the Earth (both of Uruk, (Warka)). In later Sumerian traditions, she is the daughter of Nanna (Narrar), the Moon God and Ningal, the Moon Goddess (both of Ur).

On either side of her cult statue shown above is the ring-post, also known as Inanna's knot. This was a sacred symbol of Inanna, associated exclusively with her. It represents a door-post made from a bundle of reeds, the upper ends, bent into a loop to hold a cross-pole. The ring-post is shown on many depictions of Inanna, including those of the famed Warka Vase.

The Goddess Inanna ruled the people of Sumer. Under Her rule the people and their communities prospered and thrived. The urban culture, though agriculturally dependent, centered upon the reverence of the Goddess - a cella, or shrine, in her honor was the centerpiece of the cities. Inanna was the queen of seven temples throughout Sumer.

Probably the most important Sumerian contribution to civilization was the invention and creation of a standard writing and literature; the Sumerians even had libraries. Their literary works reveal religious beliefs, ethical ideas, and the spiritual aspirations of the Sumerians. Among these works are the hymns and stories of Inanna -- important here because they were recorded at a time when the patriarchy was beginning to take hold, and the position of the Goddess, although strong, was changing.

Inanna was also the Queen of Beasts, and the Lion was her sacred animal.

She presented the me by Enki. The me(plural,pronounced 'may') is the order out of chaos, the great attributes of civilization, the powers of the gods. The me were conferred by the gods on other gods or on the king-priests, who as the representatives of the gods on Earth, ensured the continuation of civilization.

These special powers, contained within the me allowed the holy plan or design (the gis-hur) to be implemented on Earth. The me were contained within special objects of great sacred value, such as the royal throne, the sacred bed, the temple drum, the scepter, the crown, and other special articles of clothing or jewelry to be worn, sat on, lied in, and so forth. These things were charmed like a talisman; they contained the power; they were the me. Inanna got Enki drunk on beer and tricked him into giving her the me. They gave her many special gifts and powers, she was Goddess and Queen of Heaven and Earth, the me even gave her the power to descend into the Underworld and ascend from it.

Inanna could be wily and cunning. She outwitted both Enki, the God of Wisdom, and her dark sister Ereshkigal. She was a powerful warrior, and drove a war chariot, drawn by lions. She was gentle and loving, a source of beauty and grace. She was a source of inspiration. She endowed the people of Sumer with gifts that inspired and insured their growth as a people and a culture. She is also depicted as a passionate, sensuous lover in The Courtship of Inanna and Damuzi, which established the principle of Sacred Marriage. Indeed, one aspect of Inanna is as the Goddess of Love, and it is in this aspect that she embodies creativity, procreativity, passion, raw sexual energy and power.

Erech or Uruk, near modern Warka was Inanna's sacred city. It was one of the oldest cities of Sumer. The Bible said that it was founded by King Nimrod . Dumuzi , Inanna's consort was a shepherd king of Uruk, as was Gilgamesh and his father Lugalbanda. The Temple of Inanna was in Erech. Also known as the E-ana or House of Heaven, this was her most important temple. The shrine of the Goddess was built on an artificial mound some forty feet above the ground level and was reached by a staircase. A statue of the Goddess was housed within the shrine.

Queen Shub-Ad reigned from the First Dynasty of Ur. Her grave was excavated by Sir Leonard Woolley of the British Museum in 1929. She was buried with her King in a vast tomb complex about 2900 BCE, with the accompaniment of what Woolley called "human sacrifice on a lavish scale," for along with the King and Queen, numerous male and female attendants, soldiers, grooms, hand maidens, ladies in waiting, etc. were also buried; even a harpist and her golden harp, inlayed with lapis. Chariots, carts, and their animals were also buried with them. The Queen wore the beautiful head-dress of spirals of gold, terminating in lapis-centered gold flowers (or stars). The Queen also wore large golden earings of lunate shape which hung to her shoulders; lapis amulets of a bull and a calf, and strands of lapis, agate, carnelian and gold beads. he Queen's grave was much more elaborate than that of the King, perhaps indicating her equal or even greater importance.


She is Anu's second consort, daughter of Anu and Antum, (sometimes daughter of Sin), and sometimes the sister of Ereshkigal. She is the goddess of love, procreation, and war. She is armed with a quiver and bow. Her temples have special prostitutes of both genders. She is often accompanied by a lion, and sometimes rides it.

The Eanna in Uruk is dedicated both to her and Anu. As Irnini, she has a parakku (throne-base) at the cedar mountain. She loved Tammuz in her youth, although he spends half the year in the nether world wailing. She loved a lion, a stallion, a shepherd, all of whom she required great sacrifice from and abandoned. She loved Ishullanu, a gardener who offered her fruit, but was taken aback when she revealed herself to him, so she turned him into a frog.

After Gilgamesh cleans himself up, following his defeat of Humbaba, she asks him to be her lover and husband, and offers him many gifts and the homage of earthly rulers and kingdoms. She is rejected, both because of her godly nature, and as a fair-weather lover. Ishtar asks Anu to send the Bull of Heaven to kill Gilgamesh, and he agrees.

She determines to go to the Underworld.

She threatened to smash the gate and raise the dead so that they would eat and outnumber the living unless the gatekeeper would open it for her. She holds the great keppu-toy (a whipping top). She is allowed in by the gate keeper, who takes her through seven gates to Ereshkigal's realm.

By Ereshkigal's rites, she is stripped of items of clothing as she passes through each of the gates: first her crown, then her earrings, then her necklace, then her tudditu (breast pins), then her belt of birthstones, then her wrist and ankle bangles, and finally her garment. While in the underworld, no creatures engaged in acts of procreation.

She was kept in Egalgina and brought forth by Namtar after being sprinkled with the water of life, and after 'His appearance is bright' has been cursed. She is led back out through the gates, given back her accouterments, and released in exchange for Dumuzi (Tammuz).

Symbol: an eight or sixteen-pointed star Sacred number: 15 Astrological region: Dibalt (Venus) and the Bowstar (Sirius) Sacred animal: lion, (dragon)

The Ishtar Gate


Tiamat's general in the war against the gods. Keeper of the tablets of destiny, which hold the divine plan for all the cosmos. Ninhursag used Kingu's blood to make the first man, and from this comes the demonic, rebellious aspect of human nature.


Nanna is another name for the moon god Sin. He is the product of Enlil's rape of Ninlil. Nanna was the tutelary deity of Ur (Kramer 1963 p. 66), appointed as king of that city by An and Enlil. He established Ur-Nammu as his mortal representative, establishing the third Ur dynasty. Nanna was married to Ningal and they produced Inanna and Utu. He rests in the Underworld every month, and there decrees the fate of the dead. He averts a flood of his city by visiting Enlil in Nippur on a boat loaded with gifts and pleading with him. He refuses to send aid to Inanna when she is trapped in the underworld.


God of writing and speech, speaker for the gods. Nebo maintains records of men's deeds and produces them for judgment after death. His symbol is the stylus.


God of the underworld, mass destruction and plague, consort of Ereshkigal. Thrown out of heaven, he stormed the underworld with fourteen demons until Ereshkigal consented to marry him.


The goddess of writing and the patron deity of the edubba (palace archives).


Nanna's wife and the mother of Inanna and Utu. She begs and weeps before Enlil for them not to flood her city, Ur


The patron goddess of the city Isin. She is the "hierodule of An".


Goddess of brewing


Ninlil was the intended bride of Enlil. Enlil raped her and was then banished to the nether world (kur). She follows him to the nether world, where she gives birth to the moon god Sin (also known as Nanna). They have three more children in the nether world who remain there so that Sin may be allowed to leave. (Kramer, Sumerians 1963: pp.146-7). In some texts she is Enlil's sister while Ninhursag is his bride. Her chief shrine was in the Tummal district of Nippur.


The moon god. Wise and secretive, the enemy of all evil spirits. An old man with a long beard who flies through the sky in his sailboat every night.


Goddess of the primeval depths, the chaos from which Marduk formed the world. She took the form of a dragon and swam in the primal waters. Tiamat warred on the gods, spawning a brood of dragons, sphinxes, scorpion-men and other demons and monsters for her army. Marduk slew her, defeating her with magic and powerful winds. Splitting her in two, Marduk cast one half of Tiamat into the sky to form the heavens and the other he cast down to form the Earth.



Son of Nanna and Ningal, god of the Sun and of Justice, Utu goes to the underworld at the end of every day and while there decrees the fate of the dead. When Inanna's huluppu tree is infested with unwelcome guests, he ignores her appeal for aid. He aided Dumuzi in his flight from the galla demons by helping him to transform into different creatures. He opened the "ablal" of the Underworld for Enkidu, to allow him to escape, at the behest of Enki. Through Enki's orders, he also brings water up from the earth in order to irrigate Dilmun, the garden paradise, the place where the sun rises. He is in charge of the 'Land of the Living' and, in sympathy for Gilgamesh, calls off the seven weather heroes who defend that land.